Hypoxia/reoxygenation-mediated induction of astrocyte interleukin 6: a paracrine mechanism potentially enhancing neuron survival.

Hypoxia/reoxygenation-mediated induction of astrocyte interleukin 6: a paracrine mechanism... To elucidate mechanisms underlying neuroprotective properties of astrocytes in brain ischemia, production of neurotrophic mediators was studied in astrocytes exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Rat astrocytes subjected to H/R released increased amounts of interleukin (IL) 6 in a time-dependent manner, whereas levels of tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 remained undetectable. IL-6 transcripts were induced in hypoxia and the early phase of reoxygenation, whereas synthesis and release of IL-6 antigen/activity occurred during reoxygenation. Elevated levels of IL-6 mRNA were due, at least in part, to increased transcription, as shown by nuclear runoff analysis. The mechanism stimulating synthesis and release of IL-6 antigen by astrocytes was probably production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), which occurred within 15-20 minutes after placing hypoxia cultures back into normoxia, as the inhibitor diphenyl iodonium inhibited the burst of ROIs and subsequent IL-6 generation (blockade of nitric oxide formation had no effect on ROI generation or IL-6 production). Enhanced IL-6 generation was also observed in human astrocytoma cultures exposed to H/R. Survival of differentiated PC12 cells exposed to H/R was potentiated by conditioned medium from H/R astrocytes, an effect blocked by neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody. In a gerbil model of brain ischemia, IL-6 activity was lower in the hippocampus, an area sensitive to ischemia, compared with IL-6 activity in the cortex, an area more resistant to ischemia. IL-6 antigen, demonstrated immunohistochemically, was increased in astrocytes from ischemic regions of gerbil brain. These data suggest that H/R enhances transcription of IL-6, resulting in increased translation and release of IL-6 antigen after the burst of ROI generated early during reoxygenation. Release of IL-6 from astrocytes could exert a paracrine neurotrophic effect in brain ischemia. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Experimental Medicine Rockefeller University Press

Hypoxia/reoxygenation-mediated induction of astrocyte interleukin 6: a paracrine mechanism potentially enhancing neuron survival.

Loading next page...
 
/lp/rockefeller-university-press/hypoxia-reoxygenation-mediated-induction-of-astrocyte-interleukin-6-a-xH0UNcfyuJ
Publisher
Rockefeller University Press
Copyright
© 1994 Rockefeller University Press
ISSN
0022-1007
eISSN
1540-9538
DOI
10.1084/jem.180.6.2297
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

To elucidate mechanisms underlying neuroprotective properties of astrocytes in brain ischemia, production of neurotrophic mediators was studied in astrocytes exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Rat astrocytes subjected to H/R released increased amounts of interleukin (IL) 6 in a time-dependent manner, whereas levels of tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 remained undetectable. IL-6 transcripts were induced in hypoxia and the early phase of reoxygenation, whereas synthesis and release of IL-6 antigen/activity occurred during reoxygenation. Elevated levels of IL-6 mRNA were due, at least in part, to increased transcription, as shown by nuclear runoff analysis. The mechanism stimulating synthesis and release of IL-6 antigen by astrocytes was probably production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), which occurred within 15-20 minutes after placing hypoxia cultures back into normoxia, as the inhibitor diphenyl iodonium inhibited the burst of ROIs and subsequent IL-6 generation (blockade of nitric oxide formation had no effect on ROI generation or IL-6 production). Enhanced IL-6 generation was also observed in human astrocytoma cultures exposed to H/R. Survival of differentiated PC12 cells exposed to H/R was potentiated by conditioned medium from H/R astrocytes, an effect blocked by neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody. In a gerbil model of brain ischemia, IL-6 activity was lower in the hippocampus, an area sensitive to ischemia, compared with IL-6 activity in the cortex, an area more resistant to ischemia. IL-6 antigen, demonstrated immunohistochemically, was increased in astrocytes from ischemic regions of gerbil brain. These data suggest that H/R enhances transcription of IL-6, resulting in increased translation and release of IL-6 antigen after the burst of ROI generated early during reoxygenation. Release of IL-6 from astrocytes could exert a paracrine neurotrophic effect in brain ischemia.

Journal

The Journal of Experimental MedicineRockefeller University Press

Published: Dec 1, 1994

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off