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TIMING OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CONTROL IN CHERRY, 2011

TIMING OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CONTROL IN CHERRY, 2011 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.B3 (B3) CHERRY (SWEET): Prunus avium L., ‘Bing’ R. A. Van Steenwyk Department of E.S.P.M. 130 Mulford Hall-3114 University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 Telephone: (510) 643-5159 Fax: (510) 643-5438 Email: bobvanst@berkeley.edu C. Wise Email: cwise@berkeley.edu Telephone: (510) 643-5159 L. M. Novotny Email: laurnov@berkeley.edu Telephone: (510) 643-5159 A. T. Miller Email: atmiller@berkeley.edu Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD): Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) This trial was conducted to evaluate different spray timing regimes for control of SWD. The trial was conducted in a commercial ‘Bing’ cherry orchard near Gilroy, CA. The orchard was planted on a 20 ft by 20 ft (row by tree) spacing. There were five treatment regimes and an untreated check (Table 1). Each treatment regime was replicated three times. The replicates were 1.5 acres or larger in size. On 26 May, the untreated check was divided into two sections and one section received two applications of Entrust 80WP as an organic alternative (Treatment Regime V). Treatments were applied using a grower operated air-blast speed sprayer with a finished spray volume of 250 gpa. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by monitoring adult SWD populations and larval infestation. Adult SWD populations were monitored by placing an apple cider vinegar (ACV) bait pan trap in the center of each plot. The traps had 1/8 inch screen tops and were baited with 4 fl oz of ACV that contained 4 ml of color and fragrance-free soap (Palmolive pure + clear ) per gal of ACV with a rain shield. Trap contents were examined weekly from 19 Apr to 12 Jul, and all SWD were sexed and counted in the laboratory under magnification (20X). Larval infestation was monitored from 12 May to 6 Jul, starting with the first pink fruit. A sample of 100 fruit was collected from each replicate, and larval infestation was determined through the sugar floatation method (7 lbs brown sugar per 5 gal of water). Larvae, which floated to the surface, were counted and removed from the solution. They were then placed on diet and reared to maturity at 23.5˚C in a constant temperature cabinet with 16:8 (L:D). The emerged flies were then examined under magnification to determine the species composition. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated using Fisher’s protected LSD (P > 0.05). The number of flies captured was not a good indicator of the efficacy of the treatments. There was no significant difference in the number of flies among the treatment regimes until 16 May despite a 2 May application of Diazinon (Treatment Regime I) and 10 May application of Warrior II (Treatment Regime II) (Table 2). On 23 May the number of total adult flies in Treatment Regimes I-IV were significantly lower than the untreated check. However, only Treatment Regime I had significantly lower total adult flies captured 16 May to 12 Jul compared to the untreated check, while the other Treatment Regimes did not differ significantly from either the untreated check or Treatment Regime I. Also, Treatment Regimes V (organic treatment) had elevated fly counts from 28 Jun to 6 Jul. All Treatment Regimes (I-V) had a significantly lower number of larvae/100 fruit compared to the untreated check from 12 Jun to 6 Jul, with the exception of Treatment Regime V on 6 Jul (Table 3). Commercial harvest occurred from 13 Jun through 30 Jun and the number of larvae/100 fruit was acceptable in Treatment Regimes I and II, and near tolerance in Treatment Regimes III and IV. From all larval samples reared to adults >95% were SWD until 6 Jul when species composition changed to other drosophila (Table 4). Three or four well-timed applications are adequate to suppress high levels of SWD. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.B3 Table 1. Treatment Treatment/ Rate Application regime formulation form/acre date Timing of application I Diazinon 50W 4.0 lb 2 May Green fruit 30 DAFB Warrior II 5.12 fl oz 10 May Straw 41 DAFB Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) II Warrior II 5.12 fl oz 10 May Straw 41 DAFB Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) III Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) IV Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 2 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) V Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) Untreated check -- DAFB: Days after full bloom and DBH: Days before harvest Table 2. Total SWD/trap Treatment regime 26 Apr 2 May 10 May 16 May 23 May 31 May 6 Jun 12 Jun 22 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul 12 Jul Total I 18.3a 89.0a 31.3a 2.0b 6.7b 2.3b 0.0a 5.3a 1.0b 6.7a 0.7a 3.0a 27.7b II 20.0a 79.3a 57.3a 4.3ab 8.0b 1.7b 0.0a 5.7a 3.7b 4.0a 8.7a 6.3a 42.3ab III 11.7a 61.7a 26.3a 9.0ab 3.3b 7.3ab 1.3a 2.3a 2.3b 5.0a 5.3a 11.0a 47.0ab IV 8.0a 42.0a 23.3a 3.3b 5.3b 9.7ab 0.0a 3.0a 2.0b 5.3a 5.7a 7.3a 41.7ab V 18.7ab 3.3a 2.3a 5.7ab 33.3a 11.7a 14.0a Untreated check 22.0a 97.7a 39.3a 16.7a 21.3a 45.0a 3.0a 9.3a 17.0a 33.7a 13.3a 7.7a 167.0a Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (Fisher’s protected LSD, P > 0.05). Mean total from 16 May to 12 Jul. Table 3. Larvae/100 fruit Treatment regime 10 May 16 May 23 May 31 May 6 Jun 12 Jun 22 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul I 0.0a 0.0b 0.3a 0.0a 5.7a 0.3b 0.0b 0.3b 4.3b II 0.3a 1.0a 0.0a 0.0a 5.3a 0.0b 0.0b 0.3b 2.7b III 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 1.0a 1.0a 0.0b 2.3b 2.7b 7.0b IV 0.0a 0.3ab 2.3a 2.0a 1.0a 1.3b 3.0b 1.3b 3.3b V 2.7a 1.0a 3.3a 2.3b 2.7b 12.7b 28.3ab Untreated check 0.3a 0.3ab 0.7a 2.0a 7.7a 12.0a 29.3a 55.0a 119.0a Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (Fisher’s protected LSD, P > 0.05). Table 4. Percent of population Emerged Adults 12 May 19 May 26 May 31 May 6 Jun 13 Jun 23 Jun 30 Jun 6 Jul Female SWD 33.3 0.0 60.0 66.7 52.4 45.5 58.7 52.5 0.0 Male SWD 66.7 0.0 40.0 33.3 47.6 50.0 37.0 47.5 0.0 Other drosophila 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.3 0.0 100.0 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

