Xenotransplantation—current status and prospects and looking behind the bars: emerging health issues for people in prison

Xenotransplantation—current status and prospects and looking behind the bars: emerging health... These important subjects have full free online access. In addition, the Bulletin has a section to celebrate its archive, (see end of ‘In this Issue’). The first review: Xenotransplantation—current status and prospects (pages 5) was chosen because of its importance in organ transplantation. It is by Cooper, Gaston. Eckhoff, Ladowski, Yamamoto, Wang, Iwase, Hara, Tector and Tector from The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Centre, USA. They make the point that there is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients. Genetically-engineered pigs could resolve this problem and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and corneal blindness. Life-supporting pig kidneys and islets have functioned for months or years in nonhuman primates. The potential risk of transfer of a pig infectious microorganism to the recipient continues to be debated but increased attention is being paid to selection of patients for initial clinical trials. The second chosen free-to-view review is entitled: Looking behind the bars: emerging health issues for people in prison (pages 15) by Stürup-Toft, O’Moore and Plugge from Public Health England, UK. They say there are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. However, deaths in custody are a key concern for the justice system as well as the health system. Suicide is the leading cause of mortality in prisons worldwide but non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, are increasing in importance and are now the leading cause of mortality. In the rest of the Bulletin, the third review is entitled: Control of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (pages 25) by Henderson and Nimmo from the University of Queensland and Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. They state that health care adapted methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remain high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies. Universal screening, universal decolonisation, and contact precautions for HA-MRSA control are supported by less evidence. Antimicrobial stewardship is promising, as is the role of whole genome sequencing in characterizing transmission. The fourth review is entitled: A review of systemic anticancer therapy in disease palliation (pages 43) by Usborne and Mullard from Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Wales, UK They say that Systemic anticancer therapy (SACT) is a collective term to describe the growing number of differing therapies used in malignancy to achieve palliation. Improving symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and where possible quantity of life are the goals of these treatments. The use of palliative SACT can lead to increases in symptom control, QOL and survival. The breadth of treatable cancers has increased along with the number of therapeutic options. The increasing use of SACT in the last weeks of life and the lack of consistency about the terms Supportive Care / Best Supportive Care in the trial setting are more controversial. The fifth review is entitled: Managing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (pages 55) by Zac-Varghese and Winocour from Howlands Welwyn Garden City, UK. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease. Multiple risk factor reduction targeting glycaemic control, blood pressure control, dyslipidaemia, smoking and management of obesity are important in preventing and managing DKD. Guidelines disagree on the individualized glycaemic targets for patients with diabetic kidney disease. The use of novel anti-hyperglycaemic agents, particularly sodium glucose co-transporter two inhibitors and receptor agonists, has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease and DKD. The sixth review is entitled: Current issues in the impact of transport on health (pages 67) by van Schalkwyk and Mindell from Health and Social Surveys Research Group, London. UK, They say that transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Controversial areas include the use of biofuels, cycle safety and driving by older people. The effects of default 20 mph speed limits and the impact of autonomous vehicles on health and inequalities are discussed. The seventh review is: Utility of intracoronary imaging in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (pages 79) by Parviz, Shlofmitz, Fall, Konigstein, Maehara, Jeremias, Shlofmitz, Mintz, and Ali from Columbia University, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation and St Francis Hospital, New York, USA. They say that intracoronary imaging is an important tool for guiding decision making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Coronary angiography has been considered the gold standard test appropriately to diagnose and manage patients with coronary artery disease, but it has the inherent limitation of being 2D. Intracoronary imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy while optimizing the results of an intervention. Increased costs, resources, time and expertise have been cited as explanations for low incorporation of these techniques. The benefits of intravascular imaging are becoming more profound as the complexity of cases suitable for revascularization increases. The eighth review is entitled Devices in heart failure; diagnosis, detection and disease modification (pages 91) by Gierula, Kearney and Witte from the University of Leeds, UK. They say that Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies. Excessive right ventricular pacing is detrimental to cardiac function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is beneficial in specific individuals with CHF. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators might not benefit all. Remote monitoring seems not to be of benefit in CHF. The ninth review is entitled: Past, present, and future of nitrous oxide (pages 103) by Lew, McKay and Maze from the University of California, USA. They say that for a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxides’ (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents. N2O greenhouse gas effect and its inhibition of key enzymes involved in protein and DNA synthesis have provided further fuel for those intent on eliminating its clinical use. The use of N2O for treatment resistant depression has gained traction. Comparative studies for N2O’s role in combatting the prescription opioid analgesic epidemic may well provide further clinical impetus. The 10th review is entitled: Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in former male professional soccer players (pages 121) by Petrillo, Papalia, Maffulli Volpi and Denaro from the Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome the University of Salerno, Italy the Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. They say that professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. In PS players, the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee is significantly higher compared to age and sex matched controls. The pathological pathways responsible for the development of OA of the hip and knee in PS athletes are still not clearly understood. Preventive training programmes should be developed to reduce the number of players presenting early OA. The 11th review is entitled: The role of the food industry in health: lessons from tobacco? (pages 131) by Capewell and Lloyd Williams from the University of Liverpool, UK. They say that diet is the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. They examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Global burden of disease analyses consistently demonstrate that poor diet produces a bigger burden of non-communicable disease than tobacco, alcohol and inactivity put together. Food industries continue to promote weak or ineffective policies such as voluntary reformulation, and resist regulation and taxation. There is increasing interest in the tactics being used by the food industry to resist change. The 12th review is entitled An analysis of physician-administered euthanasia in The Netherlands: (pages 145) by Preston from Living and Dying Well, a UK Charity. He says that physician-administered euthanasia (PAE) was legalized, along with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), in The Netherlands in 2001. There is a general openness about the practice of PAE/PAS in The Netherlands and an avoidance of misleading euphemisms. The 2001 law also includes arrangements for post-event review of PAE/PAS decisions. There has been movement away from the principle that euthanasia must take place within an established doctor-patient relationship. The predominance of PAE over PAS where both are legalised raises questions over how these two acts are perceived and whether there are implications for such laws From the archive The British Medical Bulletin (BMB) has an extensive archive dating back to 1943. The journal is publishing selected papers from that archive. This quarter we have a piece, the front page of which can be accessed directly online, and the rest read in the link below. This quarter we have a review entitled ‘Hospital Infection: a historical review’, by Robert Cruikshank, at one time my Professor in Edinburgh. I thought this might be of interest comparing the concerns about hospital infection then and now. The original link is: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a071061. You can access these collected articles more easily and more fully by visiting the ‘Highlights from the BMB Archive’ collection: (http://bit.ly/2nTsFIH). Enjoy! NJV January 2018 © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png British Medical Bulletin Oxford University Press

