Prediction of Immunohistochemistry of Suspected Thyroid Nodules by Use of Machine Learning-Based Radiomics.
AbstractOBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a radiomics model for evaluating immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with suspected thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 103 patients (training cohort-to-validation cohort ratio, ≈ 3:1) with suspected thyroid nodules who had undergone thyroidectomy and immunohistochemical analysis were enrolled. The immunohistochemical markers were cytokeratin 19, galectin 3, thyroperoxidase, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin. All patients underwent CT before surgery, and a 3D slicer was used to analyze images of the surgical specimen. Test-retest and Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) were used to select reproducible and nonredundant features. The Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05) was used for feature selection, and a feature-based model was built by support vector machine methods. The performance of the radiomic models was assessed with respect to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, corresponding AUC, and independent validation. RESULTS. Eighty-six reproducible and nonredundant features selected from the 828 features were used to build the model. The best performance of the cytokeratin 19 model yielded accuracy of 84.4% in the training cohort and 80.0% in the validation cohort. The thyroperoxidase and galectin 3 predictive models yielded accuracies of 81.4% and 82.5% in the training cohort and 84.2% and 85.0% in the validation cohort. The performance of the high-molecular-weight cytokeratin predictive model was not good (accuracy, 65.7%) and could not be validated. CONCLUSION. A radiomics model with excellent performance was developed for individualized noninvasive prediction of the presence of cytokeratin 19, galectin 3, and thyroperoxidase based on CT images. This model may be used to identify benign and malignant thyroid nodules.