213 116 116 1 1 A. C. Parrott Department of Psychology University of East London E15 4LZ London UK Abstract A brief feeling state questionnaire was completed before and after each cigarette, over a day of smoking. Feelings of stress/anxiety demonstrated a pattern of repetitive vacilation over the day, with high stress before smoking, reduced stress after smoking, and stress levels increasing again between cigarettes. There was no evidence of acute pharmacodynamic tolerance, with cigarettes leading to altered feelings of anxiety/stress over the whole day of smoking. Self-rated feelings of arousal also demonstrated a pattern of vacilation over the day, with low arousal pre-smoking, increased arousal post-smoking, but arousal levels reducing again between cigarettes. The ANOVA drug × time interaction was significant, with the greatest arousal change following the first cigarette of the day. However, later cigarettes led to similar amounts of arousal change over the rest of day, thus questioning whether acute pharmacodynamic tolerance was occurring. Instead, the heightened arousal response to the first cigarette of the day may reflect the influence of two other factors. Firstly, overnight deprivation, with the first cigarette of the day leading to the greatest increase in plasma nicotine. Secondly, low early-morning arousal with its associated potential for increased arousal. Overall, therefore, there was little indication of acute pharmacodynamic tolerance to the subjective effects of nicotine. Cigarettes were associated with altered feelings of stress and arousal, over the whole day of smoking.
Psychopharmacology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 1994
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera