The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum: A monument to the ‘Lancashire hero’ at home, at war, and abroad (1810–1840)

The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum: A monument to the ‘Lancashire hero’ at home, at war, and... Abstract The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum was a Lancashire country house museum, formed by two generations of the Crossley family of Scaitcliffe Hall, Todmorden c.1810–40, and dispersed at auction in Leeds in 1892. But details of the works in the collection, bound into seven folio volumes, along with an index volume to the entire collection, survived in collateral descent until 2011 when the last owner died. Enough documentation remains, in a private collection, to enable a tentative reconstruction of the museum, to examine the motives of the Crossley family in founding it and the way in which the collection was implemented; it also allows us to form comparisons with other contemporary northern country house museums and armouries such as Sir Walter Scott’s at Abbotsford and Thomas Lister Parker’s at Browsholme. By 1904, only twelve years after its final dissolution, the Scaitcliffe museum was completely forgotten – not even accorded a mention in Sir David Murray’s monumental Museums, their History and their Use. The country house museum The subject of the country house museum in the British Isles has not received a great deal of scholarly attention, compared with other early museum studies. Nor has the collection of arms and armour as an important element of interior decoration, in the context of the private museum, been much considered until the late Clive Wainwright’s pioneering The Romantic Interior, where five houses – Strawberry Hill, Fonthill, Abbotsford, Goodrich Court and Charlecote Park – are all examined in detail.1 An article in Country Life, in October 1985, by Sarah Bevan discussed earlier displays of arms such as the civil war Popham armoury at Littlecote, Wiltshire, and the early eighteenth-century armouries at Boughton House, Northamptonshire, and that of the Earl of Stanhope at Chevening House, Kent.2 Adrienne Kaeppler’s continued research into the dispersal of ethnographic artefacts from Cook’s voyages, in her Holophusicon,3 unearthed a number of forgotten English country house museums such as Bidwell House, Widdicombe House, and Wortham Manor, all in Devon, where some of these objects found a home. More recently the examination of the history and contents of the Cobbe family cabinet, an Anglo-Irish museum established at Newbridge, near Dublin in the eighteenth century and relocated to Hatchlands Park, Surrey, has brought together contributions by experts in many fields, under the editorship of Arthur MacGregor. The introductory survey by MacGregor also covers the current state of our knowledge of these museums, especially in their devotion to natural history, and opens up the little-known history of collecting in Ireland.4 Scaitcliffe Hall Scaitcliffe Hall, the seat of the Crossley family for many generations, is off the Burnley Road, a couple of miles from Todmorden in Calderdale. It is described as a house of 1666 with additions of 1738, substantially altered in 1833–5 with attractive Gothic glazing and an added bay of c.1850 (Fig. 1).5 When the hall was rebuilt in the 1830s, after James Crossley senior had died, the armoury and museum was probably rehoused and after 1838 (as watermarked) the paper archive of the museum was organized in a series of seven folio albums; letters and papers, prints and posters, were mounted on stubs (the backing paper for letters in vol. i is watermarked John Livesey 1821) and bound up in albums of red morocco, or russia leather, lettered in gilt on the spines and upper covers, with suitably Gothic ornamentation (see Fig. 6). Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Anonymous postcard. Scaitcliffe Hall, near Todmorden. Circa 1900. Courtesy of Hartleys of Ilkley, Auctioneers. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Anonymous postcard. Scaitcliffe Hall, near Todmorden. Circa 1900. Courtesy of Hartleys of Ilkley, Auctioneers. The setting of the hall is a wooded valley, though not as wild as the steel-engraved view of the old house in 1832 would indicate (Fig. 2). Todmorden itself was little more than a village in the Calder valley until the coming of the first turnpike road in 1780 and the Rochdale canal in 1802. The Lancashire-Yorkshire boundary divided the town in half until the local Government Act of 1888 awarded it to the West Riding of Yorkshire (now Calderdale). For the purpose of this article it remains in the Palatinate of Lancaster, as it was until the transfer of jurisdiction from the Duchy of Lancaster to the High Court in 1873. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Scaitcliffe. The seat of John Crossley,Esq., engraved by W. Le Petit after J. Harwood and W. Purser. 1832. From E. Baines, History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster (London, 1836). Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Scaitcliffe. The seat of John Crossley,Esq., engraved by W. Le Petit after J. Harwood and W. Purser. 1832. From E. Baines, History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster (London, 1836). The Calder valley was a centre of the woollen industry and later of cotton manufacture; textile mills, utilizing the extensive water sources of river and canal, proliferated in the 1820s, rapidly making the noxious smoke from numerous factory chimneys a feature of the valley. In stark contrast were the bleak surrounding South Pennine moors and the 1,200-foot Stoodley Pike, topped by a monument commissioned in 1814 to mark the surrender of Paris to the Allies, and erected in 1815 after Waterloo. In the 1840s the coming of the railway, with its dramatic viaduct, transformed Todmorden and brought new municipal building in the grand manner. The old Todmorden Hall, a fine Jacobean mansion in the centre of town, once also in the possession of the Crossleys, became an anachronistic symbol of pre-industrial Lancashire and has ended its days as a post office sorting depot. Scaitcliffe itself, which the Crossleys relinquished in the late nineteenth century after some 500 years of occupation, became a luxury hotel, although for the past five years it has stood empty. The Crossley family The Crossleys were proud of their lineage6 and a family tradition of military service, going back to Marston Moor in 1644 (where John Crossley fought on the Royalist side) and the Jacobite incursion of 1745 where Luke Crossley (a younger son) served as a Cornet in the Light Dragoons under the Duke of Cumberland. Luke may also have fought at Culloden in 1746 but the documentation is now lost. Both their swords are catalogued in the inventory of the collection (item nos 1 and 9),7 the first a ‘broad two-handed sword’ and the second basket-hilted, were in the Scaitcliffe armoury, along with the fusee and bayonet of Anthony Crossley (no. 4), who served in the Lancashire Militia during the rebellion of 1745. These long-preserved weapons, along with some related early family papers, seem to have sparked the idea, at around the time the Stoodley monument was mooted, of establishing an armoury as a repository of the family arms and armour, as well as their original manuscript commissions in various local regiments and volunteer forces. This, as will be seen, was rapidly extended to cover the activities of ‘local heroes’ on the battlefield, in major events such as Waterloo (and later, more locally, at Peterloo) and in travel to the remote regions of North America and the Arctic from whence a network of merchants and local friends provided relics for the burgeoning museum. The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum seems to have been the brainchild of John Crossley (1778–1830) (Fig. 3) who took over the estate from his brother Anthony (1762–1810). Most of the Crossleys were named Anthony or John, and John the founder of the museum, elected FSA in 1827,8 in turn passed it on to his son John Crossley (1807–1864) (Fig. 4), Justice of the Peace and Deputy-Lieutenant of the county of Lancaster, a Cambridge MA (Christ’s College) and barrister of Inner Temple, who died without issue and left the estate to his nephew, Croslegh Dampier. The earliest non-family acquisitions appear to date from about 1809 and were of a military nature, such as the piece of red and blue cloth (no. 3) from the regimental coat of Captain Dewhurst of Bolton, worn at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 and presented by Captain Chippendale, adjutant of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia. Other accoutrements such as swords, belts, pistols, coats, neck stocks, etc. were contributed by troopers who had been kitted out at the expense of Anthony Crossley in 1797. A drinking song of that date from the local Volunteers (preserved in vol. 1 of the manuscript catalogue) celebrates the brave Lieutenant Crossley and his troop in five verses.9 Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Anonymous photograph, John Crossley, 1778–1830, marble bust by F. A. Legé, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825. From Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (London, 1904). Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Anonymous photograph, John Crossley, 1778–1830, marble bust by F. A. Legé, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825. From Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (London, 1904). Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Joseph Severn, Portrait of John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, 1851. By kind permission of Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand. Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Joseph Severn, Portrait of John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, 1851. By kind permission of Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand. Volunteer and local militia regiments A local newspaper, the British Volunteer and Manchester Weekly Express for 10 August 1816 (folded into archive vol. 1), gives a long account of the events surrounding the presentation of a silver sword to Captain John Crossley by the non-commissioned officers, privates and drummers of the 5th (Todmorden) Company of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia.10 The article concludes: It is worthy of remark upon this occasion, that in most of the great national struggles that have occurred within the last three centuries, it appears from the family records, that the strength of the valley was led forth by a Crossley, in support of their King and Country. Many of the weapons that were borne by the warriors of Scaitcliffe upon those occasions, together with various articles of other defensive armour, besides many curious military records, are now in the possession of Captain Crossley, by whom they are cherished with no little veneration, as monuments of the loyalty of his family. Crossley’s own manuscript account of the events (no. 22) adds that each contributor to the sword fund was presented with a Bible containing a lengthy inscription in which ‘he requests to express a hope, that this Bible may always be found in the hands, or the Knapsack of the Hero to whom it is now given’. A letter from John Elliott of Townhead, Rochdale (no. 27), a week later, on 16 August, presenting a musket from the 84th Regiment of Foot, used in the Netherlands, elicited an interesting response from Crossley which underlines his thinking about the museum. ‘I contemplate this weapon of war, as having been borne to the Field of Battle, in the sections of the 84th, by some Hero from the Valley of Todmorden, probably some brave Fellow whom I personally knew, as more than half of that Regiment at that period was composed of men from my immediate neighbourhood.’ He adds that Elliott’s letter itself will be preserved ‘with no small degree of veneration and respect in the family archives of Scaitcliffe’, as indeed it was. Crossley, like his fellow arms and armour collectors Sir Walter Scott and Joseph Mayer of Liverpool (1803–1886), the jeweller and philanthropist, who also had an interest in relics of Napoleon, had all joined volunteer regiments and maintained an amateur interest in military matters throughout their lives. Scott, whose collection survives at Abbotsford, had founded the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Light Dragoons in 1797 and had been called out (like Crossley in 1808) to quell rioters south of the city protesting against the price of oats in May 1800. Mayer, aged twelve, had been a drummer-boy in the 34th Regiment of Foot only weeks before Waterloo; by 1860 he was Commanding Officer of the Liverpool Volunteer Borough Guard.11 Sir Ashton Lever (1729–1788) of Alkrington Hall, Middleton, Manchester, whose great museum was relocated to London in 1774, had founded a semi-military Toxophilite Society of Archers, with a uniform of green jackets and feathered hats.12 A major purchaser at the sale of his Leverian Museum in 1806 was Richard Cuming (1777–1870), amateur scientist and chemist and founder of the Cuming Museum in Southwark.13 Cuming was in the Newington branch of the Surrey Volunteers during the Napoleonic Wars and the museum still holds his haversack (Crossley’s ‘knapsack of the Hero’), sword, sash, epaulettes and badge.14 The Surrey Volunteers sported a light dragoon style helmet in fur, dark blue turban and yellow piping. Many of these early nineteenth-century private museum owners seemed to have loved the costume and display of contemporary militaria, which they sometimes found mirrored in their collections of ethnographica. It is not surprising that Cuming owned an important Hawaiian feather cape, an exotic example of warrior peacockry and authority. The Peninsular War The Peninsular War provided fresh material for the armoury. A batch of correspondence (no. 185) from Sergeant-Major Timothy Grindrod (c.1779–1820) of the 16th Queen’s Light Dragoons to his mother in Rochdale, along with a manuscript account of the battle of Talavera, accompanied documentation of Crossley’s attempts to secure a pension for the widow of this ‘Lancashire Hero’. Other Peninsular memorabilia included some beads and a cross taken from a convent in Coimbra after the battle of Bussaco (no. 35), a coat (no. 36) worn by Adjutant Day of the 34th Regiment, killed at the Battle of the Pyrenees on 11 August 1813, and a belt and sword (no. 37) taken from a French officer at San Sebastian in the same year. A clutch of silk monogrammed garments (shirt, handkerchief and pair of stockings) belonging to Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte when King of Spain (no. 34), were taken at the Battle of Vittoria on 21 June 1813. A letter of 2 October 1816 from Henry Smith of the 2nd Battalion of the 7th Regiment of Fusiliers to John Crossley gives the background to this modest haul of royal loot which he had been given by William Blackburne, servant to Colonel Burton, appointed Commandant at Vittoria.15 The items ‘were taken from the carriage of Joseph Bonaparte upon the road leading from Vittoria to Bayonne, after he had quitted it, and mounted upon one of the lead Horses (his Servant upon the other) and made his escape thereby and entered Bayonne in that manner.’ Henry Smith also provided a ‘manuscript Journal [no. 312] of six years service in the Peninsular War, kept by Sergt. Major Dove of the 7th Regt. Royal Fusiliers’. The Battle of Waterloo Sir Walter Scott was one of the first celebrities to visit the site of the battle of Waterloo, and found that relics could no longer be picked up freely on the field, but had been effectively commandeered by the local inhabitants and were ruthlessly offered for sale. In Paul’s Letters to his Kinfolk (1816),16 Scott paints a grisly picture of the commercial aftermath of war; ‘All ghastly remains of the carnage had either been burned or buried and the reliques of the fray which yet remained were not in themselves of a very imposing kind. Bones of horses, quantities of old hats, rags of clothing, scraps of leather, and fragments of books and papers strewed the ground in great profusion.’ Scott described men, women and children rushing out of the hamlets on the approach of visitors to offer swords, pistols, carbines, and holsters. The price of a reasonable carbine was about five francs. But the great object of ambition was to possess the armour of a cuirassier, which at first might have been bought in great quantity, almost all the wearers having fallen in that bloody battle. The victors had indeed carried off some of these cuirasses to serve as culinary utensils. I myself have seen the Highlanders frying their rations of beef or mutton upon the breast-plates and back-pieces of their discomfited adversaries. But enough remained to make the fortunes of the people of St. John, Waterloo, Planche-noit, &c. When I was at La Belle Alliance I bought the cuirass of a common soldier for about six francs; but a very handsome inlaid one, once the property of a French officer of distinction which was for sale in Brussels, cost me four times the sum. As for the casques, or head-pieces, which by the way are remarkable handsome, they are almost introuvable, for the peasants immediately sold them to be beat out for old copper, and the purchasers, needlessly afraid of their being reclaimed, destroyed them as fast as possible.17 Crossley was fortunate in being able to draw on a network of Lancashire old soldiers who had either served at Waterloo or knew someone who had. Typical is a letter from William Shaw of Rochdale (no. 287), who states: on the 25th of June last [1824], I was at the celebrated Field of battle of Waterloo, and at la belle alliance, the silk Handkerchief herewith sent you, and which I beg your acceptance of, was dug out of the ground on the 17th of the same month, which was found in the pocket of an officer’s pantaloons, who had been buried there in the great battle – the Handkerchief was in a bad state when first discovered, but upon being washed and exposed to the air, became not unpleasant. In 1827 a Manchester correspondent writes to Crossley saying that he is sending the skull of a French cuirassier via Mr Butterworth of Rochdale and that it was vouched for by Sergeant Ewart who had been at the battle (no. 396). This was presumably Sergeant Charles Ewart (1769–1846) of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons (Scots Greys), who was famous for the capture of the Eagle Standard of the 45th Regiment, now in the Regimental Museum of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards at Edinburgh, as is his 1796 pattern heavy cavalry sabre. This sword (no. 90) may well have been the very one owned by Crossley, with the note in the Index volume that it had been returned to Ewart. As a measure of his celebrity after the battle, Ewart had attended a Waterloo dinner at Leith in 1816 where Sir Walter Scott had proposed a toast to this gallant Scotsman. Crossley owned both a Star and a Cross of the Légion d’honneur;18 the Star (no. 236) presented by Captain John Thompson in 1822, the Cross picked up at Waterloo. Sir Walter Scott commented that ‘Crosses of the Legion of Honour were in great request, and already stood high in the market. I bought one of the ordinary sort for forty francs.’19 Crossley had two ‘Imperial Eagles [no. 320] from the Plains of Waterloo’, an ordinary Eagle (no. 298) ‘being part of the appointments of the 2nd Regiment from Waterloo’, another Eagle (no. 131) ‘being part of the ornaments belonging to a Piece of Ordnance’ and an ‘Eagle and Tri-coloured Flag [no. 89] with fringed scarf’. According to Scott, ‘The eagles which the French soldiers wore in front of their caps, especially the more solid ornament of that description which belonged to the Imperial Guards, were sought after, but might be had for a few sous’.20 Typical of the Scaitcliffe Waterloo collection were the front and back plates from a French cuirass, a breast-plate, a French cuirassier’s helmet, two Life Guardsman’s helmets, and the pistol, bridle-bridoon and collar (nos 57–8) of the horse ridden by Joshua Pickles of the 1st Life Guards. From the same regiment came a sword and spurs, with an affidavit from Robert Dawson that they had been worn by him on 18 June 1815. A letter from Lieutenant John Eastwood of the Oldham Local Militia to Captain Crossley certified the strange history of the cuirass, helmet and sword (nos 82–4) of John Richards of Hamburg, forced to serve in the French army when General Soult took the city, and making his escape to Paris after Waterloo. More Waterloo militaria included two lances with regimental crests in brass, a French cuirassier’s sword from Joseph Towner, a French rifle and bayonet (no. 73), and other small items from the field such as buttons and musket balls. A number of Napoleonic medals and coins included the Waterloo medal of Corporal William Dunlop – the first military medal to be awarded to all ranks. Shaw of the Life Guards The perfect examplar of the hero (though not a son of Lancashire) that Crossley wished to commemorate in his armoury was Corporal John Shaw (1789–1815) of the 2nd Regiment of Life Guards. Shaw, the son of a Nottinghamshire farmer, enlisted in 1807. He had become a famous prizefighter and sat as a model for both William Etty and Benjamin Robert Haydon, in whose studio Sir Walter Scott may have encountered him in London. He was about to challenge Tom Cribb himself when the regiment was sent overseas. Shaw was not only a noted pugilist but an accomplished swordsman and had given demonstrations of his sabre skills in the army. On the field of battle he proved his remarkable ability by killing or disabling a reputed nine Frenchmen before his sword broke and he was shot by a distant marksman.21 Shaw’s body was later exhumed, possibly at the request of Scott, and his skull, lacking the jawbone, was sent to England where plaster casts were made.22 Scott had two of these at Abbotsford, and another is to be found in the Household Cavalry Museum. His lasting popular celebrity was such that in February 1840 Batty’s Circus Royal featured a performance by a Mr Wilkinson with his celebrated impression of ‘Shaw the Life Guards Man’ at Waterloo.23 But Scaitcliffe could boast more tangible relics of this remarkable man than the plaster casts at Abbotsford. By some agency, Crossley had acquired the frock coat (no. 61) Shaw had worn before going on foreign service, gold-lace bars from his full dress uniform (no. 62), similar bars which ‘he wore upon his right arm at the time he so gloriously fell in the Battle of Waterloo’ and ‘foot chains [no. 64], worn by him in the same Battle; taken from his feet when he was found dead after the Battle’. Documentation (now dispersed) accompanied these memorials of the heroic soldier and pugilist, who was commemorated in 1876 in a biography by Major Knollys titled Shaw. The Life of a Guardsman. Napoleon’s personal effects Crossley owned one of Napoleon’s shirts made by Charvet (no. 237), his ‘Razor with a mother-of-pearl handle, gold mounted and case of blue morocco’ (no. 305), a wispy lock of his hair (no. 106) cut at St Helena, with confirming documentation from Major Richard Boys, Chaplain at St Helena, and a golden bee (no. 69), ‘one of the 365 which adorned Bonaparte’s coronation robe in 1804’, purchased from the ‘High Priest of Notre Dame, Paris’. An unrecorded printed sale catalogue24 (no. 235) of ‘Sundry articles of wearing apparel and dressing apparatus, formerly belonging to the Emperor Napoleon, and given by the Grand Marshal of the Palace Count Bertrand, to M. Charvet, Keeper of the Wardrobe, on the occasion of Napoleon’s Abdication at Fontainebleau, sold by auction by Mr. Stanley at Old Bond Street, London, on Friday 2nd of June, 1819’, was probably the source of the shirt and razor. This Charvet provenance seems fairly convincing for objects of minor value but there was a growing market for personal relics of Napoleon even in his lifetime, not always reliably sourced or authentic, which has continued to the present day. William Bullock, the owner of the Egyptian Hall museum, was in Paris shortly after Waterloo, acquiring arms and armour associated with Napoleon, then acquired by the dealer Thomas Gwenapp and later dispersed by Christie’s (1821) and George Robins (1833) at their sales of his Gothic Hall exhibition. Not even objects of real quality with this kind of early provenance were proof against optimistic attribution, as current research by Guy M. Wilson has shown.25 Crossley also collected autograph letters26 and manuscript