One step forward: How can functionalization enhance the adsorptive properties of graphene towards metallic ions and dyes?
AbstractFunctionalized graphene and its derivatives have been subject of many recent studies investigating their use as scavenger of various industrial pollutants. Adsorption is a feasible treatment, which can employ a wide variety of materials as adsorbents. Additionally, graphene has been distinguished for its remarkable properties, such as mechanical resistance, flexibility and electric conductivity. A relevant aspect of functionalized graphene is related to its selectivity, resulting in increased removal rates of specific pollutants. Hence, the functionalization process of graphene nanosheets is the cutting edge of the materials and environmental sciences, promoting the development of innovative and highly capable sorbents. The purpose of this review is to assemble the available information about functionalized graphene nanomaterials used for the removal of water pollutants and to explore its wide potential. In addition, various optimal experimental conditions (solution pH, equilibrium time, adsorbent dosage) are discussed. In each topic, aspects of environmental protection of adsorption process were evaluated, as well as the most recent works, available from high impact journals in the field, have been explored. Additionally, the employment of natural compounds to functionalize, reduce and support graphene, was evaluated as green alternatives to chemicals.