AbstractOBJECTIVE:In this study, a nonimmunogenic, acellular, dermal collagen matrix termed XenoDerm (LifeCell Corp., The Woodlands, TX) was examined for use as a dural replacement material in a porcine model. This model was used to investigate whether AlloDerm (LifeCell), an almost identical material made from human dermis, could be safely used in neurological surgery.METHODS:Bilateral temporoparietal dural defects were surgically created in 12 Yucatan minipigs. One side was repaired with autologous pericranium, and the other was repaired with XenoDerm. The pigs were killed after 1, 3, or 6 months, and the areas of dural repair were collected and examined macroscopically and histologically. XenoDerm is derived from porcine skin collected in thin sheets. It is processed so that the epidermis and all dermal cells are removed without disruption of the collagen matrix, rendering the material immunogenically inert and resistant to calcification. It is packaged as a freeze-dried sheet and is easily rehydrated at the time of surgery.RESULTS:There were no postoperative complications, and all pigs survived. Both grafts performed well as dural replacements in all cases. There was no macroscopic evidence of inflammation or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The XenoDerm grafts were intact, retained their original dimensions, and resembled the surrounding dura. The autologous pericranial grafts, in contrast, were thicker than when implanted and had bony excrescences firmly adhering to their surfaces. Again, however, there was no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid fistulae. There was no gross adherence to the underlying meninges or brain tissue in any specimen. Repopulation by fibroblasts and neovascularization were evident in the XenoDerm grafts as early as 1 month after surgery; by 3 months, the XenoDerm had been remodeled to assume the connective tissue appearance of the surrounding dura.CONCLUSION:In this porcine model, an allograft of acellular dermis is a nearly ideal dural replacement. AlloDerm, the human equivalent of XenoDerm, would be an allograft of acellular dermis after implantation in human subjects. On the basis of this study and previous work with AlloDerm in other reconstructive applications, it is proposed that this material could be similarly used for duraplasty in human subjects.
Neurosurgery – Oxford University Press
Published: Aug 1, 1999
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