material of Napoleonic interest, such as letters of 1810 from the Grand Chamberlain, the Count of Montesquieu, on the appointment of a new Conservateur de la Garderobe for Napoleon, letters of Prince Schwartzenberg, Prince Metternich and others, ten letters sending M. Charvet to Elba with Napoleon in April 1814, and two legal agreements on the transfer of ownership of some of Napoleon’s personal effects to Charvet and subsequently to Dr Auguste Duboys, later finding their way to the auctioneer Stanley in London. Documents in French were sent to Henry Lucas of Liverpool for notarized translations as this seemed to increase their value to Crossley.27 Count Platov of the Don Cossacks One of the strangest aspects of the Napoleonic relic-collecting mania was the veneration afforded to the remarkable old Hetman of the Don Cossacks, Matvei Ivanovitch Platov (1757–1818), a hero of the Russian campaign. This noble Cossack first struck the public imagination when he appeared in Hyde Park on 20 June 1814, reviewing the troops with the Prince Regent, the Emperor Alexander, the King of Prussia and Marshal Blucher. Sir Walter Scott was an early fan of Count Platov and as early as 1813 was corresponding with friends to try and acquire a Cossack pike from the Russian campaign. In November of that year he wrote to Lady Abercorn: ‘An English officer who was known to this renowned partisan begged one of his lances to add to my collection of arms but I believe it was lost when the French re-entered Hamburgh’.28 Scott was thrilled to meet his hero in Paris in 1815 at a dinner given by Lord Cathcart for the Czar, but failed to add anything to his armoury. It did however give him the opportunity to dress up ‘in the black boots, white leather breeches and scarlet coat with blue trimmings and silver lace of the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Light Cavalry’, a uniform unfamiliar to Cathcart.29 Crossley was less ambitious and had less opportunity, but was no doubt pleased to be sent on 14 February 1817, a few hairs (no. 26) from Platov’s famous white horse affixed by the seal of John Sutcliffe of Stansfield Hall, Halifax (Crossley’s brother-in-law), with his note of 28 May 1814: The above hair was plucked from Count Platoff’s Horse this day, in the King’s Stables in Portman Street London. The Horse was 17 year’s old, and had been rode 13 year’s by the Count who presented him to the Prince Regent as noticed in the English Chronicle of June 11 to June 14, 1814, sent herewith. Punctilious as ever in his documentation, Crossley preserved the newspaper and the hair, together with its annotated paper wrapper, in the first volume of his paper museum (Fig. 5). Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Hair from Count Platov’s horse, with the seal and inscription of John Sutcliffe, 1817. Photo: Author. Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Hair from Count Platov’s horse, with the seal and inscription of John Sutcliffe, 1817. Photo: Author. The Peterloo Massacre The tragic events which took place on 16 August 1819 at St Peter’s Field, Manchester, later known ironically as ‘Peterloo’ after the Battle of Waterloo four years earlier, had a particular resonance for Crossley, both as a magistrate and as an officer in the Yeomanry Cavalry; he devoted a portion of his paper museum to both printed and manuscript records of the massacre. The background to Peterloo was the post-war decline in the textile trade, with wages cut to the bone, and from 1815 also the rise in food prices brought about by the Corn Laws. Demands for political reform were particularly strong in Lancashire where the million-plus population of Greater Manchester (including Rochdale and Oldham) was barely represented by the two Members of Parliament who sat for the county town of Lancaster. Unrest was already endemic in the region and as early as 1808 Crossley recorded the effects of rioting in the neighbourhood of Rochdale when the inhabitants sent messages to Manchester, Halifax and Brockwell, pleading for the security of a military presence. On 31 May 1808 Crossley received orders from Colonel Moore to ‘attend the Head-quarters of the West-Halifax Corps of Volunteer Infantry at Brockwell’. He joined them on the march to Rochdale at the New Inn at Blackstonedge but in view of the torrential rain he had the ammunition taken into the chapel at Littleborough where the regiment processed through the chapel and was issued with ball cartridges before forming up outside in ‘marching order by sections, and arrived at Rochdale at the hour of three in the morning of the said 1st June, when we found the Prison had been set on fire and was then burning’. The account of this relatively minor event was formally written out and signed by Crossley as Ensign of the West-Halifax Volunteers to explain why the Halifax Regiment was first into action rather than his own regiment. To illustrate the situation he included a large watercolour of Littleborough Chapel by J. Shuttleworth (probably the only record of the chapel, as it was torn down in 1818). The incident was not of any great consequence but it serves to point out the prevailing uncertainty, fear and distress in the county, years before Waterloo and the end of the war. St Peter’s Field, Manchester, had been the scene of at least two large public demonstrations before Peterloo. In 1817 the so-called ‘Blanketeers’ had chosen the Field to commence a march to London but the magistrates had read the Riot Act and the crowd was dispersed by the King’s Dragoon Guards without incident. In January 1819 a crowd of 10,000 had gathered there peacefully, to hear Henry ‘Orator’ Hunt and to petition the Prince Regent. By July the magistrates were writing to the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth, to warn of a ‘general rising’ and there were reports by the following month of large groups of disaffected men ‘drilling’ in quasi-military formations in the surrounding villages. This was apparently intended as a sensible rehearsal for the procession of expected large numbers of demonstrators, including some groups of women, to converge on the Fields in an orderly manner. The organizers of the proposed grand demonstration announced speeches from the hustings by Hunt and other radical leaders, and the Manchester Patriotic Union Society had insisted on a ‘prohibition of all weapons of offence and defense’ at the meeting planned for August. The Manchester magistrates later reported to Sidmouth that ‘there was no appearance of arms or pikes but great plenty of sticks and staves’. In this atmosphere of nervous foreboding, the deployment by the municipal authorities of 600 men of the 15th Hussars, 400 Cheshire Yeomanry, 400 special constables, a great many other infantrymen, and two six-pounders, could only be regarded as excessive, although the majority were professional soldiers and unlikely to be provoked into attacking unarmed civilians. The problem lay with the recently formed (1817) Manchester and Salford Yeomanry, 120 cavalry consisting mostly of local shopkeepers and traders, ill-disciplined and possibly drunk. On being ordered by the magistrates to arrest Hunt and the others on the hustings, they attempted to enlarge the path through the vast crowd; people were trampled by the horses and the troopers panicked and began laying about with their sabres. Between twelve and fifteen people were killed and at least 500 injured. Conspiracy theorists at the time claimed that their sabres had been sharpened and the Manchester Observer of 28 August falsely claimed that the Manchester Royal Infirmary had been cleared of patients and the surgeons had been ordered to stand by. The crowd was estimated as at least 60-80,000 by witnesses – possibly more – and the events of the day were observed by journalists from a number of newspapers including John Tyas of The Times who was on the hustings and briefly arrested, along with Hunt and others. The effects of the Peterloo Massacre were both immediate and long lasting. The oppressive ‘Six Acts’ made gatherings of likely radicals illegal, the Manchester Guardian newspaper was founded, and, in Italy, Shelley wrote the Masque of Anarchy, written on the occasion of the Massacre at Manchester which he sent to Leigh Hunt for The Examiner, but Hunt was too nervous to publish it.30 The trial of the main protagonists took place at York Assizes on 16 March 1820 and prison sentences were handed down. On the other hand a civil case brought against four members of the Manchester Yeomanry by a wounded weaver was dismissed at Lancaster Assizes on 4 April 1822. In a final irony, among the victims at Peterloo were veterans of Waterloo, such as John Lees, a cloth-worker from Oldham who died of his wounds, exclaiming ‘At Waterloo there was man to man but there it was downright murder’.31 Crossley was anxious to preserve as much paper documentation, as well as material relics, as he could from this dreadful affair. A great portion of vol. iv was given over to contemporary newspapers, broadsides, placards, depositions, and correspondence by or about the ‘Radical Reformers’ as he called them. They included copy statements from the magistrates of Lancaster and Cheshire about the affair, the Cause List and Calendar of Crown Prisoners at the March Assizes. He also owned one of the famous ‘Peterloo Handkerchiefs’, depicting the cavalry riding down the crowd (no. 207). Among various objects in the museum was a bugle (no. 164), part of a bassoon (no. 188), a truncheon (no. 165) ‘presented by Mr. John Pilling of 31 Dale Street, Manchester, which he used at the dispersion of the eventful meeting 16 August 1819 he being at the time one of the Special Constables of Manchester’, a ‘brickbat [no. 117] found in the pockets of one of the Prisoners at the New Bayley Prison. Presented by Mr. Henry Horsefall’, and a stone or missile (no. 166) which was thrown by one of the Radical Reformers at Major J. Trafford Esq. Commandant of Manchester Yeomanry, which missed him and struck Mr. Henry Horsefall a Special Constable, by whom it was gathered and presented to Mr. Crossley.’ Radical pikes and banners In view of the controversy about the possible arming of demonstrators, the collection of what Crossley termed ‘pikes’ is not without interest. The best documented piece came from a known radical, Amos Ogden, later the subject of a biography by Samuel Bamford, the weaver and author of Passages in the Life of a Radical (1854). ‘Pike [no. 163] – belonging to Amos Ogden of Royton, a Radical Reformer, who was committed to the New Bayley, for attending at the Drilling meeting on Tandle Hills 15th August 1819, the day before the Memorable Meeting at St. Peter’s field (Peterloo). vide 398 [inserted note]. This Pike presented to Mr. Crossley by his particular friend Capt. Crompton of the Oldh. L. Militia. [With] Deposition of Dr. Butterworth and Edmund Pilling against A. Ogden. Newspaper report of his trial and sentence of 12 months imprisonment; by the Rev. Mr. Hay.’ The reference to no. 398 is as follows; ‘Pike-head belonging to the Radical Reformers of 1819; made to screw on the end of a shaft with axe and hook similar to the ancient Battle Axe. (NB. The above description applies to No. 163; this Pike head is plain).’ Ogden’s pike was evidently an offensive weapon or could be used as such. Crossley also had a ‘Pike Shaft [no. 169] taken from one of the Radical Reformers by Colonel Hargreaves (15 August 1819) of Ormerod House, by whom it was presented to Mr. Crossley. Copy examination of Christopher Edmondson and Henry Sellers, respecting the seizure of the same’, and a pike (no. 175) found on the estate at Balderstone, near Rochdale on 1 May 1820, which had no identifiable radical provenance but seemed to have looked the part and was duly described as a ‘Radical Pike’. The immediate target of the yeomanry at Peterloo, apart from the arrest of the speakers, seems to have been the flags and banners on poles carried by demonstrators, in the same way that considerable effort was expended at Waterloo on the seizure of the regimental Eagles of Napoleon’s troops. Crossley acquired ‘the Flagstaff [no. 188] on which Mr. Hunt’s Flag was carried, and which was borne by Mrs. Fildes in front of the Carriage in which he went to the Meeting at St. Peter’s field Manchester on the 16th August 1819. Presented by Mr. Robt. Darbyshire, Deputy Constable of Salford, 15 August 1820.’ He also had a rare survival in the form of ‘part of one of the Flags [no. 168], inscribed “Hunt and Liberty” and “Universal Suffrage”, taken from the Radical Reformers on the 16th August 1819.’ The only surviving Peterloo banner, in Middleton Public Library, was carried by Thomas Redford; it is in green silk, lettered in gold with the words “Liberty and Fraternity” and “Unity and Strength”. The Newport Rising Some twenty years after Peterloo came the less well known but equally bloody Newport Rising of 4 November 1839, when about 10,000 men, many of them coal-miners, descended on the town of Newport, Monmouthshire, intent on the rescue of Chartists believed to be imprisoned in the Westgate Hotel. The local authorities enrolled 500 special constables and authorized about sixty soldiers of the 45th Regiment of Foot to guard the hotel and break up the demonstration, which had turned violent. About twenty-two demonstrators were killed and over fifty wounded when the soldiers opened fire. The Chartist leaders were arrested and transported. The homemade weapons – pikes and bludgeons – were seized as evidence, or as curiosities, and some remain in the Newport Museum. Others passed into the armoury of Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick (1783–1848) of Goodrich Court, Herefordshire. Charles Nash, the author of The Goodrich Court Guide (1845) quoted by Clive Wainwright from the unique copy in his possession, itemizes ‘many of the insurrectionary weapons wrested from the rioters at the (so called) Chartists’ emeute at Newport, during the night of Sunday Nov. 4 1839 . . . presented by the authorities of that port to this collection.’32 Both Crossley (after Peterloo) and Meyrick (after Newport) felt that these primitive weapons should find a place in their armouries as documents of contemporary social history. Swords Crossley lettered his folio albums of the works on paper in his collection variously as the ‘Scaitcliffe Armory [sic] and Museum’, or the ‘Scaitcliffe Armoury and Trophies of Antiquity’ (Fig. 6), but the armoury element always assumed the prime position. He liked swords, pole arms, daggers and dirks, flags and banners, and had less interest in firearms. A drawing, pasted in to vol. vi (now lost except for a photocopy) illustrates twenty swords, six daggers and a brace of pistols. The swords are roughly depicted but include brief comments such as ‘ivory handle’, ‘blued and engraved blade’, ‘brass and silver hilted side arms’, ‘double ground sword in heavy steel case’, and recorded mottoes and inscriptions such as ‘a faithful servant in the hand of the Brave’ or ‘In my Country’s Cause’. Most of the swords were eighteenth- or early nineteenth-century, apart from a few earlier family weapons, and represented many of the sabre patterns favoured by the light yeomanry cavalry or the heavy cavalry of Uxbridge’s ‘Union Brigade’ (a composite brigade of English, Scottish and Irish troops) at Waterloo. The French cavalry sword was longer and used for thrusting whereas the British light cavalry favoured a weapon with a distinctly curved blade, the pattern 1796, which could deliver a devastating cut. The British heavy cavalry pattern 1796 blade, such as that believed to have belonged to Sergeant Ewart, and preserved at Edinburgh, was straight.33 The very last acquisition of the armoury, presented on 9 June 1858, was a ‘Sikh Talwah [cavalry sabre], [no. 433] captured at the battle of Sobraon by Major (then Captain) John C. Richardson of the Bengal Artillery’.34 But the museum seems by that date to have been dormant for nearly twenty years Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Spine of the Index volume to the Scaitcliffe museum and upper cover of vol. 1. Photo: Author Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Spine of the Index volume to the Scaitcliffe museum and upper cover of vol. 1. Photo: Author Antique arms and armour There was little interest at Scaitcliffe in the sort of antique arms and armour favoured by the grander collectors and supplied by dealers (‘brokers’ as they were called) like Pratt of Bond Street who also produced armour for the Eglinton Tournament in 1839.35 Pratt assembled tilting suits or fluted Maximilian suits that both looked good in a long gallery and were, in some cases, actually worn to fancy dress balls by such bold spirits as the Baron de Cosson or the 2nd Earl of Craven, over half a century later.36 Crossley was not one for dressing up, nor was he very interested in the ‘true rust of the Barons’ Wars’ or dubious medieval relics of the age of chivalry. His heroes were contemporary, or within the reaches of family and local memory, but not stretching back much beyond the seventeenth century. However he did like edged weapons, and some display of helmets and cuirasses. At Scaitcliffe some armour vaguely identified as from the time of Henry VIII (no. 145), a couple of seventeenth-century swords and relics of the 1745 rebellion such as the musket (no. 187) ‘taken by Mr. Henry Sharples from a Rebel Officer in the Pretender’s Army in the year 1745 at Walton-le-Dale near Preston’, were about the limit for historic weapons. The doyen of the marchands-amateur, in the wider field of collectable arms and armour, was probably Thomas Gwennap (c.1774–1850), founder of The Oplotheca (armoury), later called The Gothic Hall at 6 Pall Mall, and a purchaser of many things at the dispersal of William Bullock’s museum in 1819. Gwennap’s armoury was sold at Christie’s in 1821 and Crossley owned a copy of the 1818 catalogue (no. 226) for sale to visitors. Gwennap’s son, also Thomas (c.1798–1845), was a Soho picture restorer and keeper of the picture galleries at Alton Towers, Staffordshire,37 for the Earl of Shrewsbury, whose fine arms and armour collection, housed in an armoury built in 1829–30, was sold by Christies in 1857 in 302 lots. The foremost authority on the subject at the time was Sir Samuel Meyrick; other serious collectors included John Beardmore (1816–1861) of Uplands, Fareham, Hampshire.38 In Lancashire the romantic hall of arms and armour at Browsholme Hall, near Clitheroe, in the Forest of Bowland, collected by the Parker family, has something in common with Scaitcliffe. Thomas Lister Parker was the dedicatee of the pioneering Specimens of Ancient Furniture, written by his friend Sir Samuel Meyrick and illustrated by Henry Shaw, in 1835, which must have influenced the look of Browsholme with its old oak and stained glass. The Parkers had originally kept their treasures, including a ‘buff leathern jacket, worn by one of the family in the rebellion of 1645’ (similar to those in the Popham Armoury at Littlecote) in a large chest in the oak drawing room, but T. L. Parker arranged the arms and armour, antlers and tiger skins, bobbin-turned chairs and old dressers, in the entrance hall, around 1804, much as they are today. Like Crossley he revered the family’s role in the Civil War and also published contemporary documents in their possession.39 Andrea Ferrara and the 1745 rebellion Crossley did, however, own one of the great desiderata of early nineteenth century collectors, an ‘Andrea Ferrara’ blade (no. 154), without realizing what it was. The cult of Andrea Ferrara and the Jacobite Rebellion was fostered by Sir Walter Scott in his novels; he wrote in a later footnote, ‘The name of Andrea de Ferrara is inscribed on all the Scottish broadswords which are accounted of peculiar excellence’.40 Scott owned two of these broadswords and gave another to Meyrick,41 whose son took it to Scotland to the great delight of the highlanders. Scott and Meyrick corresponded at length about these puzzling inscriptions but reached no conclusion. The legend of a Spanish master sword maker who killed a disloyal apprentice and fled to the Court of James V in Scotland had no foundation in fact, but the existence of a sword maker called Zanandrea of Ferrara who supplied swords to a London maker in 1578 is documented and may be the origin of the myth.42 Many of these swords were apparently made in Germany much later and given the Andrea Ferrara name because the Scots saw it as a mark of quality.43 Crossley’s sword, he claimed, . . . belonged to Andrea Ferrara, a Field officer in the Army of the Young Pretender in the Rebellion 1745. The Major was quartered in the vicinity of Oldham, and being sick at the time that the Rebel Army marched from Manchester, he was left behind; on his recovering he marched after the Army and left the sword in his quarters, which was preserved in the family, until it was presented to John Crossley, Captain in the Oldham Local Militia, by his dear friend Captain Chippendale Adjutant of the same Regiment. Crossley clearly thought that Ferrara was the name of the owner of the sword but the Jacobite provenance sounded convincing and he was presumably unaware of its desirability to Scottish collectors. Monuments to memory Crossley was less interested in the arcana of edged weapons – the quillons, fullers, falchion points, ricassos, pommels and tangs – than in their early owners and the brave deeds these weapons evoked. The armoury at Scaitcliffe was a sort of Valhalla for heroes of one stripe or another and he probably valued the ‘brass hilted sword [no. 10] taken in personal combat from a French Hussar by Anthony Crossley at the Battle of Hesse Homberg in 1760’ as much as the ‘spurs [no. 180] of the Irish Rebel Father Michael Murphy of Ballycornew’, a leader of the United Irishmen in the Irish Rebellion, who was shot on horseback at the Battle of Arklow on 9 June 1798. This memorial tradition of display, going back to the famous armour Rustkammer of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol at Schloß Ambras and to the earlier Musaeum Jovianum of hero portraits at Lake Como, was very much alive in Crossley’s day. What is left of the armoury of the Percy Tenantry Volunteers, raised by the Duke of Northumberland and his son Earl Percy in 1798, still remains as a memorial in the Constable Tower at Alnwick Castle, where it was maintained until 1848, although the Corps was disbanded in 1814.44 Tipu Sultan It has already been noted that Crossley had a discernable weakness for relics of celebrities, and one of the most prized sources for such treasures was the sack and looting of the royal treasury, palace and library of Tipu Sultan of Mysore at Seringapatam by British troops in 1799. The decorative gold elements of the royal throne and richly jewelled objects and weapons in gold and silver were beyond Crossley’s reach but his old friend Jesse Lee of Manchester,45 who we shall meet again, came up with a gold ring (no. 354) with an impeccable provenance. He wrote to Crossley in June 1830 sending a ‘gold ring which was gathered on the 4th May 1799 under the Gateway (exactly in the place where the body of Tippoo Saib was found at Seringapatam) by the late Major Clayton (father of Col. Clayton of Carr Hall) who on his return from the East presented the same to his friend the late Mr. Scott of Preston, whose widow died on the 25th May last, at the house of my friend Mr. Jas. Lazarus Threlfall, whose wife is niece to the late Mrs. S and with whom she had resided for several years . . .’ Threlfall had been left the ring and in turn passed it on to Lee who is presenting it ‘to be preserved in your collection of curiosities’. Lee knew that this was the kind of relic that Crossley favoured, and that he would appreciate such details of provenance, validating the presumed descent from the hand of Tipu himself.46 Lord Byron and the Manor of Rochdale One of Crossley’s local friends was James Dearden of The Orchard, Rochdale who had purchased the Manor of Rochdale from Lord Byron in 1823.47 Dearden’s son, also James Dearden, had collected various curiosities and coins (nos 269–83) ‘when he made a journey overland to Greece for the purpose of getting the Deeds conveying the said Manor executed by the late Lord Byron’, and presented them to the Scaitcliffe museum in 1825. The attached list in Dearden’s hand includes a few mineral specimens such as ‘native quicksilver from the only mine known in Europe at Tobria near Trieste in Austria. These mines are about 350 yards deep and worked by murderers only when condemned to the mines: few of them survive 6 months.’ He also had a specimen of cinnabar from the same mines which he described as ‘an oxide of mercury and is reduced to Quicksilver by the heat of the blast furnace’ and sulphurous lava from Vesuvius, ‘gathered during our ascent’. A specimen of Egyptian porphyry came from a mosaic pavement in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. Among the Roman and Greek coins on the list were ‘some old Greek coins I procured at Missolonghi’.48 One odd souvenir was a ‘petrified oyster shell’ which he cut out of a stone in the castle of Otranto, where he was confined for twenty-eight days’ quarantine on 1 May 1824, probably on his return from visiting Byron in Greece. This was more likely through boredom than as a tribute to Horace Walpole’s gothic novel. Both Deardens, father and son, evidently shared Crossley’s interests although James Dearden snr died in 1831. There is a long report in the Gentleman’s Magazine 173 (1843) on a Bronze Age torc found by Dearden in the grounds of his house, Handle Hall, Rochdale, and in 1846 he became treasurer of the new archaeological association based on the journal Archaeologia Cambrensis. Dearden was also a friend of Meyrick. ‘He stayed at Goodrich Court several times in the 1840s and Sir Samuel stayed with him in the autumn of 1845, on his way back from a visit to Raby Castle’.49 Under Meyrick’s influence Dearden erected a medieval chapel within Rochdale Church, with a knight’s tomb and reproductions of memorial slabs and brasses from different medieval periods. Dearden jnr died in 1862. Ethnographica The Scaitcliffe museum was by no means limited to European artefacts, and its contents stretched from militaria to ethnographica, though the agency by which Crossley acquired objects from the remoter corners of the globe was usually Lancastrian and often very local. From Africa he had a war club (no. 94), a quiver of twenty-three African arrows (no. 98) and a ‘leather pocket, worn by the Africans’ (no. 101). From Malaysia a ‘Malay cress [kris] or poisoned dagger and another similar’ (nos 95–6). From Tahiti, and possibly from the dispersal of Cook’s voyage finds, were specimens of tapa cloth; ‘Specimens of cloth, made by the Inhabitants of Otaheite’ (nos 99–100). But no provenance or specific locations are given beyond the fact noted in James Butterworth’s parish history of Rochdale, 1828, that they were all presented by Richard Shuttleworth, a Rochdale attorney. More interesting are the specimens from North America and Canada which are detailed in the accompanying letters of presentation to Crossley. Charles Payant of Manchester (wine merchants) wrote in October 1822 offering a ‘canoe [no. 286] made from the Bark of the Birch Tree and the ornamental parts from the quills of the porcupine’.50 He notes that ‘the large canoes used in navigation are made upon the same plan’ and that it had been given to him yesterday by Mr Cannon,51 a friend who had just returned from Canada. Scaitcliffe was not the only museum in Lancashire to collect such things and the British Museum has a few surviving North American pieces from the Farington (or ffarington) family museum at Shaw Hall (later Worden Hall), Leyland, Lancashire.52 Another important group of Native American artefacts in the British Museum (on loan since 1977 and acquired by purchase in 2004) came from Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, as the gift of Bryan Mullanphy in 1825.53 From John Midgley of Deeplish Hill, Rochdale, came a whole group of American Indian artefacts which he had been given in 1820 by a Mr C. Cretson of Philadelphia.54 Cretson’s letter to Midgley says he had received these specimens ‘from a correspondent who resides at St. Louis, about 1500 miles west of this city, who trades with the Indians up the Missouri 2000 miles westward of that place and whose manufacture they are’. Midgley’s letter presenting them to Crossley gives a little more detail. The calumet or Indian pipe (no. 323) ‘such as they pass round when assembled in Council, as a token of friendship’, the beaver skin tobacco pouch (no. 324) and the pair of moccasins (no. 325) came from the far West, as Cretson said. The two ears of Indian corn (no. 326), the smaller one called ‘chicken corn is grown in gardens for ornaments’, came from New York State, the two pods of cotton (no. 327) are upland cotton from Georgia, which he plucked himself in December 1820. The wampum [belt] (no. 328) ‘was presented me by a Mrs Walker who received it presumably from the Indians as a token of friendship’. The ‘other pair of Moccasins [no. 329] I bought from some Indians near Buffaloe not far distant from the falls of Niagara’. ‘The little pipe [no. 331] was presented me by the tribe of Shakers who live at Lebanon near Hudson’. Midgley sends his kind regards, along with these gifts, to the Crossleys and their ‘lovely daughter’ Miss Matilda. Another Lancashire friend of Crossley was Fielden Hodgson of Shore, near Rochdale, who obtained for him probably the single best-documented North American piece in the museum. Mr D. Hall, a merchant of Pearisburg, Giles County, Virginia writes to Hodgson from New York on 17 July 1826 to offer him a belt (usually decorated with beads or wampum, a kind of shell), ‘made by the Indian women and worn by the warrior or chief, It was procured of an eminent chief Wa-ba-min or White Dog, of the Potawatomi Tribe who had worn it to a Council held at Chicago, Illinois, in October 1825.’55 Hall confirms the provenance and says that the Indians value such belts at from $3 to $5; Hodgson notes that he paid $2 for it in New York. Hodgson must have returned to England by 1828 when he writes from Shore in September to offer Crossley a shell he had picked up in the Savannah River in May, ‘which I request your acceptance of for placing in your collection of curiosities’, and a pair of antlers from a buck (no. 208): ‘It was shot by Mr. Wm. Craig in the woods near Savannah, North America’ and the antlers took a prominent position in the Museum. One further American object of interest from the French and Indian War was ‘a Powder Horn [no. 93], with a map of part of America engraved thereon. By Wm. Anderson, Feb. 1760’, given by Richard Shuttleworth of Rochdale. 56 Arctic exploration Further north the largely unknown Arctic exerted its lure. Crossley had somehow befriended the young scientist and naval officer, Lieutenant Henry Forster RN (1796–1831), who had served on various Arctic expeditions led by Captain William Parry.57 In 1823 Forster was a midshipman under Captain Clavering on HM Sloop Griper as an assistant to the astronomer Edward Sabine on an expedition to make observations on magnetism and the pendulum measurement of gravity, and visited Spitzbergen and Greenland. The following year, in February 1824, as a Lieutenant, he joined Parry’s Northwest Passage expedition aboard HMS Hecla. His manuscript account in a letter to Crossley (nos 339–40) says that they ‘left the Nore on 1st of May and after a difficult passage, we arrived at Port Bowen on the Eastern side of Prince Regent’s Inlet in the latter end of September where the Expedition passed the Winter of 1824 and 25.’ The fossil shells (no. 338) that he gave Crossley were ‘picked up about 60 miles SW of Port Bowen where we abandoned the Fury after her wrecked state by the ice. The place in consequence has obtained the name of Point Fury.’ He returned to Scotland in October 1825. One evocative memento of Parry’s expedition, given to Crossley by Forster on 14 March 1827, was a ‘Box [no. 335] made out of His Majesty’s Ship Fury, employed in Captain Parry’s celebrated [3rd] Voyage to the Northern Regions; and lost by the pressure of the ice, August 1, 1825, Lat. 72 D 46 Min, brought from thence by the late talented, enterprising and deeply lamented Lieut. Henry Forster RN.’ The Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge has a barrel organ made by John Longman of London in 1810, which accompanied Parry’s several Arctic expeditions to entertain the crew during their isolated winter sojourns. ‘It has five barrels, each of which play eight tunes, including jigs, reels, patriotic songs and hymns.’ Visiting Inuit were, not surprisingly, fascinated by this machine.58 Crossley followed Forster’s progress in the Polar regions with interest and kept a copy of the Leeds Intelligencer and Yorkshire General Advertiser for 18 November 1824, which announced the appearance of Captain Lyon of HMS Griper at the Admiralty, with the latest news of Captain Parry who had reached Lat. 71’. The passage is underlined, and with a bold ink manicule in the margin. Among the Arctic memorabilia a specimen (no. 336) of ‘Macintosh’s Water Proof Cloth, such as was used by Captain Parry in his voyage to the Polar Regions’ is still preserved, but the sea biscuit (no. 337) proved less durable. Natural history specimens were highly valued from such an exotic source and Crossley had a ‘Tusk of the waldrus [sic] or Sea Horse’ (no. 339), a piece of carbonate of lime (no. 338b) from Port Bowen on the Eastern side of Prince Regent’s Inlet, 1825, with the later pencil note ‘amongst the Specimen cards’, and ‘various specimens of minerals etc from the Arctic Regions’ (341-345c), all presented by Forster. A commanding presence in the Museum was a large glazed ‘case of Birds [no. 407], shot by Lieut. Hy. Forster RN. In the Expedition under Captain Parry to the Polar regions’, and a fine sight they must have been.59 Contemporary curiosities Like most country house museums of the time, Scaitcliffe was dependent on random gifts from well-wishers as well as the owner’s own enthusiasm for local curiosities, rather than purchases made at auction or from dealers, so many strange and probably unwelcome objects found a home there. A tin water can (no. 171) ‘struck by the Electrical Fluid in the Thunder Storm, on the night of the 22/23rd March 1817 in the house of Mrs Williams of Todmorden . . . she was asleep at the time’, was accompanied by an earthenware cup (no. 393) from the ‘home of John Clegg of Bagslate near Rochdale’, also struck by lightning in the thunderstorm of 17 November 1828, though Clegg writes to say he was unharmed. Part of the ‘skin of a Boa-Constrictor serpent [no. 123] which it quitted during the time it was exhibited in Rochdale’ once shared space with ‘part of a Rattle snake’s tail [no. 209] brought back from America by Fielden Hodgson of the same town. There was a ‘specimen of minute engraving [no. 222] by Wm. Snow containing the Lord’s Prayer in a very small circle’ and ‘an iron instrument [no. 290] supposed to be for picking pockets’, as well as a ‘swine’s snout ring [no. 190] which caused the death of John Harrison of Spotland in a remarkable manner’. The latter was probably as worthy of Dr Watson’s notebook as the story of the Giant Rat of Sumatra. Crossley owned a ‘piece of amber [no. 121], part of the cargo of the Alexandria East India Ship wrecked off Portland Beach in Dorsetshire 28 March 1815, when the Captain – his wife – and 7 children; and 133 of the crew and passengers perished’, and a piece of bread (no. 124) made from the ‘Bread Fruit Tree in the West Indies’, an unconscious tribute to the Mutiny on the Bounty. He had pieces of black cloth and stubs of wax candles (no. 172) from the lying in state at Windsor of George III, 17 February 1820, and a piece of carpet (no. 193b) from Westminster Hall where George IV dined on 19 July 1820. The arson attack on York Minster on 1 February 1829 by the deranged incendiary Jonathan Martin, brother of the noted painter John Martin, was commemorated by one of the turned wooden boxes containing a medallion of the Minster (no. 357) and by ‘part of one of the Organ Pipes [no. 381] gathered from the ruins the day after the Fire’. 