“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”

Instant Access to Thousands of Journals for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Large-scale questions and small-scale data: empirical and theoretical methods for scaling up in ecology



Oecologia (2005) 145: 177–178 DOI 10.1007/s00442-005-0057-9 S P E C I A L T O P I C : S C A L I N G - U P I N E C O LO G Y ¨ N. Underwood Æ P. Hamback Æ B. D. Inouye Received: 1 February 2005 / Accepted: 3 February 2005 / Published online: 11 May 2005 Ó Springer-Verlag 2005 Most experimental work is done at small spatial scales due to scientific, logistical, and financial constraints. Unfortunately, ecologists (and society) require answers to problems about dynamics that arise at larger scales than often can be studied experimentally. Thus, it is imperative to develop empirical and theoretical methods for scaling up the results of small-scale studies to predictions at larger scales. These methods should also identify the limits to scaling up: i.e., clarify when results from small-scale experiments cannot be extrapolated to larger scales. In this special topic, we identify three important hurdles associated with scaling up in population biology and methods of addressing these problems: (1) increased spatial heterogeneity with increasing spatial scale, (2) changes to species pools and species identities with changes in spatial scale, and (3) behaviors and trait-mediated indirect effects



OecologiaSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2005

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-005-0057-9

Free Preview of First Page

Loading next page...

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy unlimited access and
personalized recommendations from
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Explore the DeepDyve Library

How DeepDyve Works

Spend time researching, not time worrying you’re buying articles that might not be useful.

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Simple and Affordable Pricing

14-day free trial. Cancel anytime, with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Best Deal — 25% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 25% off!
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

billed annually