Active case-finding for malaria: A three-year national evaluation of optimal approaches to detect infections and hotspots through reactive case detection in the low transmission setting of Eswatini

Active case-finding for malaria: A three-year national evaluation of optimal approaches to detect... Abstract Background Reactive case detection (RACD) is a widely practiced malaria elimination intervention whereby close contacts of index cases receive malaria testing to inform treatment and other interventions. However, the optimal diagnostic and operational approaches for this resource-intensive strategy are not clear. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective national evaluation of RACD in Eswatini, a malaria elimination setting. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was compared to traditional rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the improved detection of infections, and hotspots (RACD events yielding ≥1 additional infection). The potential for index case-, RACD-, and individual-level factors to improve efficiencies was also evaluated. Results Among 377 RACD events, 10,890 participants residing within 500 meters of index cases were tested. Compared to RDT, LAMP provided a 3- and 2.3-fold higher yield to detect infections (1.7% vs. 0.6%) and hotspots (29.7% vs. 12.7%), respectively. Hotspot detection improved with ≥80% target population coverage and response times within 7 days. Proximity to the index case was associated with a dose-dependent increased infection risk (up to 4-fold). Individual-, index case-, and other RACD-level factors were considered but the simple approach of restricting RACD to a 200-meter radius maximized yield and efficiency. Conclusions We present the first large-scale national evaluation of optimal RACD approaches from a malaria elimination setting. To inform delivery of antimalarial drugs or other interventions, RACD when conducted should utilize more sensitive diagnostics and clear context-specific operational parameters. Future studies of RACD’s impact on transmission may still be needed. malaria elimination, reactive case detection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, Eswatini, efficiency This content is only available as a PDF. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Clinical Infectious Diseases Oxford University Press

Active case-finding for malaria: A three-year national evaluation of optimal approaches to detect infections and hotspots through reactive case detection in the low transmission setting of Eswatini

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
ISSN
1058-4838
eISSN
1537-6591
D.O.I.
10.1093/cid/ciz403
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Background Reactive case detection (RACD) is a widely practiced malaria elimination intervention whereby close contacts of index cases receive malaria testing to inform treatment and other interventions. However, the optimal diagnostic and operational approaches for this resource-intensive strategy are not clear. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective national evaluation of RACD in Eswatini, a malaria elimination setting. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was compared to traditional rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the improved detection of infections, and hotspots (RACD events yielding ≥1 additional infection). The potential for index case-, RACD-, and individual-level factors to improve efficiencies was also evaluated. Results Among 377 RACD events, 10,890 participants residing within 500 meters of index cases were tested. Compared to RDT, LAMP provided a 3- and 2.3-fold higher yield to detect infections (1.7% vs. 0.6%) and hotspots (29.7% vs. 12.7%), respectively. Hotspot detection improved with ≥80% target population coverage and response times within 7 days. Proximity to the index case was associated with a dose-dependent increased infection risk (up to 4-fold). Individual-, index case-, and other RACD-level factors were considered but the simple approach of restricting RACD to a 200-meter radius maximized yield and efficiency. Conclusions We present the first large-scale national evaluation of optimal RACD approaches from a malaria elimination setting. To inform delivery of antimalarial drugs or other interventions, RACD when conducted should utilize more sensitive diagnostics and clear context-specific operational parameters. Future studies of RACD’s impact on transmission may still be needed. malaria elimination, reactive case detection, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, Eswatini, efficiency This content is only available as a PDF. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Journal

Clinical Infectious DiseasesOxford University Press

Published: Nov 9, 21

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