Abstract Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can kill gametes that lack them by causing chromosomal breakage to ensure their preferential transmission, and have been exploited in genetic breeding. The present study investigated the possible roles of small RNAs (sRNA) in Gc action. By sequencing two small RNA libraries from the anthers of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and Chinese Spring-Gc 3C chromosome monosomic addition line (CS-3C), we identified 239 conserved and 72 putative novel microRNAs (miRNAs), including 135 differentially expressed miRNAs. These miRNAs were predicted to target multiple genes with various molecular functions relevant to the features of Gc action, including sterility and genome instability. The transgenic overexpression of miRNA, which was upregulated in CS-3C, reduced rice fertility. The CS-3C line exhibited a genome-wide reduction in 24-nt siRNAs compared with that of the CS line, particularly in transposable element (TE) and repetitive DNA sequences. Corresponding to this reduction, the bisulfite sequencing analysis of four retro-TE sequences showed a decrease in CHH methylation, typical of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). These results demonstrate that both miRNA-directed regulation of gene expression and siRNA-directed DNA methylation of target TE loci could play a role in Gc action. chromosomal breakage, DNA methylation, fertility, gametocidal action, microRNA, siRNA, Triticum aestivum © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)
Journal of Experimental Botany – Oxford University Press
Published: May 11, 2018
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