Gene Sharing, Lens Crystallins and Speculations on an Eye/Ear Evolutionary Relationship

Gene Sharing, Lens Crystallins and Speculations on an Eye/Ear Evolutionary Relationship The crystallins comprise 80–90% of the water-soluble proteins of the transparent, cellular, refractive eye lens and are responsible for its optical properties. Comparative studies have established that the crystallins are surprisingly diverse and often differ among species in a taxon-specific fashion. In general, the crystallins are derived from or identical to metabolic enzymes or stress (small heat shock) proteins that are expressed to a lesser extent in other tissues where they have non-refractive roles. We call the phenomenon of having the small heat shock protein or enzyme and lens crystallin encoded in the identical gene “gene sharing”; examples include small heat shock protein/αB-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin and argininosuccinate lyase/δ2-crystallin. Lens crystallins have evolved by gene sharing in vertebrates (all) and invertebrates (cephalopods, scallops, jellyfish). Similar cis -elements and transcription factors (including Pax6 among others) appear to unify lens expression of crystallin genes in vertebrates and mollusks (especially scallops). Instead of Pax6 , cnidarians have a PaxB gene encoding a Pax2 DNA-binding paired domain and octapeptide, and a Pax6 homeodomain; PaxB appears important for ocellus (eye) development and crystallin gene expression in the cubomedusan jellyfish, Tridpedalia cystophora . Finally, we speculate on the basis of our current studies on Tripedalia that eyes and statocysts (associated with mechanoreceptors in many cnidarians and thus possibly ears in vertebrates) are evolutionarily related. Numerous examples indicate that gene sharing is widely used, consistent with changes in gene regulation being an evolutionary driving force for innovation of protein function. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article Integr. Comp. Biol. (2003) 43 (4): 492-499. doi: 10.1093/icb/43.4.492 » Abstract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Regular Article Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Piatigorsky, J. Search for related content Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue November 2015 55 (5) Alert me to new issues The Journal About the journal Publishers' Books for Review Rights & Permissions Dispatch date of the next issue This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Impact factor: 2.929 5-Yr impact factor: 3.655 Published on behalf of The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Editor-in-Chief Harold Heatwole View full editorial board For Authors Services for authors Instructions to authors Charges Online submission Submit Now! Self-archiving policy Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open Alerting Services Email table of contents Email Advance Access CiteTrack XML RSS feed Corporate Services What we offer Advertising sales Reprints Supplements var taxonomies = ("SCI00960"); Most Most Read The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time Polar Bears in a Warming Climate Causes and Consequences of Stress The relationship between egg size and fertilization success in broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates Mechanisms of Adhesion in Geckos » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Exceptional Fossil Preservation and the Cambrian Explosion Linking immune defenses and life history at the levels of the individual and the species Seminal influences: Drosophila Acps and the molecular interplay between males and females during reproduction Recent progress in understanding larval dispersal: new directions and digressions Grand challenges in organismal biology » View all Most Cited articles Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department. Online ISSN 1557-7023 - Print ISSN 1540-7063 Copyright © 2015 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 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Gene Sharing, Lens Crystallins and Speculations on an Eye/Ear Evolutionary Relationship

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
ISSN
1540-7063
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1557-7023
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10.1093/icb/43.4.492
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Abstract