60 Among more traditional relics (365a) were the ‘Thigh, part of the Back and Finger Bones of Thomas Earl of Lancaster (also a Tooth) Beheaded on Monday March 22, 1322; discovered on the 25th March 1822. Presented by Wm. Hepworth Esq, who was present at the opening of the coffin’. An enthusiasm for such memorials of mayhem would have been gratified, post-Peterloo, by ‘part of the Timber [no. 194] of the Floor of the Room in Cato Street, London, where Thistlewood and his associates met 23 Feb 1820 upon which the blood of the murdered Police Officer flowed; which is now visible; brought from London by Miss Mary Crossley, [Crossley’s daughter], 11 May same year.’61 The museum as a local landmark By the mid to late 1820s the Scaitcliffe museum had achieved critical mass and the rate of acquisition slowed down. It was already celebrated in local guidebooks such as James Butterworth’s history of Rochdale (Appendix i) where many of the exhibits are listed. Edward Baines and William Parson’s History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster (1825) also gives a notice of the museum, sub Todmorden; ‘The Scaitcliffe Armoury or Museum contains a great variety of antiquities and modern curiosities, principally illustrative of the family history; they are arranged in the residence of John Crossley Esq., at Rochdale, and the freedom with which they are exhibited by the owner greatly enhances their worth to the public’. There is no indication of admission charges or restricted access, but Scaitcliffe was a private house. Crossley was quick to appreciate the value of printed ephemera – broadsides, newspaper, posters, tickets, playbills and so on – for his paper museum, as witness to local events. These printed pieces, as well as original manuscripts and copies, might concern anything from canals and freemasonry (Crossley was the Provincial Grand Master of Lancashire) to theatres and exhibitions, great public events such as coronations and royal funerals, and events of purely parochial or family concern. He also recorded personal things such as notes on the paintings of himself (aged twenty-eight) and of his wife Sarah (aged twenty-seven) in 1806, by the ‘industrious and eminent painter Mr. Robert Stott of Rochdale’ with, in his case, ‘my Helmet and Sword laid beside me upon a sideboard’. Some twenty years later he kept the catalogue of the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1825 (no. 322) in which his bust by the sculptor F. A. Legé was exhibited and a ‘plaister cast (no. 322b) of Mr. Crossley’s lips and chin, taken by Mr. Legé’.62 He clearly never threw anything away, but must have left the organization and preservation of this material to his son. Reorganization in 1839–40 In 1839–40 the armoury was reorganized by Jesse Lee of Manchester, the elder Crossley’s ‘friend and youthful companion’, who was a long-term benefactor of the museum, with an interest in local ecclesiastical history.63 He gave three pieces of stained glass (nos 292, 332–3) including one with the mitred head of a Bishop, which came from the windows of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, erected in 1422. He also gave, in 1826, the ‘pastoral staff head, or crook [no. 315] of the last Nonjuring Bishop of Manchester (or rather of the County of Lancaster)’ with a very long account of its descent to the son of Bishop Booth, a watchmaker who gave it to the local Masonic Lodge. Lee’s letter begs acceptance of this crook for ‘preservation in your valuable collection of “Relics of days gone by” as in his own hands it would suffer decay or loss, as I have not the opportunity of forming a Cabinet myself.’ It was Jesse Lee who probably made the four sketches of the museum room illustrated here (Figs. 7–10) with the note ‘Re-arranged in Sept. Dec. 1839 Feby. March & Finished (up to No. 432) April 4th 1840 – assisted by Jesse Lee’. These rather crude drawings illustrate many of the weapons and larger wall-mounted objects and give numbers (including smaller objects in cases) for some 300 of the total of 432 exhibits. The remaining 130 were largely to be found mounted into the albums to form the paper museum. The drawings enable a sort of guided tour of the Museum as it stood in 1840, ten years after the death of the founder.64 Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the entrance wall to the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the entrance wall to the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the fireplace wall of the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the fireplace wall of the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the side wall of the Scaitcliffe museum, facing the window. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the side wall of the Scaitcliffe museum, facing the window. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the window wall of the Scaitcliffe Museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the window wall of the Scaitcliffe Museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Assuming that these drawings represent the four sides of a single room, one enters from the doorway in Fig. 7. Over the door is a Waterloo flag, Luke Crossley’s sword from the 1745 rebellion and a variety of walking sticks, some of them Masonic. To the right, arranged around the large case of Arctic birds is a motley assortment of Indian bows, African quivers with arrows, an African war club and leather ‘pocket’, a Turkish dagger and Persian scimitar, a Malay kris, a truncheon and ‘radical pikes’ from Peterloo along with a ‘radical bugle’, a High Sheriff’s javelin,65 and a few crooked sticks (forerunners of Sir Harry Lauder’s). Underneath this display are shelves or cases containing a great number of small objects. On the opposite wall (Fig. 8) is a more formal arrangement above and on both sides of the fireplace. Over the mantelpiece and surmounted by the pair of ram’s horns is a selection of cavalry sabres and other swords, to the right of the fireplace are mounted rifles and muskets, the majority with fitted bayonets, and including relics of 1745 and of Waterloo with others from various local trained bands, rifle corps and volunteer regiments. Interspersed with these are pistols and holsters. To the left are six pikes, javelins, and lances, including one with the Marshal’s flag for the local proclamation of George IV in 1820. Of the other two walls one (Fig. 9) appears to be taken up with an extended cupboard, on the top shelf of which are ranged a series of cuirasses (both front- and back-plates), either French from Waterloo or from the Life Guards, and a variety of helmets, casques and caps with a similar provenance, along with the odd juxtaposition, to one side, of the North American calumet or peace pipe, and the gilt wooden crest and initials of George IV which had hung over the pulpit in Todmorden church. The final wall (Fig. 10) must represent the five-light mullioned window, with the large North American bearskin ‘tobacco pouch’ on one side and an unidentified, long implement, or weapon, on the other. Over the window, with the buck antlers from Savannah in the centre, are three long Indian arrows, a matchlock musket from the ancient Assheton family of Middleton Hall, a bandmaster’s plume, two military sword-belts and the incongruous touch of two Flemish sabots. Decline and dispersal That was the Scaitcliffe armoury and museum as it stood in 1840, about to be effectively mothballed for the next half century. On the death of John Crossley jnr on 4 June 1864 the direct line of succession in the Crossley family ended, as John and his wife were childless. Scaitcliffe and other estates in Lancashire and Yorkshire passed to his nephew Croslegh Dampier (1839–1905) who took the surname and arms of Crossley. Dampier-Crossley’s father, Christopher Edward Dampier, had emigrated to New Zealand in 1850 and Croslegh, who had been brought up as a farmer after education at Sedbergh, followed his father to New Zealand in 1858 and became the proprietor of Esk Head Station. He was also, in the Crossley tradition, a member of the Canterbury [New Zealand] Yeomanry Cavalry.66 Dampier-Crossley’s sister Mary Elizabeth married the sea captain John Frank Atkinson (1821–1898) of Micklegate House, Horsefair, Pontefract in 1860 and their son, the Revd Hepworth Frank Atkinson (1862–1921), born on board ship off Mozambique, was the ancestor of the last owner of the Scaitcliffe paper museum, Primrose Blackburn, née Atkinson (1935–2011), of Guiseley near Leeds. The Scaitcliffe estate had been offered for sale by auction at the White Hart, Todmorden, in August 1889 but was withdrawn after the highest bid reached only £13,000. In 1892 the whole remaining museum and armoury, apart from the folio volumes of works on paper, was sold at auction by Hollis & Webb of Leeds.67 Mrs Blackburn’s executors sold the final paper remains of the museum, along with a few books and other objects, at Hartleys of Ilkley, Yorkshire, in September 2011; they are now widely dispersed.68 Conclusion The Scaitcliffe museum and armoury is unusual in its focus on family, locality, military tradition, and the idealized notion of the ‘local hero’. Also in its realization of the value of manuscript and printed documents as evidence, as a record for the future, even to the extent of notarized translations of letters in foreign languages, procured at some expense. Waterloo was heroic on an international scale, Peterloo was a disaster on a local level but with national repercussions. Both had great resonance in the Calder valley through local families touched by heroism or tragedy. The Crossleys were important locally as ancient landowners, as volunteer soldiers, magistrates, canal entrepreneurs, freemasons and philanthropists. Their little museum was encouraged and supported by a network of local gentry, especially from Rochdale, and seems to have been freely available to interested parties. The contents were not particularly remarkable; even the American Indian model canoe and peace-pipe were mirrored in other country house collections, and the Arctic birds could probably be found in cases in grander collections in neighbouring counties and elsewhere. But for many years, from the Regency into the early Victorian era, this collection of swords and muskets, pikes and radical banners, relics of the battlefields of the 1745 rebellion and Waterloo, old documents with royal seals, and the whiskers of great men and their horses, would serve as a sort of memorial to the Lancashire hero, and deserves to be commemorated. Acknowledgements Particular thanks are due to John Worthy of the Rochdale Book Co. for his help in guiding me around Lancashire and for the provision of photocopies of rare texts; also to other bookselling colleagues, especially Jolyon Hudson, Dr Christian White, John Martin, Julian Browning, and Brian Lake for their generosity and interest. To my former supervisor Professor Michael Hunter for valuable advice, Dr John Martin Robinson for information on museums in his home county, and to the taxi driver who gave me a leg-up when the gate at Scaitcliffe proved an obstacle to research. I am also grateful to the two referees, Philip J. Lankester and Guy M. Wilson, both formerly of the Royal Armouries, who sacrificed their anonymity to provide extensive and valuable notes and comments on the text, as well as links to past and forthcoming articles. Appendix I Description of the museum from J. Butterworth, An Historical and Topographical Account of the Town and Parish of Rochdale in Lancashire (Manchester, 1828), pp. 7–8. The following amongst a very great collection of curiosities (chiefly modern) of Military implements, &c are to be seen in the Scaitcliffe armory, or cabinet of rarities, belonging to John Crossley, Esq. of that place, and also of Rochdale. Besides which are many valuable and curious manuscripts, amongst which papers is one recording that John Crossley, Esq. an ancestor of the present John Crossley, Esq. Was a cornet in the army of Charles the first, and fought for that monarch in the fatal battle of Marston Moor, July 2nd, 1644, his commission, signed by the Earl of Derby, is amongst these curious documents, and the Sword with which this hero fought in that memorable action. In the said museum is also the fusee and bayonet, with the sword, &c of Anthony Crossley, Esq. Ensign during the rebellion in 1745. The shirt, handkerchief and silk stockings that belonged to Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, when king of Spain, and taken at the battle of Vittoria, on the 21st of June, 1813, when Joseph escaped to Bayonne. Two Indian Bows, one of which has a bow string made of cane. A Powder Horn, with a map of part of America inscribed thereon. A War Club, once used by the Africans, in battle. Malay Cress, or poisoned dagger, from the East Indies, and another Malay Dagger from do. Ten African Arrows. A Quiver of 23 African Arrows. Specimens of Cloth made by the females, and other inhabitants of Otaheite. Leathern Pocket, worn by the Africans; all of which foreign curiosities were presented to John Crossley Esq. By Richard Shuttleworth, Esq. of Rochdale. Hair, cut from the head of Napoleon Bonaparte, while at St. Helena. A collection of Spanish and French coins, are also preserved herein. John Crossley, Esq.has also been presented with ten pieces of plate, commendatory of numerous laudable services he has on different occasions rendered to social and other mercantile bodies. A Persian Scymitar; a Turkish Dagger; and ancient Bow; an African Fishing Spear; armour of Henry the eighth’s time; three very ancient Arrows, one with a barbed head; two Sandals, worn in the east; a Ring which formerly belonged to an officer of a Roman Legion, found in the ground near Pontefract, in Yorkshire; Grape Shot, found on Cockey Moor, and a Shell discovered 120 yards below the surface of the earth, at Shelf Iron Works, near Northowram, in the county of York. The Hair and Hand Writing of his late Majesty George the third, and various ancient pictures and other curiosities, which to insert particularly would far exceed the limits of my work. Appendix II Auction of the contents of the Museum by Hollis & Webb of Leeds, 1892. No copy of the sale catalogue has been located in copac but a contemporary newspaper cutting (unidentified), formerly pasted into one of the folio volumes, gives an account of the sale. It is headlined ‘Sale of Waterloo Relics in Leeds. “Napoleon’s shirt, 8s”.’ A very interesting sale of antique furniture and curios of almost every description was commenced in Messrs. Hollis and Webb’s Rooms, yesterday. The property, removed from Scaitcliffe Hall, Todmorden, the seat of the Crossley family, was brought into the market consequent upon the death of the late owner. Considerable interest attached to the disposal of the contents of the Scaitcliffe Hall Museum, the formation of which was practically the life work of the late Mr. John Crossley, J.P. Collectors and dealers assembled from London, Nottingham, Hull, Goole, Beverley, Manchester, and various other parts of England, and the room was crowded, keen interest and competition being manifested for some of the lots, especially Waterloo relics. In opening the sale Mr. Webb described the sale as perfectly unique in its way, some of the lots being such as could not possibly be matched. He was well aware that many of the things were of little or no value intrinsically but they were of great historical interest. The following were some of the prices realised: A 3ft. 6in. oak Chippendale secretaire, £13. 13s; a black oak chest with carved front £18. 18s; and old oak inlaid cabinet £37. 16s; a crown Derby tea and breakfast service, £23. 2s; a sepode [sic (Spode)] dinner service, £15. 4s. 6d; Napoleon’s Star of the Legion of Honour, £5. 5s; a Cross of the Legion of Honour found on the field of Waterloo, £5. 5s; the razor of Napoleon Bonaparte, 17s. 6d; a brass eagle from the appointment of one of the 2nd Regiment of Waterloo, £2; two small brass eagles from the plains of Waterloo; an old deed bearing the great seal of Queen Elizabeth, £1; deed of appointment to the rectory of Middleton, £6. 10s; two bars taken from the coat of Corporal Shaw, who fell at Waterloo [no. 8?]; Queen Adelaide’s money tablet, and an old embroidered [cap?] £8; an old piece of needlework, £2. 12s; an old flint [axe?] £2. 10s; two bones of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, beheaded £2. 13s; Napoleon Bonaparte’s shirt, 8s; handkerchief of Joseph Bonaparte, 5s. 3d; a ring of an officer of the Roman Legion, found near Pontefract, 1716; pastoral star of the last nonjuring Bishop of Manchester, 8s; an old pistol taken from a Frenchman by a British sailor in the Peninsular War 14s; two old French flintlock pistols taken during the Peninsular War, £1. 7s; two bundles of African arrows, £1. 7s; front and back plates, from a French Cuirassier taken at Waterloo, £1. 12s. 6d; a breast plate, £1. 7s. 6d; two lances from Waterloo, £2. 2s; two lances with regimental crest in brass, £3. 4s; two old banners, £1; Life Guardsman’s helmet from Waterloo, £1. 3s.; another ditto £1. 16s.; two French cuirassier helmets from Waterloo £1. 7s.; two small cannons, £2. 10s.; autograph of General Washington, £1. 2s. Notes and references 1 Clive Wainwright, The Romantic Interior. The British collector at home 1750–1850 (New Haven and London, 1989). 2 Sarah Bevan, “Three-dimensional decorations: displays of arms in English Houses’, Country Life 128 no. 4601 (1985), pp. 1229–1238. 3 Adrienne L. Kaeppler, Holophusicon. The Leverian Museum (Vienna, 2011). 4 Arthur MacGregor (ed.), The Cobbe Cabinet of Curiosities, an Anglo-Irish Country House Museum (London and New Haven, 2015). 5 See British Listed Buildings (ngr: sd 9260525142), Historic England, list entry no. 1228135. 6 James Burke. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1835), vol. ii, pp. 536–8, Crossley of Scaitcliffe. Burke’s earliest Crossley recorded is a John del Croslegh, c.1356 of Todmaredene, up to the contemporary John Crossley. See also Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (privately printed, London, 1904) 7 Scaitcliffe Armory & Museum. Reference Book (manuscript in private collection). All the item numbers quoted henceforth refer to this inventory. 8 Crossley’s testimonial for election as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London was signed by Admiral W. H. Smyth (1788–1865), hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist, and by Thomas Amyot (1775–1850) literary scholar. Information kindly provided by Heather Rowland, the Society’s Librarian. 9 The third verse begins: This man is of great spirits He’s a man of great renown His Dwelling is at Scaitcliffe near Todmorden Town He’s raising both men and horse So valiant, stout and strong Four Hundred Lancashire Lads For- the King. The fourth verse commences: Their clothing it is green my Boys and turned up with Red a Glittering Cap and Feather For to adorn their Head a glittering Sword and pistols Hanging by your side Five Guineas of advance and a gallant Horse to ride. The chorus to each verse goes: In the Cavalry of Todmorden so merrily we’ll go and with Lieutenant Crossley ye valiant Hero. 10 ‘The individuals by whom the sword was purchased, having previously assembled in a central part of the valley, marched in military order to Scaitcliffe, and formed a circle upon the terrace in front of the ancient Mansion, the scene of his birth and his paternal inheritance, transmitted to him in regular descent from a long line of ancestors, distinguished in times past for their loyalty and patriotism. Being conducted into the centre of the circle, the sword was presented to him by Serjeant Slater, the Pay Serjeant of the Company, (who had been selected by his comrades for that office), a fine war-worn veteran, who during 18 years’ arduous service had shared in the glorious achievements of the 28th Regiment of Foot, under the brave Sir Edward Paget. In the brief and emphatic language of the soldier, he requested Captain Crossley’s acceptance of the sword . . . Captain Crossley replied in a speech of considerable length . . . a Bible suitably inscribed, was presented by him to each individual present. The whole of the party were then regaled with roast-beef and strong ale, which was supplied in great abundance from the venerable old Mansion.’ 11 Fiona A. Paton, ‘Arms and armour’, in Joseph Mayer of Liverpool, 1803–1886, ed. Margaret Gibson and Susan M. Wright (London, 1988), p. 167. 12 The Toxophilite Society was formed in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, becoming the Royal Toxophilite Society under the patronage of the Prince of Wales from 1787. They practised in the grounds of Leicester House, Leicester Fields (later Leicester Square). Alicia Amherst, London Parks and Gardens (London, 1907), p. 97. 13 Richard Cuming had founded his museum at 3 Deans Row, Walworth. After the death of his son Henry Syer Cuming (1817–1902) the Museum opened in 1906 above Newington Library on Walworth Road, Southwark. After a recent fire the contents of the Museum are temporarily in store. See Bryn Hyacinth, ‘The ethnographic collection at the Cuming Museum’, Journal of Museum Ethnography (Hull, 2008), pp. 128–44. 14 ‘Richard and his brother John were members of the Newington Armed Association in 1798 and while this lapsed, it revived again around 1803 and became the 1st Surrey Regiment of Volunteer Infantry. Richard was first a corporal, as he had been when in the naa, and then became a sergeant in 1804’: Judy Aitken, Curator of the Cuming Museum, Southwark Library and Heritage team, personal communication, 16 March 2017. 15 The memoirs of Sir Richard Drake Henegan, Seven Years’ Campaigning in the Peninsula and the Netherlands. From 1808 to 1815 (London, 1846), vol. ii, p. 10, states that Colonel Burton of the Royal Welch Fusiliers at Vittoria had authorized him to dispose of some 160 carriages, brought or commandeered by the French, by giving them to the local inhabitants who had suffered from the French occupation. He adds that some of them were later discovered to have had money and jewels hidden in the silk and velvet linings. 16 Sir Walter Scott, Paul’s Letters to his Kinfolk, 2nd edn (London, 1816), pp. 198, 207–8. 17 Ibid. 18 See Anne de Chefdebien, ‘Les insignes des ordres de l’empereur’, in La Berline de Napoléon, Le mystère du butin de Waterloo, ed. Jean Tulard (Paris, 2012), pp. 164–258. 19 Scott, op. cit. (note 16), p. 207. 20 Ibid. 21 A 1796 pattern heavy cavalry sword with a later inscription (c.1864) recording that it belonged to Sergeant Shaw is in the Royal Armouries (inv. no. ix.968). Shaw no doubt owned several swords. 22 The original skull was believed to have belonged to Admiral Ryder and spent twenty years in an unnamed ‘Gentleman’s Club’ in London, before being sent by General Maltby to Wollaton Church in June 1898 where it was interred underneath Shaw’s Waterloo memorial in the churchyard. 23 Poster in Nottinghamshire Archives. Inventory number unknown. 24 Offered for sale again at Forum Auctions, London, 15–16 November 2016, lot 88. 25 Guy M. Wilson, ‘A group of guns and a sword exhibited in London from 1816 to 1833 as those presented to General Napoleon Bonaparte by the Directory in 1797,’ in The Robert M. Lee Collection: European and Oriental arms and armour, forthcoming. 26 He also owned an autograph letter (no. 216) of George Washington, Philadelphia, 7 September 1795, to Samuel Meredith, respecting some early wheat seeds. 27 Henry Lucas of 10 King Street, Liverpool, was a wine merchant, notary public, translator and language teacher. See Baines & Parson, Gazetteer of the County Palatine (Liverpool, 1824), and Pigot & Co., National Commercial Directory for 1828–9. 28 Scott, op. cit. (note 16), vol. iii, p. 178. 29 Paul O’Keeffe, Scott on Waterloo (London, 2015), pp. 10–11. 30 Shelley’s open letter to Leigh Hunt was written in Florence, 3–6 November 1819.‘Post succeeds post, & fresh horrors are forever detailed. First we hear that a troop of the enraged master-manufacturers are let loose with sharpened swords upon a multitude of their starving dependents & in spite of the remonstrances of the regular troops that they ride over them & massacre without distinction of sex or age . . .’ B. C. Barker-Benfield, Shelley’s Guitar, exh. cat., Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1992), p.122. The poem was published posthumously in 1832 with a preface by Leigh Hunt. 31 R. Reid, The Peterloo Massacre (London, 1989), p. 201. 32 Wainwright, op. cit. (note 1), p. 254. 33 See Brian Robson, Swords of the British Army. The regulation patterns, 1788 to 1914, revised edn (London, 1996), pp. 18–24. Also, Michel Pétard, Des Sabres et des épées, tome second: troupes à cheval, de l’Empire à nos jours (Nantes, 1999). 34 The decisive battle of the first Anglo-Sikh War on 10 February 1846. 35 Wainwright, op. cit. (note 1), pp. 52–3 and passim. 36 Gerald Reitlinger, The Economics of Taste, vol. ii (London, 1963), pp. 108–9. 37 Advertisement in the Morning Post, 16 October 1840. 