Comparative toxicity of nanoparticulate and ionic copper following dietary exposure to common carp (Cyprinus carpio).
AbstractCopper is an essential element for the normal growth and survival of all organisms including fish. However, its excessive presence in the environment can cause bioaccumulation and aquatic toxicology. The aim of the present study was to compare the dietary toxicity effects of two different Cu compounds, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) and ionic copper (CuSO4) in juvenile common carp, Cyprinus carpio. To prepare experimental diets, two nominal concentrations of 100 and 1000 mg Cu kg-1 diet were added to a basal diet. Carp (n = 450, average initial weight of 35.94 ± 5.35 g) were fed on the Cu-supplemented diets and basal diets for two 21-day courses as dietary exposure and recovery periods, respectively. The growth performance, survival rate and blood biochemical indices as well as copper accumulation in target organs of fish were investigated at the end of each exposure period. The results showed that the weight gain (WG) of carp significantly decreased coincident with increasing concentration of the both dietary Cu forms (P = 0.00). Both Cu sources at concentrations of 100 mg kg-1 diet decreased the survival rate of fish (P = 0.003), likely due to more feed intake and thus increased copper toxicity. The both forms of dietary Cu at two different concentrations significantly decreased the plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) level compared to the control group (P = 0.008). Fish exposed to diets containing Cu sources except 100 mg Cu kg-1 of CuO-NPs showed the lower glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity in comparison to the control (P = 0.00). The plasma sodium level in1000 mg CuO-NPs kg-1 diet was significantly lower than the control (P = 0.001). The plasma potassium level increased in the all Cu-supplemented groups except 100 mg kg-1 of CuO-NPs after the dietary exposure period (P = 0.035). The copper accumulation was dose-dependent in all target organs. In 100 mg Cu kg-1 dietary groups, the liver showed the highest Cu accumulation (P = 0.00), while in 1000 mg Cu kg-1 dietary groups, the highest Cu content was observed in the intestine (P = 0.00). The results demonstrated the enhanced toxicological responses in fish after 21 days of dietary exposure, but the levels of most of biochemical indices and tissues Cu content decreased or returned to the control values after the recovery period.