Humeral Retroversion and Participation Age in Professional Baseball Pitchers by Geographic Region.
AbstractBaseball is played around the world, including in North America and Latin America. The repetitive and stressful act of throwing can lead to adaptations such as increased humeral retroversion (HR) in the throwing arm. This adaptation is often considered beneficial as it allows more glenohumeral external rotation during the cocking phase of pitching without soft tissue stretching. Therefore, it is speculated that throwing should be started at a young age to capitalize on this adaptation. Interestingly, athletes in different geographic regions of the world often begin organized baseball at different ages. However, range of motion (ROM), HR, and the starting age of baseball have never been examined based on geographic region.