Reciprocity in Parent–Child Relations Over the Adult Life Course

Reciprocity in Parent–Child Relations Over the Adult Life Course Objectives. This research assessed how parents' transfers of sentiment, time, and financial assets to their adolescent/young adult children affect the children's propensity in middle age to provide social support to their aging parents. We tested whether the mechanism of long-term intergenerational exchange is better modeled as a return on investment, an insurance policy triggered by the longevity or physical frailty of parents, or the result of altruistic (or other nonreciprocal) motivations on the part of adult children. Methods. Models were examined with 6 waves of data from the University of Southern California Longitudinal Study of Generations. The sample consisted of 501 children who participated in the 1971 survey and who had at least 1 parent surviving in 1985. Growth curve modeling was applied to predict average levels and rates of change in social support provided to mothers and fathers between 1985 and 1997 as a function of early parental transfers of affection, association, and tangible resources to their children. Results. Children who spent more time in shared activities with their mothers and fathers in 1971 provided more support to them on average. Receiving greater financial support from parents in 1971 raised the marginal rate at which support provided by children increased over time. Maternal health operated synergistically with early affection to produce greater levels of support. Both levels and rates of increase in support from children were positive, even for children who received no early transfers from their parents. Discussion. The results offer some support for investment, insurance, and altruistic models of intergenerational exchange. Sharing time in activities provides a direct return to the parent that is characteristic of an investment strategy, whereas financial transfers provide a time-contingent return that is characteristic of an insurance mechanism. That affection triggers greater support to more functionally impaired mothers suggests that emotionally investing in children as a health insurance mechanism may be based on the greater moral equity accorded to mothers. The motivation of adult children to provide social support to their older parents is partially rooted in earlier family experiences and guided by an implicit social contract that ensures long-term reciprocity. The Gerontological Society of America « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci (2002) 57 (1): S3-S13. doi: 10.1093/geronb/57.1.S3 » Abstract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Silverstein, M. Articles by Bengtson, V. L. Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Silverstein, M. Articles by Conroy, S. J. Articles by Wang, H. Articles by Giarrusso, R. Articles by Bengtson, V. L. Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue November 2015 70 (6) Alert me to new issues The Journal About the journal Free Editors' Choice Articles Impact Factor Articles The Journals of Gerontology, Series B Supplements Special Issues Rights & permissions We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Policy Snapshot Published on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America Impact Factor: 3.213 5-Yr impact factor: 3.856 Editorial Boards The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences Bob G. Knight, PhD View full editorial board The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences Deborah S. Carr, PhD, Editor View full editorial board For the Media GSA Press Room For Authors Instructions to authors Services for authors Submit Now: Social Sciences Submit Now: Psychological Sciences Self-archiving policy Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open Oxford Open P56qQ0myhZIZ9qtHtIIeI0jcYDo8lVt6 true Looking for your next opportunity? Looking for jobs... jQuery_1_11 = jQuery.noConflict(true); Corporate Services What we offer Advertising sales Reprints Supplements Classified Advertising Sales Alerting Services Email table of contents CiteTrack XML RSS feed var taxonomies = ("MED00280", "SCI02100", "SOC02600"); Most Most Read Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends Mind Matters: Cognitive and Physical Effects of Aging Self-Stereotypes Age Differences in Stress, Coping, and Appraisal: Findings from the Normative Aging Study Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and the Life Course: Cross-Fertilizing Age and Social Science Theory The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990-2010 » View all Most Read articles Most Cited The Impact of Childhood and Adult SES on Physical, Mental, and Cognitive Well-Being in Later Life Nursing Home Staffing and Its Relationship to Deficiencies Differential Benefits of Volunteering Across the Life Course Social Network Typologies and Mental Health Among Older Adults Associations of Stressors and Uplifts of Caregiving With Caregiver Burden and Depressive Mood: A Meta-Analysis » View all Most Cited articles Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department. Online ISSN 1758-5368 - Print ISSN 1079-5014 Copyright © 2015 The Gerontological Society of America Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 The Gerontological Society of America
ISSN
1079-5014
eISSN
1758-5368
D.O.I.
10.1093/geronb/57.1.S3
Publisher site
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Abstract

