Novel N-benzylpyridinium moiety linked to arylisoxazole derivatives as selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation, and docking study.
AbstractA novel series of N-benzylpyridinium moiety linked to arylisoxazole ring were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Synthesized compounds were classified into two series of 5a-i and 5j-q considering the position of positively charged nitrogen of pyridinium moiety (3- or 4- position, respectively) connected to isoxazole carboxamide group. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 5n from the second series of compounds possessing 2,4-dichloroaryl group connected to isoxazole ring was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 5.96 µM) and compound 5j also from the same series of compounds containing phenyl group connected to isoxazole ring demonstrated the most promising inhibitory activity against BChE (IC50 = 0.32 µM). Also, kinetic study demonstrated competitive inhibition mode for both AChE and BChE inhibitory activity. Docking study was also performed for those compounds and desired interactions with those active site amino acid residues were confirmed through hydrogen bonding as well as π-π and π-anion interactions. In addition, the most potent compounds were tested against BACE1 and their neuroprotectivity on Aβ-treated neurotoxicity in PC12 cells which depicted negligible activity. It should be noted that most of the synthesized compounds from both categories 5a-i and 5j-q showed a significant selectivity toward BChE. However, series 5j-q were more active toward AChE than series 5a-i.