TIMING OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CONTROL IN CHERRY, 2011

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Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.B3 (B3) CHERRY (SWEET): Prunus avium L., ‘Bing’ R. A. Van Steenwyk Department of E.S.P.M. 130 Mulford Hall-3114 University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 Telephone: (510) 643-5159 Fax: (510) 643-5438 Email: bobvanst@berkeley.edu C. Wise Email: cwise@berkeley.edu Telephone: (510) 643-5159 L. M. Novotny Email: laurnov@berkeley.edu Telephone: (510) 643-5159 A. T. Miller Email: atmiller@berkeley.edu Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD): Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) This trial was conducted to evaluate different spray timing regimes for control of SWD. The trial was conducted in a commercial ‘Bing’ cherry orchard near Gilroy, CA. The orchard was planted on a 20 ft by 20 ft (row by tree) spacing. There were five treatment regimes and an untreated check (Table 1). Each treatment regime was replicated three times. The replicates were 1.5 acres or larger in size. On 26 May, the untreated check was divided into two sections and one section received two applications of Entrust 80WP as an organic alternative (Treatment Regime V). Treatments were applied using a grower operated air-blast speed sprayer with a finished spray volume of 250 gpa. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by monitoring adult SWD populations and larval infestation. Adult SWD populations were monitored by placing an apple cider vinegar (ACV) bait pan trap in the center of each plot. The traps had 1/8 inch screen tops and were baited with 4 fl oz of ACV that contained 4 ml of color and fragrance-free soap (Palmolive pure + clear ) per gal of ACV with a rain shield. Trap contents were examined weekly from 19 Apr to 12 Jul, and all SWD were sexed and counted in the laboratory under magnification (20X). Larval infestation was monitored from 12 May to 6 Jul, starting with the first pink fruit. A sample of 100 fruit was collected from each replicate, and larval infestation was determined through the sugar floatation method (7 lbs brown sugar per 5 gal of water). Larvae, which floated to the surface, were counted and removed from the solution. They were then placed on diet and reared to maturity at 23.5˚C in a constant temperature cabinet with 16:8 (L:D). The emerged flies were then examined under magnification to determine the species composition. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated using Fisher’s protected LSD (P > 0.05). The number of flies captured was not a good indicator of the efficacy of the treatments. There was no significant difference in the number of flies among the treatment regimes until 16 May despite a 2 May application of Diazinon (Treatment Regime I) and 10 May application of Warrior II (Treatment Regime II) (Table 2). On 23 May the number of total adult flies in Treatment Regimes I-IV were significantly lower than the untreated check. However, only Treatment Regime I had significantly lower total adult flies captured 16 May to 12 Jul compared to the untreated check, while the other Treatment