Roles of GPRC5 family proteins: focusing on GPRC5B and lipid-mediated signalling.
AbstractIn the past decade, physiological roles and molecular functions of GPRC5 family receptors, originally identified as retinoic acid-induced gene products, have been uncovered, even though their intrinsic agonists are still a mystery. They are differentially distributed in certain tissues and cells in the body suggesting that cell-type-specific regulations and functions are significant. Molecular biological approaches and knockout mouse studies reveal that GPRC5 family proteins have pivotal roles in cancer progression and control of metabolic homeostasis pathways. Remarkably, GPRC5B-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation signalling cascades play a critical role in development of obesity and insulin resistance through dynamic sphingolipid metabolism.