RECOGNIZING FACES OF OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS An Integration of Theories
AbstractStudies of the recognition of faces of an ethnic group different from one's own reveal a robust recognition deficit for faces of the respective out-group (cross-race effect or own-race bias) and a tendency to respond less cautiously with respect to out-group faces. Cross-national comparisons reveal that the cross-race effect appears to be larger among low-contact groups. Although exemplar-based models postulating a multidimensional face space are currently in vogue, some of the more traditional accounts (e.g., the contact hypothesis) should not be dismissed prematurely. An extended exemplar-based model that relates the out-group recognition deficit to the out-group homogeneity effect in social perception and judgment appears promising. An in-group/out-group model (IOM) of face processing is proposed that includes aspects of previous theories and derives new predictions (e.g., a cross-sex or cross-age effect). The IOM attempts to account for the out-group recognition deficit and the more lax response criterion with respect to out-group faces.