Abstract Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. These viruses were first identified as the causative agents of severe respiratory and encephalitic disease in the 1990s across Australia and Southern Asia with mortality rates reaching up to 75%. While outbreaks of Nipah and Hendra virus infections remain rare and sporadic, there is concern that Nipah virus has pandemic potential. Despite increased attention, little is understood about the neuropathogenesis of henipavirus infection. Neuropathogenesis appears to arise from dual mechanisms of vascular disease and direct parenchymal brain infection, but the relative contributions remain unknown while respiratory disease arises from vasculitis and respiratory epithelial cell infection. This review will address Nipah virus basic clinical disease, pathology, and pathogenesis with a particular focus on CNS infection and address the necessity of a model of relapsed CNS infection. Additionally, the innate immune responses to Nipah virus infection in vitro and in the CNS are reviewed as it is likely linked to any persistent CNS infection. Henipavirus, pathogenesis, acute encephalitis, relapsed/late-onset encephalitis, Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestation of Henipavirus Infection This content is only available as a PDF. © FEMS 2019. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)
Pathogens and Disease – Oxford University Press
Published: Oct 9, 20
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