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Agent OrangeAcquisition, Transport, and Disposal of the Drums Used for Tactical Herbicides Sent to South Vietnam

Agent Orange: Acquisition, Transport, and Disposal of the Drums Used for Tactical Herbicides Sent... [During the Vietnam War, 48 companies produced steel drums. Companies that produced 208-L drums as hazardous materials containers were required for each drum to pass pressure tests, and rugged drop and hydrostatic tests. In addition, each new drum was to be permanently embossed with the name of its manufacturer, the date it was made, the gauge of its metal, and the United States Department of Transportation specification number. Millions of 208-L drums were shipped to South Vietnam during the period 1961–1975. Hundreds of Merchant Marine ships carried drums and fuel bladders loaded with gasoline (Mogas), kerosene, aviation fuel, and JP-4 (Jet fuel). In addition, lubricants, solvents, coatings, disinfectants, sanitizers, and an assortment of oils were all transported in 208-L drums throughout South Vietnam to military bases, camps, and cities. Data on 130,300 steel drums indicated that the percentage of leakers was typically 0.046% or 4.6 in 10,000 manufactured drums. The US Army Chemical Corps and the USAF RANCH HAND program received tactical herbicides in approximately 400,000 208-L drums during the period 1962–1971. Empty drums that had contained tactical herbicide, including Agent Orange, were initially poorly controlled, but in 1968 Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) Directives were issued for their depletion, cleaning, destruction, and disposal. On 1 April 1972, in Operation PACER IVY, approximately 25,220 drums of remaining stocks of Agent Orange were removed from South Vietnam to Johnston Island, Central Pacific Ocean for at-sea incineration.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

Agent OrangeAcquisition, Transport, and Disposal of the Drums Used for Tactical Herbicides Sent to South Vietnam

Part of the Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Book Series (volume 58)
Agent Orange — Jul 26, 2022

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Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
ISBN
978-3-031-08186-6
Pages
83 –92
DOI
10.1007/978-3-031-08187-3_6
Publisher site
See Chapter on Publisher Site

Abstract

[During the Vietnam War, 48 companies produced steel drums. Companies that produced 208-L drums as hazardous materials containers were required for each drum to pass pressure tests, and rugged drop and hydrostatic tests. In addition, each new drum was to be permanently embossed with the name of its manufacturer, the date it was made, the gauge of its metal, and the United States Department of Transportation specification number. Millions of 208-L drums were shipped to South Vietnam during the period 1961–1975. Hundreds of Merchant Marine ships carried drums and fuel bladders loaded with gasoline (Mogas), kerosene, aviation fuel, and JP-4 (Jet fuel). In addition, lubricants, solvents, coatings, disinfectants, sanitizers, and an assortment of oils were all transported in 208-L drums throughout South Vietnam to military bases, camps, and cities. Data on 130,300 steel drums indicated that the percentage of leakers was typically 0.046% or 4.6 in 10,000 manufactured drums. The US Army Chemical Corps and the USAF RANCH HAND program received tactical herbicides in approximately 400,000 208-L drums during the period 1962–1971. Empty drums that had contained tactical herbicide, including Agent Orange, were initially poorly controlled, but in 1968 Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) Directives were issued for their depletion, cleaning, destruction, and disposal. On 1 April 1972, in Operation PACER IVY, approximately 25,220 drums of remaining stocks of Agent Orange were removed from South Vietnam to Johnston Island, Central Pacific Ocean for at-sea incineration.]

Published: Jul 26, 2022

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