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Policy research into Quality Assessment of Published Data from Medical Institutes Can Increase the Authenticity of Translation

Policy research into Quality Assessment of Published Data from Medical Institutes Can Increase... Editorial Annals of Neurosciences 27(2) 45–46, 2020 Policy research into Quality Assessment © The Author(s) 2020 Reprints and permissions: of Published Data from Medical Institutes in.sagepub.com/journals-permissions-india DOI: 10.1177/0972753120965877 Can Increase the Authenticity of journals.sagepub.com/home/aon Translation 1 1 1 Saurabh Kumar , Priya Mehra , and Akshay Anand Scientific misconduct in basic and clinical research is manuscripts, (d) whether the published graphs and tables in increasingly being reported at an alarming rate. According to the manuscripts match with the raw data available. Files/raw a study, more than 40% of the researchers that were surveyed data and other project-related work can be reviewed. Editors were aware of the malpractice but they did not report it. of the journals can be approached to provide the details of the Similarly, a study conducted by Sheehan et al in 2005 published work by contacting the academies who run these reported that 17% authors of clinical trials were aware about journals. Additionally, whether the bench work has been their fabricated data. India stands third in queue in terms of carried out according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) 3 6 highest number of publications after the USA and China. guidelines or not can also be assessed. But, it is embarrassing that many scientific researchers have At the institution level, there are various rules and fraudulent publications, and this is supported by huge number guidelines for responsible conduct of research. This includes of recent cases. It is reported that several papers published ethical orientation and guidance for researcher, instituting in reputed journals contained duplicate, fabricated, or reused plagiarism check before submission, availability of data in the images. As of now there are 980 manuscripts from India that repository system, supervision of research being conducted, have been retracted, out of which 33% was due to plagiarism, data ownership, data retention, and long-term storage in the and in 13% of the cases image duplication or fabrication was form of e-copy besides early reporting of any such misconduct, seen ; there were very few out of genuine quest for authorship. etc. Besides, an assessment of whether administrative actions According to a report published in Nature India, most of the have been taken by the host parent institute or not can also be retracted cases in 2017 were reported from India. Recently in documented. This may include retraction of all the published 2019, we witnessed about 130 papers published by researchers articles, suspension, removal from the particular project, from CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology of Research, ban on getting future projects or strict supervision on other Lucknow, which were found to be problematic. Similarly, 31 projects, ban from any future publications, probation, and publications from Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, termination from the Institute. Besides this, the publishing while 35 papers from Bose Institute, Kolkata, were found journal itself has strict guidelines (retraction of article, ban to be duplicate or manipulated. In some cases, it has been from future publication, penalty, etc.) to counter any such seen that the published work was not approved by the ethical misconduct. Despite of having these strict guidelines, there committees. Therefore, the key question is: Why this is is a lack of nationally organized framework for handling happening? What is the need of research misconduct? scientific misconduct which makes basic and clinical/ Most research labs funded by different funding agencies scientific research more susceptible in medical institutes (DST, DBT, CSIR, ICMR, AYUSH, DAE, etc.) do not than anywhere else. It is important that the research being maintain raw data after research work is over. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a policy research can be initiated in different Institutes across the country that can validate Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India (a) whether the published work contains ethical clearance Corresponding author: statement from the respective ethical committees (clinical Akshay Anand, Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Post trial registered on CTRI), (b) whether the published work is Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, plagiarized or not, (c) whether the results from various funding India. agencies projects have been acknowledged in the published E-mail: akshay1anand@rediffmail.com Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 46 Annals of Neurosciences 27(2) conducted poses some benefits to the mankind. Therefore, it References is important for us to follow GLPs. Any malpractice not only 1. Kaushal S, Tyagi R, Banik A, et al. A unique data validation affects those that are directly involved but also poses a threat process by internal and external quality assurance system to science and technology, and humanity in general. aimed to combat research malpractice. Int J Sci Res 2019; 8 The solution to any such scientific misconduct is the (8): 2277–8179. urgent need for quality control. A quality policy at the 2. Gupta A. Fraud and misconduct in clinical research: A concern. institutional level is also required for doctoral programs. Perspect Clin Res 2013 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 144–147. This can be achieved by introducing methods to render raw data auditable, back-traceable, and verifiable. In this 3. Malkarnekar G. India is world’s third largest producer of way, efficient working environment can be created. This scientific articles: Report. The Economic Times. 2019. will enable efficient productivity and instill scientific 4. Parvatam S. Cleaning up research conduct in India. Nature temperament. This study will enable the funding agency to India, 2019. implement or impose strict sanction on the PI or researcher 5. Kochhar R. Frauds in Indian scientific research. The Tribune. that undertook such scientific misconduct. Financial benefits, reliable translation to the society, improved products and 6. Kumar S, Modgil S, Bammidi S, et al. Allium cepa services are the outcomes of implementation of good 8 exerts neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells of research practices. Based on the data generated from such pterygopalatine artery (PPA) ligated mice. J Ayurveda Integr policy research initiatives, funding decisions can be linked 9 Med 2020. to mandatory implementation of GLP guidelines. 7. Medicine JH. Rules and guidelines for responsible conduct Declaration of Conflicting Interests of research, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/som/faculty/ policies/facultypolicies/responsible_conduct. html (accessed e a Th uthor declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to October 7, 2020). the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 8. Anand A, R Tyagi, and P Kaur. Policy research for assessment of quality assurance practices in skill development of doctoral Funding programs in medical institutes. Ann Neurosci 2017; 24(3): 134. e a Th uthor received no financial support for the research, author - 9. Neuroscience Research Lab. Redefining quality standards in ship, and/or publication of this article. basic research investigations by broadening the purview of GLP. Chandigarh: Neuroscience Research Lab. ORCID iD Akshay Anand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7947-5209 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annals of Neurosciences SAGE

