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CABBAGE ADJUVANT AND INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2011

CABBAGE ADJUVANT AND INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2011 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E17 (E17) CABBAGE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., ‘Bravo’ J. F. Walgenbach Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 jim_walgenbach@ncsu.edu S. C. Schoof Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 Flower thrips (TPS): Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) Tobacco thrips (TPS): Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) Flea beetle (FB): Epitrix spp. Cabbage looper (CL): Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) Imported cabbageworm (ICW): Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) Diamondback moth (DBM): Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Cross-striped cabbageworm (CSCW): Evergestis rimosalis (Guenée) This study was conducted at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River, NC. Six-wk-old greenhouse-grown ‘Bravo’ cabbage transplants were set on 10 May in plots consisting of 25-ft long bedded rows on 5-ft centers. In each bedded row, two rows of cabbage were planted 18 inches apart, with plants spaced 15 inches apart within rows. Treatments were replicated four times and arranged in a RCB design. Insecticide applications were made with a CO -powered backpack sprayer delivering 50 gpa. The study evaluated six treatments that included the adjuvants Greenleaf Fullcote and Kinetic with and without insecticides, plus two at-planting drench applications (Durivo and Coragen). The Durivo and Coragen drench treatments consisted of applying material with 16 oz of water per plant at planting. Treatment rates and application dates are listed in the tables. TPS and FB were monitored by beating 5 plants per plot and counting the number of insects dislodged onto an 8.5x11-inch laminated paper. Larval populations of CL, ICW, DBM, and CSCW were monitored by counting the number of insects on each of 10 heads per plot. Quality ratings were made on 20 Jul by rating 10 randomly selected heads per plot on a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 = no feeding damage, 1 = slight frame damage, 2 = slight wrapper damage, 3 = significant wrapper damage, and 4 = severe head damage. Cabbage heads receiving a rating of ≤2 were considered marketable. All data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and means were separated by LSD (α=0.05). TPS populations were high in this trial, averaging 37.8 thrips per 5 plants on foliar treatments on 20 May, before applications were started (Table 1). On this date the two drench treatments had significantly fewer TPS compared to non-treated plots, with Durivo having significantly fewer (1.5 per 5 plants) than Coragen (17.8 per 5 plants). After foliar treatments began, all materials significantly reduced TPS populations below the check, with the Coragen and adjuvant-only treatments being less effective than the Durivo and adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments (Warrior on 23 May). FB populations were low, with <1 per plant until 30 Jun, when populations were unexplainably higher in the Durivo and Fullcote-only treatments than the check, although overall beetle numbers were very low. CL populations were very low, with a season total of only 1.8 larvae per plant in the check (Table 2). While numbers were too low to accurately gauge treatment efficacy, numbers were lower in treatments that received foliar insecticide versus the adjuvant-only or drench treatments. ICW were more numerous, with a mean season total of approximately 14 larvae per 10 plants in the check. The adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments were the only ones to significantly reduce larval counts below the check. Populations of DBM and CSCW were extremely low throughout the trial. When cabbage was quality-rated on 20 Jul, the adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments resulted in the best quality ratings and 100.0% marketable heads. Ratings and marketability were lowest in the check and adjuvant only treatments. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E17 Table 1. TPS/5 plants FB/plant Treatment (Rate/A) 20 May 25 May 3 Jun Total 3 Jun 9 Jun 16 Jun 30 Jun Total GL Fullcote (0.25%) + Insecticide 35.8cd 5.5a 1.0a 42.3b 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 0.4ab 0.8ab GL Fullcote (0.5%) + Insecticide 41.5cd 1.8a 1.8a 45.0bc 0.1a 0.1a 0.3a 0.8abc 1.1abc GL Fullcote (0.5%), No Insecticide 33.0bc 26.5b 3.8a 63.3cd 0.1a 0.2a 0.4a 1.9d 2.5d Kinetic (0.5%) + Insecticide 49.8d 2.0a 1.3a 53.0bc 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 0.2a 0.6a Kinetic (0.5%), No Insecticide 29.8bc 24.8b 6.8a 61.3c 0.1a 0.1a 0.6a 1.0bc 1.7bcd Durivo (10 fl oz) 1.5a 1.8a 0.5a 3.8a 0.1a 0.1a 0.2a 1.4cd 1.8cd Coragen (5 fl oz) 17.8b 20.0b 3.8a 41.5b 0.1a 0.1a 0.4a 0.9abc 1.5abc Check 36.8cd 42.5c 2.3a 81.5d 0.1a 0.1a 0.1a 0.6ab 0.9ab Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (α = 0.05). Insecticides applied with adjuvant treatments were Warrior 1CS (2.56 oz/A) on 23 and 31 May and 13 Jul, Radiant 1SC (6 oz/A) on 31, 6 and 29 Jun, Coragen 1.67SC (4 oz/A) on 13 Jun, and Avaunt 35WDG (3 oz/A) on 22 Jun and 6 Jul. Durivo and Coragen were applied as drench treatments at planting (10 May) at 10 oz/A and 5 oz/A, respectively. Table 2. Mean larvae per 10 plants Head quality Treatment CL ICW DBM CSCW Rating % Market. GL Fullcote (0.25%) + Insecticide 0.3a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.2a 100.0c GL Fullcote (0.5%) + Insecticide 0.3a 0.5a 0.0a 0.0a 0.1a 100.0c GL Fullcote (0.5%), No Insecticide 2.8b 17.5c 0.3a 0.8a 2.9cd 12.5a Kinetic (0.5%) + Insecticide 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.2a 100.0c Kinetic (0.5%), No Insecticide 2.0ab 8.8b 0.3a 0.0a 3.1d 2.5a Durivo (10 fl oz) 1.5ab 10.5b 0.0a 0.0a 2.5bc 42.5b Coragen (5 fl oz) 3.8b 11.3b 0.0a 0.0a 2.2b 55.0b Check 1.8ab 13.8bc 0.3a 0.0a 3.3d 0.0a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05). Data were transformed by sqrt(x+1). Data presented are back transformations. Insecticides applied with adjuvant treatments were Warrior 1CS (2.56 oz/A) on 23 and 31 May and 13 Jul, Radiant 1SC (6 oz/A) on 31, 6 and 29 Jun, Coragen 1.67SC (4 oz/A) on 13 Jun, and Avaunt 35WDG (3 oz/A) on 22 Jun and 6 Jul. Durivo (10 oz/A) and Coragen (5 oz/A) were applied as drench treatments at planting on 10 May. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Arthropod Management Tests Oxford University Press

