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Phase Transitions in Frozen Systems and During Freeze–Drying: Quantification Using Synchrotron X-Ray Diffractometry



A high-intensity X-ray diffraction method was developed to monitor the phase transitions during the entire freeze–drying cycle. The high sensitivity of SXRD allowed us to monitor all the crystalline phases simultaneously. While DHPD crystallizes in frozen solution, it dehydrates incompletely during primary drying and completely during secondary drying. The impact of initial solute concentration on the phase composition during the entire freeze–drying cycle was quantified.



Pharmaceutical ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jul 1, 2009

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-009-9868-4

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