Xenotransplantation—current status and prospects and looking behind the bars: emerging health issues for people in prison

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© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
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0007-1420
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Abstract

These important subjects have full free online access. In addition, the Bulletin has a section to celebrate its archive, (see end of ‘In this Issue’). The first review: Xenotransplantation—current status and prospects (pages 5) was chosen because of its importance in organ transplantation. It is by Cooper, Gaston. Eckhoff, Ladowski, Yamamoto, Wang, Iwase, Hara, Tector and Tector from The University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Centre, USA. They make the point that there is a continuing worldwide shortage of organs from deceased human donors for transplantation into patients. Genetically-engineered pigs could resolve this problem and could also provide tissues and cells for the treatment of conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and corneal blindness. Life-supporting pig kidneys and islets have functioned for months or years in nonhuman primates. The potential risk of transfer of a pig infectious microorganism to the recipient continues to be debated but increased attention is being paid to selection of patients for initial clinical trials. The second chosen free-to-view review is entitled: Looking behind the bars: emerging health issues for people in prison (pages 15) by Stürup-Toft, O’Moore and Plugge from Public Health England, UK. They say there are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. However, deaths in custody are a key concern for the justice system as well as the health system. Suicide is the leading cause of mortality in prisons worldwide but non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, are increasing in importance and are now the leading cause of mortality. In the rest of the Bulletin, the third review is entitled: Control of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA (pages 25) by Henderson and Nimmo from the University of Queensland and Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. They state that health care adapted methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remain high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. The use of targeted screening and decolonization, hand hygiene and antimicrobial stewardship is supported by the most robust studies. Universal screening, universal decolonisation, and contact precautions for HA-MRSA control are supported by less evidence. Antimicrobial stewardship is promising, as is the role of whole genome sequencing in characterizing transmission. The fourth review is entitled: A review of systemic anticancer therapy in disease palliation (pages 43) by Usborne and Mullard from Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Wales, UK They say that Systemic anticancer therapy (SACT) is a collective term to describe the growing number of differing therapies used in malignancy to achieve palliation. Improving symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and where possible quantity of life are the goals of these treatments. The use of palliative SACT can lead to increases in symptom control, QOL and survival. The breadth of treatable cancers has increased along with the number of therapeutic options. The increasing use of SACT in the last weeks of life and the lack of consistency about the terms Supportive Care / Best Supportive Care in the trial setting are more controversial. The fifth review is entitled: Managing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (pages 55) by Zac-Varghese and Winocour from Howlands Welwyn Garden City, UK. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease. Multiple risk factor reduction targeting glycaemic control, blood pressure control, dyslipidaemia, smoking and management of obesity are important in preventing and managing DKD. Guidelines disagree on the individualized glycaemic targets for patients with diabetic kidney disease. The use of novel anti-hyperglycaemic agents, particularly sodium glucose co-transporter two inhibitors and receptor agonists, has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease and DKD. The sixth review is entitled: Current issues in the impact of transport on health (pages 67) by van Schalkwyk and Mindell from Health and Social Surveys Research Group, London. UK, They say that transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Controversial areas include the use of biofuels, cycle safety and driving by older people. The effects of default 20 mph speed limits and the impact of autonomous vehicles on health and inequalities are discussed. The seventh review is: Utility of intracoronary imaging in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (pages 79) by Parviz, Shlofmitz, Fall, Konigstein, Maehara, Jeremias, Shlofmitz, Mintz, and Ali from Columbia University, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation and St Francis Hospital, New York, USA. They say that intracoronary