CABBAGE ADJUVANT AND INSECTICIDE TRIAL, 2011

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Abstract

Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E17 (E17) CABBAGE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata L., ‘Bravo’ J. F. Walgenbach Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 jim_walgenbach@ncsu.edu S. C. Schoof Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center 455 Research Drive Mills River, NC 28759 (828) 684-3562 Flower thrips (TPS): Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) Tobacco thrips (TPS): Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) Flea beetle (FB): Epitrix spp. Cabbage looper (CL): Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) Imported cabbageworm (ICW): Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) Diamondback moth (DBM): Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Cross-striped cabbageworm (CSCW): Evergestis rimosalis (Guenée) This study was conducted at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station in Mills River, NC. Six-wk-old greenhouse-grown ‘Bravo’ cabbage transplants were set on 10 May in plots consisting of 25-ft long bedded rows on 5-ft centers. In each bedded row, two rows of cabbage were planted 18 inches apart, with plants spaced 15 inches apart within rows. Treatments were replicated four times and arranged in a RCB design. Insecticide applications were made with a CO -powered backpack sprayer delivering 50 gpa. The study evaluated six treatments that included the adjuvants Greenleaf Fullcote and Kinetic with and without insecticides, plus two at-planting drench applications (Durivo and Coragen). The Durivo and Coragen drench treatments consisted of applying material with 16 oz of water per plant at planting. Treatment rates and application dates are listed in the tables. TPS and FB were monitored by beating 5 plants per plot and counting the number of insects dislodged onto an 8.5x11-inch laminated paper. Larval populations of CL, ICW, DBM, and CSCW were monitored by counting the number of insects on each of 10 heads per plot. Quality ratings were made on 20 Jul by rating 10 randomly selected heads per plot on a scale of 0 to 4, where 0 = no feeding damage, 1 = slight frame damage, 2 = slight wrapper damage, 3 = significant wrapper damage, and 4 = severe head damage. Cabbage heads receiving a rating of ≤2 were considered marketable. All data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and means were separated by LSD (α=0.05). TPS populations were high in this trial, averaging 37.8 thrips per 5 plants on foliar treatments on 20 May, before applications were started (Table 1). On this date the two drench treatments had significantly fewer TPS compared to non-treated plots, with Durivo having significantly fewer (1.5 per 5 plants) than Coragen (17.8 per 5 plants). After foliar treatments began, all materials significantly reduced TPS populations below the check, with the Coragen and adjuvant-only treatments being less effective than the Durivo and adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments (Warrior on 23 May). FB populations were low, with <1 per plant until 30 Jun, when populations were unexplainably higher in the Durivo and Fullcote-only treatments than the check, although overall beetle numbers were very low. CL populations were