In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor (CPRF) family from parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ). Here, we demonstrate that these CPRFs, which belong to the basic- region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors, are differentially distributed within parsley cells, indicating different regulatory functions within the regulatory networks of the plant cell. In particular, we show by cell fractionation and immunolocalization approaches that CPRF2 is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus upon irradiation due to action of phytochrome photoreceptors. Two NH 2 -terminal domains responsible for cytoplasmic localization of CPRF2 in the dark were characterized by deletion analysis using a set of CPRF2-green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) gene fusion constructs transiently expressed in parsley protoplasts. We suggest that light-induced nuclear import of CPRF2 is an essential step in phytochrome signal transduction. light regulation phytochrome bZIP transcription factors nucleocytoplasmic partitioning retention domain Footnotes S. Kircher was supported by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and F. Wellmer was supported by the Graduiertenkolleg “Molekulare Mechanismen pflanzlicher Differenzierung.” The work was supported by grants to E. Schäfer from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 388) and from the Human Frontier Science Program. S. Kircher and F. Wellmer contributed equally to this work. Abbreviations used in this paper: aa amino acid bZIP basic-region leucine-zipper domain CHS chalcon synthase CKII casein kinase II CPRF common plant regulatory factor EMSSA electrophoretic mobility supershift assay GBF G-box–binding factor GFP green fluorescent protein NLS nuclear localization sequence P fr far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome phy phytochrome P r red light-absorbing form of phytochrome r recombinant RG9 long wavelength far-red light Submitted: 1 September 1998 Revision received 13 November 1998
The Journal of Cell Biology – Rockefeller University Press
Published: Jan 25, 1999
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