Contingent Monetary Reinforcement of Smoking Reductions, With and Without Transdermal Nicotine, in Outpatients With Schizophrenia
AbstractThis study was conducted to examine the effects of contingent monetary reinforcement (CM) for smoking reduction, with and without transdermal nicotine, on cigarette smoking in individuals with schizophrenia. Fourteen outpatients participated in each of 3 conditions: (a) CM combined with 21 mg transdermal nicotine, (b) CM combined with placebo patch, and (c) noncontingent reinforcement combined with placebo patch. Each condition lasted 5 days. Carbon monoxide levels were measured 3 times daily, and nicotine withdrawal symptoms were measured once daily in each condition. Results indicated that CM reduced smoking but that 21 mg transdermal nicotine did not enhance that effect. These results offer further evidence supporting the efficacy of CM for reducing smoking among people with schizophrenia, but higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy, or another pharmacotherapy, may be needed to enhance that effect.