“Whoa! It's like Spotify but for academic articles.”

Instant Access to Thousands of Journals for just $40/month

Get 2 Weeks Free

Beneficial effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive training for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a proof of concept study



The current drug treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is only partially and temporary effective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current inducing modulation in cortical excitability. In addition, cognitive training (COG) may improve cognitive functions in AD. Our aim was to treat AD patients combining high-frequency repetitive TMS interlaced with COG (rTMS-COG). Eight patients with probable AD, treated for more than 2 months with cholinesterase inhibitors, were subjected to daily rTMS-COG sessions (5/week) for 6 weeks, followed by maintenance sessions (2/week) for an additional 3 months. Six brain regions, located individually by MRI, were stimulated. COG tasks were developed to fit these regions. Primary objectives were average improvement of Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-cog) and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) (after 6 weeks and 4.5 months, compared to baseline). Secondary objectives were average improvement of MMSE, ADAS-ADL, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMILTON) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). One patient abandoned the study after 2 months (severe urinary sepsis). ADAS-cog (average) improved by approximately 4 points after both 6 weeks and 4.5 months of treatment ( P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) and CGIC by 1.0 and 1.6 points, respectively. MMSE, ADAS-ADL and HAMILTON improved, but without statistical significance. NPI did not change. No side effects were recorded. In this study, rTMS-COG (provided by Neuronix Ltd., Yokneam, Israel) seems a promising effective and safe modality for AD treatment, possibly as good as cholinesterase inhibitors. A European double blind study is underway.



Journal of Neural TransmissionSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 1, 2011

DOI: 10.1007/s00702-010-0578-1

Free Preview of First Page

Loading next page...

You're reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

And millions more from thousands of peer-reviewed journals, for just $40/month

Get 2 Weeks Free

To be the best researcher, you need access to the best research

  • With DeepDyve, you can stop worrying about how much articles cost, or if it's too much hassle to order — it's all at your fingertips. Your research is important and deserves the top content.
  • Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.
  • All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

Stop missing out on the latest updates in your field

  • We’ll send you automatic email updates on the keywords and journals you tell us are most important to you.
  • There is a lot of content out there, so we help you sift through it and stay organized.