Policy research into Quality Assessment of Published Data from Medical Institutes Can Increase the Authenticity of Translation

Annals of Neurosciences , Volume 27 (2): 2 – Apr 1, 2020

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SAGE
Copyright
© 2020 Indian Academy of Neurosciences (IAN)
ISSN
0972-7531
eISSN
0976-3260
DOI
10.1177/0972753120965877
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Abstract

Editorial Annals of Neurosciences 27(2) 45–46, 2020 Policy research into Quality Assessment © The Author(s) 2020 Reprints and permissions: of Published Data from Medical Institutes in.sagepub.com/journals-permissions-india DOI: 10.1177/0972753120965877 Can Increase the Authenticity of journals.sagepub.com/home/aon Translation 1 1 1 Saurabh Kumar , Priya Mehra , and Akshay Anand Scientific misconduct in basic and clinical research is manuscripts, (d) whether the published graphs and tables in increasingly being reported at an alarming rate. According to the manuscripts match with the raw data available. Files/raw a study, more than 40% of the researchers that were surveyed data and other project-related work can be reviewed. Editors were aware of the malpractice but they did not report it. of the journals can be approached to provide the details of the Similarly, a study conducted by Sheehan et al in 2005 published work by contacting the academies who run these reported that 17% authors of clinical trials were aware about journals. Additionally, whether the bench work has been their fabricated data. India stands third in queue in terms of carried out according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) 3 6 highest number of publications after the USA and China. guidelines or not can also be assessed. But, it is embarrassing that many scientific researchers have At the institution level, there are various rules and fraudulent publications, and this is supported by huge number guidelines for responsible conduct of research. This includes of recent cases. It is reported that several papers published ethical orientation and guidance for researcher, instituting in reputed journals contained duplicate, fabricated, or reused plagiarism check before submission, availability of data in the images. As of now there are 980 manuscripts from India that repository system, supervision of research being conducted, have been retracted, out of which 33% was due to plagiarism, data ownership, data retention, and long-term storage in the and in 13% of the cases image duplication or fabrication was form of e-copy besides early reporting of any such misconduct, seen ; there were very few out of genuine quest for authorship. etc. Besides, an assessment of whether administrative actions According to a report published in Nature India, most of the have been taken by the host parent institute or not can also be retracted cases in 2017 were reported from India. Recently in documented. This may include retraction of all the published 2019, we witnessed about 130 papers published by researchers articles, suspension, removal from the particular project, from CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology of Research, ban on getting future projects or strict supervision on other Lucknow, which were found to be problematic. Similarly, 31 projects, ban from any future publications, probation, and publications from Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, termination from the Institute. Besides this, the publishing while 35 papers from Bose Institute, Kolkata, were found journal itself has strict guidelines (retraction of article, ban to be duplicate or manipulated. In some cases, it has been from future publication, penalty, etc.) to counter any such seen that the published work was not approved by the ethical misconduct. Despite of having these strict guidelines, there committees. Therefore, the key question is: Why this is is a lack of nationally organized framework for handling happening? What is the need of research misconduct? scientific misconduct which makes basic and clinical/ Most research labs funded by different funding agencies scientific research more susceptible in medical institutes (DST, DBT, CSIR, ICMR, AYUSH, DAE, etc.) do not than anywhere else. It is important that the research being maintain raw data after research work is over. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a policy research can be initiated in different Institutes across the country that can validate Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India (a) whether the published work contains ethical clearance Corresponding author: statement from the respective ethical committees (clinical Akshay Anand, Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Post trial registered on CTRI), (b) whether the published work is Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, plagiarized or not, (c) whether the results from various funding India. agencies projects have been acknowledged in the published E-mail: akshay1anand@rediffmail.com Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). 46 Annals of Neurosciences 27(2) conducted poses some benefits to the mankind. Therefore, it References is important for us to follow GLPs. Any malpractice not only 1. Kaushal S, Tyagi R, Banik A, et al. A unique data validation affects those that are directly involved but also poses a threat process by internal and external quality assurance system to science and technology, and humanity in general. aimed to combat research malpractice. Int J Sci Res 2019; 8 The solution to any such scientific misconduct is the (8): 2277–8179. urgent need for quality control. A quality policy at the 2. Gupta A. Fraud and misconduct in clinical research: A concern. institutional level is also required for doctoral programs. Perspect Clin Res 2013 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 144–147. This can be achieved by introducing methods to render raw data auditable, back-traceable, and verifiable. In this 3. Malkarnekar G. India is world’s third largest producer of way, efficient working environment can be created. This scientific articles: Report. The Economic Times. 2019. will enable efficient productivity and instill scientific 4. Parvatam S. Cleaning up research conduct in India. Nature temperament. This study will enable the funding agency to India, 2019. implement or impose strict sanction on the PI or researcher 5. Kochhar R. Frauds in Indian scientific research. The Tribune. that undertook such scientific misconduct. Financial benefits, reliable translation to the society, improved products and 6. Kumar S, Modgil S, Bammidi S, et al. Allium cepa services are the outcomes of implementation of good 8 exerts neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells of research practices. Based on the data generated from such pterygopalatine artery (PPA) ligated mice. J Ayurveda Integr policy research initiatives, funding decisions can be linked 9 Med 2020. to mandatory implementation of GLP guidelines. 7. Medicine JH. Rules and guidelines for responsible conduct Declaration of Conflicting Interests of research, https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/som/faculty/ policies/facultypolicies/responsible_conduct. html (accessed e a Th uthor declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to October 7, 2020). the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. 8. Anand A, R Tyagi, and P Kaur. Policy research for assessment of quality assurance practices in skill development of doctoral Funding programs in medical institutes. Ann Neurosci 2017; 24(3): 134. e a Th uthor received no financial support for the research, author - 9. Neuroscience Research Lab. Redefining quality standards in ship, and/or publication of this article. basic research investigations by broadening the purview of GLP. Chandigarh: Neuroscience Research Lab. ORCID iD Akshay Anand https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7947-5209

Journal

Annals of NeurosciencesSAGE

Published: Apr 1, 2020

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