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CONTROL OF SOUTHERN ARMYWORM ON STAKED TOMATO, 2010

CONTROL OF SOUTHERN ARMYWORM ON STAKED TOMATO, 2010 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 (E76) TOMATO: Solanum lycopersicum L., ‘Phoenix’ Philip A. Stansly University of Florida/ IFAS Southwest Florida Res. and Ed. Center 2686 State Road 29 North Immokalee, FL 34142-9515 Phone: (239) 658-3427 Fax: (239) 658-3469 Email: pstansly@ufl.edu Barry C. Kostyk Email: bkostyk@ufl.edu Southern armyworm (SAW): Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) Uncontrolled popualtions of SAW can be devastating to a tomato crop in southern Florida, causing defoliation, fruit damage and subsequent yield losses. This trial was conducted at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida and evaluated a wide range of products applied either as a drench, injected through the drip tape and weekly or bi-weekly foliar sprays (Table 1). Greenhouse-raised seedlings were planted 15- Sep at 18-inch spacing in raised beds on 6-ft centers, each covered with whitefaced polyethylene film. An RCB design was used with 4 replications and 14 treatments. The center row of each three-row section was left untreated throughout the experiment as a source of pest inoculum. Each plot contained 17 plants transplanted 15- Sep with three plants left between plots as an untreated buffer. A 12-3-12 granular fertilizer at a rate of 50 lb N/acre was applied preplant and soil incorporated, accounting for 25% of the seasonal application of N. The rest was fertigated daily as a 7- 0- 7 NPK liquid through drip tape with 4-inch emitter spacing. Kocide (3lbs/acre), Manzate 75 DF (1.5 lbs/acre), and Pro-phyte (4 pints/acre) were applied as needed for disease control, principally bacterial spot. All plants were treated on 17-Sep with a 120 ml soil drench of a suspension of AdmirePro at 8.5 oz per acre using an EZ-Dose® applicator at 45 PSI and a flow rate of 3.7 gpm. Durivo was applied 29-Sep the same way in designated plots. Belt and Coragen were chemogated by sectioning off each treated plot with a drip tape valve and then pressuring the drip tape with 2 liter water and injecting 3 liter of the appropriate suspension followed by 3 liter of water using a 12 volt pump operating at 0.23 gpm. Foliar insecticide treatments were applied using a high clearance sprayer with two vertical booms operating at 180 psi. Each drop boom was fitted with horizontally directed ATR 80 ® hollow cone nozzles delivering 10 gpa. As plants developed, additional nozzles were added to ensure coverage of the entire plant canopy. Ten plants per plot were inspected weekly from 13-Oct thru 1-Dec and the number of SAW larvae observed on either side of each plant was counted. Defoliation was rated as: 0 = no damage; 1=<5% damaged, 2 = between 5 and 33% damaged; 3 = between 33 and 67% damaged; and 4 = >67% damaged. Due to low infestation, an additional ten untreated plants from the center row were inspected and grouped into the untreated control plots. Eight plants from each plot were harvested on 7-Dec. Fruit size was graded as XL, large, and medium following USDA criteria. Fruit was also culled into two categories, SAW damage and other causes such as shoulder cracking, zippering etc. Two plots (one Durivo, one Vetica) were removed from the harvest analysis due to an irrigation problem that caused a significant reduction of plant quality and yield in those plots. Significant treatment effects were not seen until 3 Nov. No larvae were seen on any of those days except on untreated plants or plants treated with Belt at 3 oz/ac. A similar pattern was seen with defoliation except that treatments with no damage were limited to Voliam Express, Synapse weekly or every 2 weeks, or Vetica. Other then the Belt treatments, defoliation was only observed 3 Nov on plants treated with Voliam Flexi and on the first 3 sample dates with Radiant/Intrepid and Avaunt, although differences were significant only on 3-Nov. No significant treatment effects were seen in the number of fruit harvested in any size category, total weight or number of culls not caused by worm damage. Significant worm damage was only seen with the 0.5 oz/ac rate of Belt. No phytotoxicity was observed. This research was supported by industry gift(s) of pesticide and/or research funding. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 Table 1 Admire Pro Rate 8.5 oz Treatment/ (Product/acre) 17 Sep 29 Sep 6 Oct 12 Oct 19 Oct 20-Oct 26 Oct 2 Nov 9 Nov 16 Nov 23 Nov 30 Nov Formulation (GPA) (40) (40) (60) (80) (80) (80) (80) (80) Untreated x Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz x x Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz x x x x x Voliam Express 9.0 oz x x x x x Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz x x x x x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x x x x x Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz x x Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz x x x Belt 4SC 3.0 oz x x Belt 4SC 5.0 oz x x Belt 4SC 7.0 oz x x Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz x x x x x Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz x x x x Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz x x x x x x x x x Vetica 17.0 oz x x x x x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x x x x x Table 2 Damage Rating 0-4 Total No. Larvae per plant Treatment/ Rate Formulation (Product/acre) 3-Nov 10-Nov 17-Nov 24-Nov 1-Dec 3-Nov 17-Nov 1-Dec Untreated 0.15a 0.13ab 0.20a 0.25a 0.44a 0.38a 0.28a 0.59a Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz 0.08b 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Voliam Express 9.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b (weekly) Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b (every 2 weeks) Coragen 20 SC (1 app) 5.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Coragen 20 SC (2 app) 5.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 3.0 oz 0.08b 0.15a 0.05bc 0.08b 0.18b 0.03b 0.03b 0.13b Belt 4SC 5.0 oz 5.0 oz 0.03bc 0.08bc 0.10b 0.08b 0.10c 0.00b 0.05b 0.03b Belt 4SC 7.0 oz 7.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.05bc 0.00c 0.13bc 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz 0.03bc 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz 0.05bc 0.03cd 0.05bc 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Vetica 17.0 oz 0.00c 0.03cd 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 Table 3 Fruit harvested from 8 plants (No.) Treatment/ Rate Formulation (Product/acre) xl large med total Total wt cull armyworm Untreated 56.75 14.75 3.50 75.00 38.66 8.50 3.75a Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz 63.67 21.00 8.33 93.00 45.50 7.00 0.00b Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz 63.25 23.00 13.75 100.00 46.40 10.25 0.00b Voliam Express 9.0 oz 60.75 14.00 5.00 79.75 42.39 7.75 0.00b Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 69.75 17.25 4.25 91.25 48.15 8.50 0.00b (weekly) Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 59.50 11.00 3.50 74.00 38.90 6.00 0.50b (every 2 weeks) Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz 59.25 15.25 6.25 80.75 42.14 7.50 0.25b (1 app) Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz 65.00 18.50 4.75 88.25 43.93 7.50 0.00b (2 app) Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 3.0 oz 52.50 16.00 5.00 73.50 36.84 5.75 2.00ab Belt 4SC 5.0 oz 5.0 oz 51.00 13.25 4.50 68.75 36.84 9.50 4.75a Belt 4SC 7.0 oz 7.0 oz 54.25 21.50 7.75 83.50 38.81 8.75 0.25b Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz 58.25 15.75 4.50 78.50 40.35 4.75 0.00b Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz 61.00 12.75 3.50 77.25 39.75 7.25 0.00b Vetica 17.0 oz 75.68 18.67 4.67 99.00 52.07 6.33 0.00b http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

