Hyperspectral imaging for accurate determination of rice variety using a deep learning network with multi-feature fusion.
AbstractThe phenomena of rice adulteration and shoddy rice arise continuously in high-quality rice and reduce the interests of producers, consumers and traders. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was conducted to determine rice variety using a deep learning network with multiple features, namely, spectroscopy, texture and morphology. HSI images of 10 representative high-quality rice varieties in China were measured. Spectroscopy and morphology were extracted from HSI images and binary images in region of interest, respectively. And texture was obtained from the monochromatic images of characteristic wavelengths which were highly correlated with rice varieties. A deep learning network, namely principal component analysis network (PCANet), was adopted with these features to develop classification models for determining rice variety, and machine learning methods as K-nearest neighbour and random forest were used to compare with PCANet. Meanwhile, multivariate scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay smoothing and Savitzky-Golay's first-order were applied to eliminate spectral interference, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to obtain the main information of high-dimensional features. Multi-feature fusion improved recognition accuracy, and PCANet demonstrated considerable advantage in classification performance. The best result was achieved by PCANet with PCA-processed spectroscopic and texture features with correct classification rates of 98.66% and 98.57% for the training and prediction sets, respectively. In summary, the proposed method provides an accurate identification of rice variety and can be easily extended to the classification, attribution and grading of other agricultural products.