Abstract Diabetes prevention is a public-health priority. Vitamin D supplementation may help prevent the development of diabetes in persons at increased risk. We performed a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials that assessed glycemic outcome measures among adults at-risk for type 2 diabetes, including prediabetes, overweight or obesity. We searched PUBMED/ MEDLINE, CINAHL and Google Scholar databases for trials published prior to April 2017. Placebo-controlled clinical trials with random allocation to vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation were selected. Data collection included country, study design, inclusion criteria, sample size, form and dose of vitamin D, supplementation interval, control group, duration, participant characteristics, comorbidities, baseline and follow-up serum 25(OH)D concentration and available outcome measures (HbA1c, FPG, 2HPG, HOMA-IR). Data synthesis was conducted using random effect models (PROSPERO registration: CRD42017055326). 28 trials, representing 3,848 participants, met the eligibility criteria. Compared with the control group, vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c level by -0.48% (95% Confidence Interval, -0.79 to -0.18), fasting plasma glucose level by -0.46 mmol/L (95% Confidence Interval, -0.74 to -0.19) and HOMA-IR level by -0.39 (95% Confidence Interval, -0.68 to -0.11). Subgroup analysis revealed that the effects of vitamin D supplementation on different glycemic measures were influenced by age, calcium co-administration, vitamin D deficiency, serum 25(OH)D level after supplementation and duration of supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation and improved vitamin D status improved glycemic measures and insulin sensitivity, and may be useful as part of a preventive strategy for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society This article has been published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial, No-Derivatives License (CC BY-NC-ND; https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Journal of the Endocrine Society – Oxford University Press
Published: May 25, 2018
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