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Agent OrangeThe Environmental Fate of the TCDD Associated with Agent Orange

Agent Orange: The Environmental Fate of the TCDD Associated with Agent Orange [Key questions that have been critical to our understanding of the impact of Agent Orange in South Vietnam have been: “How much dioxin (TCDD) was contained in the tactical herbicides used in Vietnam?”; “Would the TCDD have persisted?”; and “Were there other sources of dioxins/furans in South Vietnam that would have contaminated the Vietnamese environment when research programs were initiated in the 1990s?” Analytical data obtained from archives samples of Agent Orange and 2,4,5-T herbicide indicated that between 130 and 144 kg of TCDD were contained in the tactical herbicides used in Vietnam, November 1961–April 1970; of this quantity, 130 kg were present in Agent Orange. Data from the HERBS Tape indicated that approximately 96% of Agent Orange was sprayed by RANCH HAND aircraft on mangrove and jungle vegetation, March 1965–April 1970. The remaining 4% (2–4 kg) were likely associated with the “hot spots” identified by the US Department of Defense in the maps provided to Vietnam during the 2007 Dioxin Workshop in Hanoi. Research data confirmed that the TCDD in Agent Orange sprayed on vegetation likely photodegraded within 24–48 h. However, once the Agent Orange TCDD was spilled on soils (hot spots), it could persist for decades. A critical review of how the Vietnam government handled industrial wastes, and the burning of municipal wastes in more than 200 sites over the past 50 years suggested that significant quantities of dioxins (including TCDD) and furans have been released into the atmosphere and waters of Vietnam.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

Agent OrangeThe Environmental Fate of the TCDD Associated with Agent Orange

Part of the Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Book Series (volume 58)
Agent Orange — Jul 26, 2022

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Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
ISBN
978-3-031-08186-6
Pages
93 –108
DOI
10.1007/978-3-031-08187-3_7
Publisher site
See Chapter on Publisher Site

Abstract

[Key questions that have been critical to our understanding of the impact of Agent Orange in South Vietnam have been: “How much dioxin (TCDD) was contained in the tactical herbicides used in Vietnam?”; “Would the TCDD have persisted?”; and “Were there other sources of dioxins/furans in South Vietnam that would have contaminated the Vietnamese environment when research programs were initiated in the 1990s?” Analytical data obtained from archives samples of Agent Orange and 2,4,5-T herbicide indicated that between 130 and 144 kg of TCDD were contained in the tactical herbicides used in Vietnam, November 1961–April 1970; of this quantity, 130 kg were present in Agent Orange. Data from the HERBS Tape indicated that approximately 96% of Agent Orange was sprayed by RANCH HAND aircraft on mangrove and jungle vegetation, March 1965–April 1970. The remaining 4% (2–4 kg) were likely associated with the “hot spots” identified by the US Department of Defense in the maps provided to Vietnam during the 2007 Dioxin Workshop in Hanoi. Research data confirmed that the TCDD in Agent Orange sprayed on vegetation likely photodegraded within 24–48 h. However, once the Agent Orange TCDD was spilled on soils (hot spots), it could persist for decades. A critical review of how the Vietnam government handled industrial wastes, and the burning of municipal wastes in more than 200 sites over the past 50 years suggested that significant quantities of dioxins (including TCDD) and furans have been released into the atmosphere and waters of Vietnam.]

Published: Jul 26, 2022

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