CONTROL OF SOUTHERN ARMYWORM ON STAKED TOMATO, 2010

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Abstract

Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 (E76) TOMATO: Solanum lycopersicum L., ‘Phoenix’ Philip A. Stansly University of Florida/ IFAS Southwest Florida Res. and Ed. Center 2686 State Road 29 North Immokalee, FL 34142-9515 Phone: (239) 658-3427 Fax: (239) 658-3469 Email: pstansly@ufl.edu Barry C. Kostyk Email: bkostyk@ufl.edu Southern armyworm (SAW): Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) Uncontrolled popualtions of SAW can be devastating to a tomato crop in southern Florida, causing defoliation, fruit damage and subsequent yield losses. This trial was conducted at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida and evaluated a wide range of products applied either as a drench, injected through the drip tape and weekly or bi-weekly foliar sprays (Table 1). Greenhouse-raised seedlings were planted 15- Sep at 18-inch spacing in raised beds on 6-ft centers, each covered with whitefaced polyethylene film. An RCB design was used with 4 replications and 14 treatments. The center row of each three-row section was left untreated throughout the experiment as a source of pest inoculum. Each plot contained 17 plants transplanted 15- Sep with three plants left between plots as an untreated buffer. A 12-3-12 granular fertilizer at a rate of 50 lb N/acre was applied preplant and soil incorporated, accounting for 25% of the seasonal application of N. The rest was fertigated daily as a 7- 0- 7 NPK liquid through drip tape with 4-inch emitter spacing. Kocide (3lbs/acre), Manzate 75 DF (1.5 lbs/acre), and Pro-phyte (4 pints/acre) were applied as needed for disease control, principally bacterial spot. All plants were treated on 17-Sep with a 120 ml soil drench of a suspension of AdmirePro at 8.5 oz per acre using an EZ-Dose® applicator at 45 PSI and a flow rate of 3.7 gpm. Durivo was applied 29-Sep the same way in designated plots. Belt and Coragen were chemogated by sectioning off each treated plot with a drip tape valve and then pressuring the drip tape with 2 liter water and injecting 3 liter of the appropriate suspension followed by 3 liter of water using a 12 volt pump operating at 0.23 gpm. Foliar insecticide treatments were applied using a high clearance sprayer with two vertical booms operating at 180 psi. Each drop boom was fitted with horizontally directed ATR 80 ® hollow cone nozzles delivering 10 gpa. As plants developed, additional nozzles were added to ensure coverage of the entire plant canopy. Ten plants per plot were inspected weekly from 13-Oct thru 1-Dec and the number of SAW larvae observed on either side of each plant was counted. Defoliation was rated as: 0 = no damage; 1=<5% damaged, 2 = between 5 and 33% damaged; 3 = between 33 and 67% damaged; and 4 = >67% damaged. Due to low infestation, an additional ten untreated plants from the center row were inspected and grouped into the untreated control plots. Eight plants from each plot were harvested on 7-Dec. Fruit size was graded as XL, large, and medium following USDA criteria. Fruit was also culled into two categories, SAW damage and other causes such as shoulder cracking, zippering etc. Two plots (one Durivo, one Vetica) were removed from the harvest analysis due to an irrigation problem that caused a significant reduction of plant quality and yield in those plots. Significant treatment effects were not seen until 3 Nov. No larvae were seen on any of those days except on untreated plants or plants treated with Belt at 3 oz/ac. A similar pattern was seen with defoliation except that treatments with no damage were limited to Voliam Express, Synapse weekly or every 2 weeks, or Vetica. Other then the Belt treatments, defoliation was only observed 3 Nov on plants treated with Voliam Flexi and on the first 3 sample dates with Radiant/Intrepid and Avaunt, although differences were significant only on 3-Nov. No significant treatment effects were seen in the number of fruit harvested in any size category, total weight or number of culls not caused by worm damage. Significant worm damage was only seen with the 0.5 oz/ac rate of Belt. No phytotoxicity was observed. This research was supported by industry gift(s) of pesticide and/or research funding. 