very low, with a season total of only 1.8 larvae per plant in the check (Table 2). While numbers were too low to accurately gauge treatment efficacy, numbers were lower in treatments that received foliar insecticide versus the adjuvant-only or drench treatments. ICW were more numerous, with a mean season total of approximately 14 larvae per 10 plants in the check. The adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments were the only ones to significantly reduce larval counts below the check. Populations of DBM and CSCW were extremely low throughout the trial. When cabbage was quality-rated on 20 Jul, the adjuvant-plus-insecticide treatments resulted in the best quality ratings and 100.0% marketable heads. Ratings and marketability were lowest in the check and adjuvant only treatments. This research was supported by industry gifts of pesticide and research funding 1 Arthropod Management Tests 2012, Vol. 37 doi: 10.4182/amt.2012.E17 Table 1. TPS/5 plants FB/plant Treatment (Rate/A) 20 May 25 May 3 Jun Total 3 Jun 9 Jun 16 Jun 30 Jun Total GL Fullcote (0.25%) + Insecticide 35.8cd 5.5a 1.0a 42.3b 0.0a 0.2a 0.2a 0.4ab 0.8ab GL Fullcote (0.5%) + Insecticide 41.5cd 1.8a 1.8a 45.0bc 0.1a 0.1a 0.3a 0.8abc 1.1abc GL Fullcote (0.5%), No Insecticide 33.0bc 26.5b 3.8a 63.3cd 0.1a 0.2a 0.4a 1.9d 2.5d Kinetic (0.5%) + Insecticide 49.8d 2.0a 1.3a 53.0bc 0.0a 0.0a 0.4a 0.2a 0.6a Kinetic (0.5%), No Insecticide 29.8bc 24.8b 6.8a 61.3c 0.1a 0.1a 0.6a 1.0bc 1.7bcd Durivo (10 fl oz) 1.5a 1.8a 0.5a 3.8a 0.1a 0.1a 0.2a 1.4cd 1.8cd Coragen (5 fl oz) 17.8b 20.0b 3.8a 41.5b 0.1a 0.1a 0.4a 0.9abc 1.5abc Check 36.8cd 42.5c 2.3a 81.5d 0.1a 0.1a 0.1a 0.6ab 0.9ab Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (α = 0.05). Insecticides applied with adjuvant treatments were Warrior 1CS (2.56 oz/A) on 23 and 31 May and 13 Jul, Radiant 1SC (6 oz/A) on 31, 6 and 29 Jun, Coragen 1.67SC (4 oz/A) on 13 Jun, and Avaunt 35WDG (3 oz/A) on 22 Jun and 6 Jul. Durivo and Coragen were applied as drench treatments at planting (10 May) at 10 oz/A and 5 oz/A, respectively. Table 2. Mean larvae per 10 plants Head quality Treatment CL ICW DBM CSCW Rating % Market. GL Fullcote (0.25%) + Insecticide 0.3a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.2a 100.0c GL Fullcote (0.5%) + Insecticide 0.3a 0.5a 0.0a 0.0a 0.1a 100.0c GL Fullcote (0.5%), No Insecticide 2.8b 17.5c 0.3a 0.8a 2.9cd 12.5a Kinetic (0.5%) + Insecticide 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.2a 100.0c Kinetic (0.5%), No Insecticide 2.0ab 8.8b 0.3a 0.0a 3.1d 2.5a Durivo (10 fl oz) 1.5ab 10.5b 0.0a 0.0a 2.5bc 42.5b Coragen (5 fl oz) 3.8b 11.3b 0.0a 0.0a 2.2b 55.0b Check 1.8ab 13.8bc 0.3a 0.0a 3.3d 0.0a Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD (P = 0.05). Data were transformed by sqrt(x+1). Data presented are back transformations. Insecticides applied with adjuvant treatments were Warrior 1CS (2.56 oz/A) on 23 and 31 May and 13 Jul, Radiant 1SC (6 oz/A) on 31, 6 and 29 Jun, Coragen 1.67SC (4 oz/A) on 13 Jun, and Avaunt 35WDG (3 oz/A) on 22 Jun and 6 Jul. Durivo (10 oz/A) and Coragen (5 oz/A) were applied as drench treatments at planting on 10 May.

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Arthropod Management TestsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2012

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