imaging is an important tool for guiding decision making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Coronary angiography has been considered the gold standard test appropriately to diagnose and manage patients with coronary artery disease, but it has the inherent limitation of being 2D. Intracoronary imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy while optimizing the results of an intervention. Increased costs, resources, time and expertise have been cited as explanations for low incorporation of these techniques. The benefits of intravascular imaging are becoming more profound as the complexity of cases suitable for revascularization increases. The eighth review is entitled Devices in heart failure; diagnosis, detection and disease modification (pages 91) by Gierula, Kearney and Witte from the University of Leeds, UK. They say that Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies. Excessive right ventricular pacing is detrimental to cardiac function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is beneficial in specific individuals with CHF. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators might not benefit all. Remote monitoring seems not to be of benefit in CHF. The ninth review is entitled: Past, present, and future of nitrous oxide (pages 103) by Lew, McKay and Maze from the University of California, USA. They say that for a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxides’ (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents. N2O greenhouse gas effect and its inhibition of key enzymes involved in protein and DNA synthesis have provided further fuel for those intent on eliminating its clinical use. The use of N2O for treatment resistant depression has gained traction. Comparative studies for N2O’s role in combatting the prescription opioid analgesic epidemic may well provide further clinical impetus. The 10th review is entitled: Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in former male professional soccer players (pages 121) by Petrillo, Papalia, Maffulli Volpi and Denaro from the Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome the University of Salerno, Italy the Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. They say that professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. In PS players, the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee is significantly higher compared to age and sex matched controls. The pathological pathways responsible for the development of OA of the hip and knee in PS athletes are still not clearly understood. Preventive training programmes should be developed to reduce the number of players presenting early OA. The 11th review is entitled: The role of the food industry in health: lessons from tobacco? (pages 131) by Capewell and Lloyd Williams from the University of Liverpool, UK. They say that diet is the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. They examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Global burden of disease analyses consistently demonstrate that poor diet produces a bigger burden of non-communicable disease than tobacco, alcohol and inactivity put together. Food industries continue to promote weak or ineffective policies such as voluntary reformulation, and resist regulation and taxation. There is increasing interest in the tactics being used by the food industry to resist change. The 12th review is entitled An analysis of physician-administered euthanasia in The Netherlands: (pages 145) by Preston from Living and Dying Well, a UK Charity. He says that physician-administered euthanasia (PAE) was legalized, along with physician-assisted suicide (PAS), in The Netherlands in 2001. There is a general openness about the practice of PAE/PAS in The Netherlands and an avoidance of misleading euphemisms. The 2001 law also includes arrangements for post-event review of PAE/PAS decisions. There has been movement away from the principle that euthanasia must take place within an established doctor-patient relationship. The predominance of PAE over PAS where both are legalised raises questions over how these two acts are perceived and whether there are implications for such laws From the archive The British Medical Bulletin (BMB) has an extensive archive dating back to 1943. The journal is publishing selected papers from that archive. This quarter we have a piece, the front page of which can be accessed directly online, and the rest read in the link below. This quarter we have a review entitled ‘Hospital Infection: a historical review’, by Robert Cruikshank, at one time my Professor in Edinburgh. I thought this might be of interest comparing the concerns about hospital infection then and now. The original link is: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a071061. You can access these collected articles more easily and more fully by visiting the ‘Highlights from the BMB Archive’ collection: (http://bit.ly/2nTsFIH). Enjoy! NJV January 2018 © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Journal

British Medical BulletinOxford University Press

Published: Mar 1, 2018

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