Objectives. This research assessed how parents' transfers of sentiment, time, and financial assets to their adolescent/young adult children affect the children's propensity in middle age to provide social support to their aging parents. We tested whether the mechanism of long-term intergenerational exchange is better modeled as a return on investment, an insurance policy triggered by the longevity or physical frailty of parents, or the result of altruistic (or other nonreciprocal) motivations on the part of adult children. Methods. Models were examined with 6 waves of data from the University of Southern California Longitudinal Study of Generations. The sample consisted of 501 children who participated in the 1971 survey and who had at least 1 parent surviving in 1985. Growth curve modeling was applied to predict average levels and rates of change in social support provided to mothers and fathers between 1985 and 1997 as a function of early parental transfers of affection, association, and tangible resources to their children. Results. Children who spent more time in shared activities with their mothers and fathers in 1971 provided more support to them on average. Receiving greater financial support from parents in 1971 raised the marginal rate at which support provided by children increased over time. Maternal health operated synergistically with early affection to produce greater levels of support. Both levels and rates of increase in support from children were positive, even for children who received no early transfers from their parents. Discussion. The results offer some support for investment, insurance, and altruistic models of intergenerational exchange. Sharing time in activities provides a direct return to the parent that is characteristic of an investment strategy, whereas financial transfers provide a time-contingent return that is characteristic of an insurance mechanism. That affection triggers greater support to more functionally impaired mothers suggests that emotionally investing in children as a health insurance mechanism may be based on the greater moral equity accorded to mothers. The motivation of adult children to provide social support to their older parents is partially rooted in earlier family experiences and guided by an implicit social contract that ensures long-term reciprocity. The Gerontological Society of America « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci (2002) 57 (1): S3-S13. doi: 10.1093/geronb/57.1.S3 » Abstract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Silverstein, M. Articles by Bengtson, V. L. Search for related content PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Silverstein, M. Articles by Conroy, S. J. Articles by Wang, H. Articles by Giarrusso, R. Articles by Bengtson, V. L. Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue November 2015 70 (6) Alert me to new issues The Journal About the journal Free Editors' Choice Articles Impact Factor Articles The Journals of Gerontology, Series B Supplements Special Issues Rights & permissions We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Policy Snapshot Published on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America Impact Factor: 3.213 5-Yr impact factor: 3.856 Editorial Boards The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences Bob G. Knight, PhD View full editorial board The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences Deborah S. Carr, PhD, Editor View full editorial board For the Media GSA Press Room For Authors Instructions to authors Services for authors Submit Now: Social Sciences Submit Now: Psychological Sciences Self-archiving policy Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open Oxford Open P56qQ0myhZIZ9qtHtIIeI0jcYDo8lVt6 true Looking for your next opportunity? Looking for jobs... jQuery_1_11 = jQuery.noConflict(true); Corporate Services What we offer Advertising sales Reprints Supplements Classified Advertising Sales Alerting Services Email table of contents CiteTrack XML RSS feed var taxonomies = ("MED00280", "SCI02100", "SOC02600"); Most Most Read Emotional Aging: Recent Findings and Future Trends Mind Matters: Cognitive and Physical Effects of Aging Self-Stereotypes Age Differences in Stress, Coping, and Appraisal: Findings from the Normative Aging Study Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and the Life Course: Cross-Fertilizing Age and Social Science Theory The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990-2010 » View all Most Read articles Most Cited The Impact of Childhood and Adult SES on Physical, Mental, and Cognitive Well-Being in Later Life Nursing Home Staffing and Its Relationship to Deficiencies Differential Benefits of Volunteering Across the Life Course Social Network Typologies and Mental Health Among Older Adults Associations of Stressors and Uplifts of Caregiving With Caregiver Burden and Depressive Mood: A Meta-Analysis » View all Most Cited articles Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department. Online ISSN 1758-5368 - Print ISSN 1079-5014 Copyright © 2015 The Gerontological Society of America Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try { var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-189672-16"); pageTracker._setDomainName(".oxfordjournals.org"); pageTracker._trackPageview(); } catch(err) {}

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The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social SciencesOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2002

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