Pelvic fractures in children (pelvic ring and acetabulum).
AbstractPelvic fractures in children are rare and often the result of high-energy trauma. The possibility of associated lesions cannot be ignored. Treatment at a specialized children's hospital is a must. The multidisciplinary care team must include a paediatric orthopaedic surgeon. In the emergency room, the surgeon contributes to haemodynamic stabilization of the child by reducing and stabilizing posterior arch fractures and restoring the skeletal cohesion to make it easier to move the child and allow other examinations to be performed. Imaging modalities are used to determine the stability of the pelvic ring fracture, the risk of epiphysiodesis of an acetabulum fracture if the triradiate cartilage is open and the joint congruency if the triradiate cartilage is closed. Internal fixation can be used if surgery is being performed for associated non-orthopaedic injuries. Most vertically stable fractures are treated non-surgically. Fractures that are unstable vertically will require surgical treatment. Treatment of acetabulum fractures depends on the status of the triradiate cartilage. In older children, it is similar to the treatments used in adults. In children with open growth plates, the goal is to make sure the acetabulum continues growing. In all cases, the patients must be instructed to start physical therapy as soon as possible. Full recovery can be expected after stable pelvic fractures. Unstable pelvic fractures can lead to sequelae, the severity of which depend on the residual pelvic displacement and involvement of the growth plates that can cause epiphysiodesis. Surgery to correct these deformities is challenging. The most serious occur when the vertical displacement of the hemipelvis must be corrected. After an acetabulum fracture, removal of the growth blocker can be done in children under 10 years of age. In older children, acetabular dysplasia requires periacetabular osteotomy.