“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”

Instant Access to Thousands of Journals for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Toll-like receptors in the respiratory system: Their roles in inflammation



Allergic airway inflammation develops in the context of innate immune cells that express Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs recognize microbial components and evoke diverse responses in immune and other respiratory cells through distinct signaling pathways. Bacterial and viral infection in the airway modulates the extent of allergic inflammation. TLR stimulation controls T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 cell differentiation, cytokine production in mast cells, and activation of eosinophils via direct and indirect pathways. TLR signals in dendritic cells increase expression of major histocompatibility complex proteins and T-cell coreceptors, resulting in greater T-cell activation with Th1 bias. TLR signals in mast cells increase their release of IL-5, and TLR signals in airway epithelial cells enhance airway generation of proallergic cytokines. Although these responses play an important protective role in infection, they may exacerbate allergic inflammation. Under some conditions, TLR stimulation, especially via TLR9, reduces Th2-dependent allergic inflammation through induction of Th1 responses. Therefore, understanding the regulatory role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation may shed light on improving inflammation control in asthmatic patients.



Current Allergy and Asthma ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Jan 1, 2008

DOI: 10.1007/s11882-008-0003-0

Free Preview of First Page

Loading next page...

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy unlimited access and
personalized recommendations from
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Explore the DeepDyve Library

How DeepDyve Works

Spend time researching, not time worrying you’re buying articles that might not be useful.

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Simple and Affordable Pricing

14-day free trial. Cancel anytime, with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Best Deal — 25% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 25% off!
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

billed annually