Regimes did not differ significantly from either the untreated check or Treatment Regime I. Also, Treatment Regimes V (organic treatment) had elevated fly counts from 28 Jun to 6 Jul. All Treatment Regimes (I-V) had a significantly lower number of larvae/100 fruit compared to the untreated check from 12 Jun to 6 Jul, with the exception of Treatment Regime V on 6 Jul (Table 3). Commercial harvest occurred from 13 Jun through 30 Jun and the number of larvae/100 fruit was acceptable in Treatment Regimes I and II, and near tolerance in Treatment Regimes III and IV. From all larval samples reared to adults >95% were SWD until 6 Jul when species composition changed to other drosophila (Table 4). Three or four well-timed applications are adequate to suppress high levels of SWD. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.B3 Table 1. Treatment Treatment/ Rate Application regime formulation form/acre date Timing of application I Diazinon 50W 4.0 lb 2 May Green fruit 30 DAFB Warrior II 5.12 fl oz 10 May Straw 41 DAFB Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) II Warrior II 5.12 fl oz 10 May Straw 41 DAFB Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) III Malathion 8 Aquamul 1.75 pt 21 May Pink 48 DAFB Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) IV Success 2SC 7.00 fl oz 2 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) V Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 26 May Red 55 DAFB (7 DBH) Entrust 80WP 2.00 oz 1 Jun Red 59 DAFB (3 DBH) Untreated check -- DAFB: Days after full bloom and DBH: Days before harvest Table 2. Total SWD/trap Treatment regime 26 Apr 2 May 10 May 16 May 23 May 31 May 6 Jun 12 Jun 22 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul 12 Jul Total I 18.3a 89.0a 31.3a 2.0b 6.7b 2.3b 0.0a 5.3a 1.0b 6.7a 0.7a 3.0a 27.7b II 20.0a 79.3a 57.3a 4.3ab 8.0b 1.7b 0.0a 5.7a 3.7b 4.0a 8.7a 6.3a 42.3ab III 11.7a 61.7a 26.3a 9.0ab 3.3b 7.3ab 1.3a 2.3a 2.3b 5.0a 5.3a 11.0a 47.0ab IV 8.0a 42.0a 23.3a 3.3b 5.3b 9.7ab 0.0a 3.0a 2.0b 5.3a 5.7a 7.3a 41.7ab V 18.7ab 3.3a 2.3a 5.7ab 33.3a 11.7a 14.0a Untreated check 22.0a 97.7a 39.3a 16.7a 21.3a 45.0a 3.0a 9.3a 17.0a 33.7a 13.3a 7.7a 167.0a Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (Fisher’s protected LSD, P > 0.05). Mean total from 16 May to 12 Jul. Table 3. Larvae/100 fruit Treatment regime 10 May 16 May 23 May 31 May 6 Jun 12 Jun 22 Jun 28 Jun 5 Jul I 0.0a 0.0b 0.3a 0.0a 5.7a 0.3b 0.0b 0.3b 4.3b II 0.3a 1.0a 0.0a 0.0a 5.3a 0.0b 0.0b 0.3b 2.7b III 0.0a 0.0b 0.0a 1.0a 1.0a 0.0b 2.3b 2.7b 7.0b IV 0.0a 0.3ab 2.3a 2.0a 1.0a 1.3b 3.0b 1.3b 3.3b V 2.7a 1.0a 3.3a 2.3b 2.7b 12.7b 28.3ab Untreated check 0.3a 0.3ab 0.7a 2.0a 7.7a 12.0a 29.3a 55.0a 119.0a Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (Fisher’s protected LSD, P > 0.05). Table 4. Percent of population Emerged Adults 12 May 19 May 26 May 31 May 6 Jun 13 Jun 23 Jun 30 Jun 6 Jul Female SWD 33.3 0.0 60.0 66.7 52.4 45.5 58.7 52.5 0.0 Male SWD 66.7 0.0 40.0 33.3 47.6 50.0 37.0 47.5 0.0 Other drosophila 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.3 0.0 100.0

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2012

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