The crystallins comprise 80–90% of the water-soluble proteins of the transparent, cellular, refractive eye lens and are responsible for its optical properties. Comparative studies have established that the crystallins are surprisingly diverse and often differ among species in a taxon-specific fashion. In general, the crystallins are derived from or identical to metabolic enzymes or stress (small heat shock) proteins that are expressed to a lesser extent in other tissues where they have non-refractive roles. We call the phenomenon of having the small heat shock protein or enzyme and lens crystallin encoded in the identical gene “gene sharing”; examples include small heat shock protein/αB-crystallin, α-enolase/τ-crystallin and argininosuccinate lyase/δ2-crystallin. Lens crystallins have evolved by gene sharing in vertebrates (all) and invertebrates (cephalopods, scallops, jellyfish). Similar cis -elements and transcription factors (including Pax6 among others) appear to unify lens expression of crystallin genes in vertebrates and mollusks (especially scallops). Instead of Pax6 , cnidarians have a PaxB gene encoding a Pax2 DNA-binding paired domain and octapeptide, and a Pax6 homeodomain; PaxB appears important for ocellus (eye) development and crystallin gene expression in the cubomedusan jellyfish, Tridpedalia cystophora . Finally, we speculate on the basis of our current studies on Tripedalia that eyes and statocysts (associated with mechanoreceptors in many cnidarians and thus possibly ears in vertebrates) are evolutionarily related. Numerous examples indicate that gene sharing is widely used, consistent with changes in gene regulation being an evolutionary driving force for innovation of protein function. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article Integr. Comp. Biol. (2003) 43 (4): 492-499. doi: 10.1093/icb/43.4.492 » Abstract Free Full Text (HTML) Free Full Text (PDF) Free Classifications Regular Article Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Piatigorsky, J. Search for related content Related Content Load related web page information Share Email this article CiteULike Delicious Facebook Google+ Mendeley Twitter What's this? Search this journal: Advanced » Current Issue November 2015 55 (5) Alert me to new issues The Journal About the journal Publishers' Books for Review Rights & Permissions Dispatch date of the next issue This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) We are mobile – find out more Journals Career Network Impact factor: 2.929 5-Yr impact factor: 3.655 Published on behalf of The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Editor-in-Chief Harold Heatwole View full editorial board For Authors Services for authors Instructions to authors Charges Online submission Submit Now! Self-archiving policy Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open Alerting Services Email table of contents Email Advance Access CiteTrack XML RSS feed Corporate Services What we offer Advertising sales Reprints Supplements var taxonomies = ("SCI00960"); Most Most Read The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time Polar Bears in a Warming Climate Causes and Consequences of Stress The relationship between egg size and fertilization success in broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates Mechanisms of Adhesion in Geckos » View all Most Read articles Most Cited Exceptional Fossil Preservation and the Cambrian Explosion Linking immune defenses and life history at the levels of the individual and the species Seminal influences: Drosophila Acps and the molecular interplay between males and females during reproduction Recent progress in understanding larval dispersal: new directions and digressions Grand challenges in organismal biology » View all Most Cited articles Disclaimer: Please note that abstracts for content published before 1996 were created through digital scanning and may therefore not exactly replicate the text of the original print issues. All efforts have been made to ensure accuracy, but the Publisher will not be held responsible for any remaining inaccuracies. If you require any further clarification, please contact our Customer Services Department. Online ISSN 1557-7023 - Print ISSN 1540-7063 Copyright © 2015 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology Oxford Journals Oxford University Press Site Map Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Frequently Asked Questions Other Oxford University Press sites: Oxford University Press Oxford Journals China Oxford Journals Japan Academic & Professional books Children's & Schools Books Dictionaries & Reference Dictionary of National Biography Digital Reference English Language Teaching Higher Education Textbooks International Education Unit Law Medicine Music Online Products & Publishing Oxford Bibliographies Online Oxford Dictionaries Online Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Oxford Scholarship Online Reference Rights and Permissions Resources for Retailers & Wholesalers Resources for the Healthcare Industry Very Short Introductions World's Classics function fnc_onDomLoaded() { var query_context = getQueryContext(); PF_initOIUnderbar(query_context,":QS:default","","JRN"); PF_insertOIUnderbar(0); }; if (window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', fnc_onDomLoaded, false); } else if (window.attachEvent) { window.attachEvent('onload', fnc_onDomLoaded); } var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? 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Journal

Integrative and Comparative BiologyOxford University Press

Published: Aug 1, 2003

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