Muscle strength, size and composition following 12 months of gender-affirming treatment in transgender individuals

Muscle strength, size and composition following 12 months of gender-affirming treatment in... Abstract Context As many sports are divided in male/female categories, governing bodies have formed regulations on the eligibility for transgender individuals to compete in these categories. Yet, the magnitude of change in muscle mass and strength with gender-affirming treatment remains insufficiently explored. Objective This study explored the effects of gender-affirming treatment on muscle function, size and composition during 12 months of therapy. Design, settings, participants In this single-center observational cohort study, untrained transgender women (TW, n=11) and transgender men (TM, n=12), approved to start gender-affirming medical interventions, underwent assessments at baseline, 4 weeks after gonadal suppression of endogenous hormones but before hormone replacement, and 4 and 12 months after treatment initiation. Main outcome measures Knee extensor and flexor strength was assessed at all examination time points, and muscle size and radiological density (using MRI and CT) at baseline and 12 months after treatment initiation. Results Thigh muscle volume increased (15%) in TM, which was paralleled by increased quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) (15%) and radiological density (6%). In TW, the corresponding parameters decreased by -5% (muscle volume) and -4% (CSA), while density remained unaltered. The TM increased strength over the assessment period, while the TW generally maintained their strength levels. Conclusions One year of gender-affirming treatment resulted in robust increases in muscle mass and strength in TM, but modest changes in TW. These findings add new knowledge on the magnitude of changes in muscle function, size and composition with cross-hormone therapy, which could be relevant when evaluating the transgender eligibility rules for athletic competitions. Gender dysphoria, Muscle mass, Skeletal muscle, Trans men, Trans women This content is only available as a PDF. Author notes Equal senior contribution © Endocrine Society 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Oxford University Press

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© Endocrine Society 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
ISSN
0021-972X
eISSN
1945-7197
DOI
10.1210/clinem/dgz247
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Context As many sports are divided in male/female categories, governing bodies have formed regulations on the eligibility for transgender individuals to compete in these categories. Yet, the magnitude of change in muscle mass and strength with gender-affirming treatment remains insufficiently explored. Objective This study explored the effects of gender-affirming treatment on muscle function, size and composition during 12 months of therapy. Design, settings, participants In this single-center observational cohort study, untrained transgender women (TW, n=11) and transgender men (TM, n=12), approved to start gender-affirming medical interventions, underwent assessments at baseline, 4 weeks after gonadal suppression of endogenous hormones but before hormone replacement, and 4 and 12 months after treatment initiation. Main outcome measures Knee extensor and flexor strength was assessed at all examination time points, and muscle size and radiological density (using MRI and CT) at baseline and 12 months after treatment initiation. Results Thigh muscle volume increased (15%) in TM, which was paralleled by increased quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) (15%) and radiological density (6%). In TW, the corresponding parameters decreased by -5% (muscle volume) and -4% (CSA), while density remained unaltered. The TM increased strength over the assessment period, while the TW generally maintained their strength levels. Conclusions One year of gender-affirming treatment resulted in robust increases in muscle mass and strength in TM, but modest changes in TW. These findings add new knowledge on the magnitude of changes in muscle function, size and composition with cross-hormone therapy, which could be relevant when evaluating the transgender eligibility rules for athletic competitions. Gender dysphoria, Muscle mass, Skeletal muscle, Trans men, Trans women This content is only available as a PDF. Author notes Equal senior contribution © Endocrine Society 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Journal

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and MetabolismOxford University Press

Published: Jun 11, 10

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