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 Table 1 Admire Pro Rate 8.5 oz Treatment/ (Product/acre) 17 Sep 29 Sep 6 Oct 12 Oct 19 Oct 20-Oct 26 Oct 2 Nov 9 Nov 16 Nov 23 Nov 30 Nov Formulation (GPA) (40) (40) (60) (80) (80) (80) (80) (80) Untreated x Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz x x Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz x x x x x Voliam Express 9.0 oz x x x x x Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz x x x x x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x x x x x Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz x x Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz x x x Belt 4SC 3.0 oz x x Belt 4SC 5.0 oz x x Belt 4SC 7.0 oz x x Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz x x x x x Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz x x x x Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz x x x x x x x x x Vetica 17.0 oz x x x x x x x x x induce 0.25% x x x x x x x x Table 2 Damage Rating 0-4 Total No. Larvae per plant Treatment/ Rate Formulation (Product/acre) 3-Nov 10-Nov 17-Nov 24-Nov 1-Dec 3-Nov 17-Nov 1-Dec Untreated 0.15a 0.13ab 0.20a 0.25a 0.44a 0.38a 0.28a 0.59a Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz 0.08b 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Voliam Express 9.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b (weekly) Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b (every 2 weeks) Coragen 20 SC (1 app) 5.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Coragen 20 SC (2 app) 5.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 3.0 oz 0.08b 0.15a 0.05bc 0.08b 0.18b 0.03b 0.03b 0.13b Belt 4SC 5.0 oz 5.0 oz 0.03bc 0.08bc 0.10b 0.08b 0.10c 0.00b 0.05b 0.03b Belt 4SC 7.0 oz 7.0 oz 0.00c 0.00d 0.05bc 0.00c 0.13bc 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz 0.03bc 0.00d 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz 0.05bc 0.03cd 0.05bc 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b Vetica 17.0 oz 0.00c 0.03cd 0.00c 0.00c 0.00c 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 2 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E76 Table 3 Fruit harvested from 8 plants (No.) Treatment/ Rate Formulation (Product/acre) xl large med total Total wt cull armyworm Untreated 56.75 14.75 3.50 75.00 38.66 8.50 3.75a Durivo 2.5 SC 13.0 oz 63.67 21.00 8.33 93.00 45.50 7.00 0.00b Voliam Flexi 7.0 oz 63.25 23.00 13.75 100.00 46.40 10.25 0.00b Voliam Express 9.0 oz 60.75 14.00 5.00 79.75 42.39 7.75 0.00b Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 69.75 17.25 4.25 91.25 48.15 8.50 0.00b (weekly) Synapse 24WG 3.0 oz 59.50 11.00 3.50 74.00 38.90 6.00 0.50b (every 2 weeks) Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz 59.25 15.25 6.25 80.75 42.14 7.50 0.25b (1 app) Coragen 20 SC 5.0 oz 65.00 18.50 4.75 88.25 43.93 7.50 0.00b (2 app) Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 3.0 oz 52.50 16.00 5.00 73.50 36.84 5.75 2.00ab Belt 4SC 5.0 oz 5.0 oz 51.00 13.25 4.50 68.75 36.84 9.50 4.75a Belt 4SC 7.0 oz 7.0 oz 54.25 21.50 7.75 83.50 38.81 8.75 0.25b Radiant 1SC 6.0 oz 58.25 15.75 4.50 78.50 40.35 4.75 0.00b Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz Avaunt 30WG 3.5 oz 61.00 12.75 3.50 77.25 39.75 7.25 0.00b Vetica 17.0 oz 75.68 18.67 4.67 99.00 52.07 6.33 0.00b

Journal

Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2012

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