38 See John Beardmore, A Catalogue with illustrations of the Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour at Uplands, near Fareham, Hampshire (London, 1844). A watercolour for pl. 2 of this book, by Edwin Fudge, was offered as lot 3061 in the sale of the library of Stuart Schimmel, Bonhams, New York, 27 June 2013. The Beardmore collection was sold at Christie’s in 1921 in over 200 lots. 39 Thomas Lister Parker, Description of Browsholme Hall in the West Riding of the county of York (London, 1815). p. 7, lists some of the contents, ‘A British battle-axe, found in the field near Preston; the buff leather jacket; the Roman stone found at Ribchester, belonging to the 20th Legion (or Agricola’s); a pair of boots of Charles the First’s reign, and two large cannon-balls; and a most curious crossbow, used as a military weapon, were presented by Tho. Clarke Esq. of Waddow. The spur found in the apartment called Henry the Sixth’s at Waddington Hall; a Danish pike, armour, and funeral escutcheons belonging to the neighbouring families, presented by Pudsey Dawson Esq. of Bolton Hall. A very perfect round shield, presented by Richard H.Beaumont, Esq.of Wheatley Hall, near Wakefield. The skull found in the west wing. The long oak table presented by Walter Fawkes of Farnley, Esq. A very curious and ancient Scottish piggin [a small wooden pail], dug out of a turbary near Long Preston in Craven, the swords, helmets &c were many of them in the house before the alterations were made.’ 40 Sir Walter Scott, Introduction and Notes and Illustrations to the Novels, Tales, and Romances of the Author of Waverley (Edinburgh and London, 1833), p. 116. 41 See Rosalind Lowe, Sir Samuel Meyrick and Goodrich Court (Little Logaston, 2003). 42 Claude Blair, ‘New light on Andrea Ferrara’, Arms and Armour Society Newsletter no. 1 (1984). 43 John Wallace, Scottish Swords and Dirks (London, 1970), p. 25. 44 Guy M. Wilson, ‘Percy’s tenants volunteered: an early example of total war or a truly English shambles?’, in Mars & Clio. The Newsletter of the British Commission for Military History no. 27 (2010), pp. 19–32. 45 See C. H. Timperley, Records Historical, Municipal . . . of Manchester (1874), p. 126. ‘Mr. Jesse Lee, of Hulme, died February 17 [1844] was a native of Rochdale but came to this town in early life. As a heraldist and genealogist few could surpass him; he was particularly conversant with the history of the old Lancashire families; he also particularly excelled in copying old prints with the pen, in such a manner as to render it difficult to distinguish the original.’ He also edited and continued John Seacome’s Memoirs ... of the House of Stanley, and projected an elaborate edition of the works of John Collier, ‘Tim Bobbin’, with a glossary of dialect words, but the publisher went bankrupt. 46 See Susan Stronge, Tipu’s Tigers (London, 2009) and Lucian Harris, ‘British Collecting of Indian Art and Artifacts in the 18th and early 19th Centuries’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Sussex University (2002), pp. 39–50. 47 Byron wrote to Dearden from Genoa on 22 January 1822: ‘Sir, You and I have now been eighteen years at law with various success . . . of the original occasion of this suit I have no great knowledge, since I inherited it and was a child when it began, and for ought I know may arrive at second childhood before it terminates.’ Dearden managed to purchase the manor of Rochdale for £11,250 late in 1823 and sent his son (also James Dearden) to Greece with the deeds of conveyance for Byron’s signature. Donald H. Reiman, Shelley and his Circle 1773–1822 (New York, 1986), p. 452 note. In 1828 a legal document drawn up between the trustees of the 6th Lord Byron, deceased, and James Dearden and his trustees may have finally concluded this long-drawn-out saga of the Rochdale manorial rights and certain coal mines (Maggs Bros, Modern Books andmssCatalogue no. 1122). 48 Byron arrived at Missolonghi in January 1824 and died of a fever on 19 April. 49 Lowe, op. cit. (note 41), pp. 195–6. 50 A similar miniature canoe of birch bark decorated with porcupine quills is in the Museum at Central Michigan University and had been given to David Truman Corp in the 1820s by an Indian lady of the Chippewa settlement at Pointe aux Chenes in Mackinac County of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. There is also a canoe in the Cobbe museum, described as Mi’kmaq and probably collected c.1805; other North American artefacts in that collection include a Plains Indian pipe of catlinite with an ash stem and a pair of moccasins from Eastern Canada: Jeremy Coote, ‘Africa, Oceania and the Americas’, in MacGregor, op. cit. (note 4), cat. nos 18.25, 18.22, 18.24. 51 Cannon seems to have been a kind of bounty hunter who had been sent to America in search of William Borthwick, the absconding cashier of the East Lothian Bank, whom he finally apprehended, with a great quantity of bills and cash, in Charleston, South Carolina. 52 The collection was founded by Sir William Farington or ffarington (1730–1781) of Shaw Hall, Leyland, Lancashire, who made a six-month Grand Tour of Italy in 1765 (see John Ingammells, Dictionary of British and Irish Travellers in Italy, 1701–1800 (New Haven, 1997), p. 348), and built a ‘Grecian Gallery’ to house his museum. Shaw Hall was renamed Worden Hall and subsequent Faringtons enlarged the museum; the house was entirely rebuilt by Anthony Salvin in 1840–45 for James Nowell Farington, who died in 1847. A disastrous fire in 1941 led to eventual demolition in 1960, save for one surviving wing, but much of the museum had been re-housed in a barn at Mawdesley and was dispersed throughout the 1940s (Dr John Martin Robinson, personal communication). Most of the ethnographica seems to have been bought by the New Zealander Kenneth Athol Webster (1906–1967). See Hermione Waterfield and J.C.H. King, Provenance. Twelve collectors of ethnographic art in England 1760–1990 (London, 2009), p. 150. A 1948 sale catalogue of the contents of Worden Hall, annotated by Colonel D.A.S. Houghton is at the Lancashire Record Office, Preston (ddx 1913/3/4). Three surviving North American Indian artefacts from Worden Hall, purchased by the antiquary and dealer William Ockleford Oldman (1879–1949) from Webster in the late 1940s, were sold to the British Museum by his widow in 1949: they are a North Eastern animal head carved wooden club (Am 1949,22.147), a Cherokee stone tobacco pipe-bowl (Am 1949,22,154) and an Iroquois wampum belt (Am 1949,22.119). 53 Bryan Mullanphy was sent to school at Stonyhurst in 1821 by his father John Mullanphy of Enniskillen who had emigrated to New Orleans (later based at St Louis) in the early 1800s and became a successful cotton merchant exporting cotton to Lancashire. Mullanphy jnr became mayor of St Louis in the 1840s. 54 A Charles Cretson, possibly his son, is recorded as being born at Philadelphia on 31 July 1821. 55 The Powatomi were widely located in the Great Plains and Lakes. White Dog was based on the Iroquois River. Many of the Powatomi were relocated by the US government to Oklahoma after the Chicago Treaty of 1833. 56 There are a number of these engraved powder horns dated 1759–60 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. See Stephen V. Grancsay, American Engraved Powder Horns (Philadelphia, 1965). There are also many fakes on the market. 57 Henry Forster, FRS 1824, and Copley Medal 1827. From 1828 to 1831 he was Commander of HMS Chanticleer on the expedition to the South Atlantic and drowned in the Chagres River in Panama in 1831. See Scott Polar Research Institute (spri) Archives, Cambridge, for the Henry Forster Collection, 1825–31. 58 spri Museum, y:56/14. Given by Admiral Sir Edward Parry, 1954. 59 See MacGregor, op. cit. (note 4), pp. 25–6. Other important collections of North American birds were in the museum of Marmaduke Tunstall (1743–1790) at Wycliffe, North Yorkshire, transferred on his death to William Constable (1743–1791) of Burton Constable Hall, East Yorkshire, and in the museum of Anna Blackburne (1726–1793) at Orford Hall, transferred in 1787 to Fairfield, near Warrington, Lancashire. Anna Blackburne was a cousin and neighbour of Sir Ashton Lever and a significant botanist and collector in her own right. She corresponded with J. R. Forster and Linnaeus, and over 100 of her North American birds were described by Thomas Pennant in his Arctic Zoology (1785). Many of these had been sent by her brother Ashton Blackburne from North America where he lived. Anna’s nephew John Blackburne (1754–1833) of Orford Hall was once High Sheriff and for very many years Member of Parliament for Lancashire, in which capacity he must have known the Crossleys. 60 See Thomas Balston, The Life of Jonathan Martin, incendiary of York Minster (London, 1945). 61 The Cato Street Conspiracy was a plot to kill all the members of the cabinet and overthrow the government. The leader was Arthur Thistlewood with the planning and inspiration from George Edwards, a police spy and agent provocateur. When the Bow Street Runners raided the headquarters of the plotters in Cato Street, London, Thistlewood killed a policeman and the other conspirators were rounded up. Five were hanged and the others transported. 62 Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660–1851 (London, 1953), p. 237; Ingrid Roscoe, Emma Hardy and M. G. Sullivan, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851 (London and New Haven, 2009), p. 733. F. A. Legé worked in Liverpool, c.1800, for Messrs Franceys, and later moved to London to work for Francis Chantrey. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1814 to 1825. By 1900 the bust of Crossley was in the possession of the Revd Hepworth Frank Atkinson. 63 See note 28, above. 64 A very similar drawing of the interior of the Cuming Museum, Walworth, South London (illustrated in Kaeppler, op. cit. (note 3), fig. x, of about the same year, shows what must have been standard practice for displaying weapons and smaller objects. 65 On his election as High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1834, ‘Sir Samuel [Meyrick] had chosen to resurrect the custom of the Sheriff being accompanied by javelin-men who would escort the judges to the Assizes. He designed their costumes himself, in the style of the time of Henry VIII, and gave them £5 each to buy the clothing-though one Hereford Times correspondent later claimed it was a bribe for appearing in such a ridiculous garb’: Lowe, op. cit. (note 41), p. 138. 66 The Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry was established as a volunteer corps at Christchurch in 1864. It was the oldest light cavalry unit in New Zealand. The uniform was scarlet and blue with black facings and a red plumed helmet (Wikipedia). 67 See Appendix ii. 68 See the sale catalogue of Hartleys of Ilkley, W.Yorkshire, 14 September 2011, for an interesting illustrated introduction to the Scaitcliffe albums which are described in some detail, by Dr Christian White, in lots 757 to 763. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of the History of Collections Oxford University Press

The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum: A monument to the ‘Lancashire hero’ at home, at war, and abroad (1810–1840)

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
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0954-6650
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Abstract

Abstract The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum was a Lancashire country house museum, formed by two generations of the Crossley family of Scaitcliffe Hall, Todmorden c.1810–40, and dispersed at auction in Leeds in 1892. But details of the works in the collection, bound into seven folio volumes, along with an index volume to the entire collection, survived in collateral descent until 2011 when the last owner died. Enough documentation remains, in a private collection, to enable a tentative reconstruction of the museum, to examine the motives of the Crossley family in founding it and the way in which the collection was implemented; it also allows us to form comparisons with other contemporary northern country house museums and armouries such as Sir Walter Scott’s at Abbotsford and Thomas Lister Parker’s at Browsholme. By 1904, only twelve years after its final dissolution, the Scaitcliffe museum was completely forgotten – not even accorded a mention in Sir David Murray’s monumental Museums, their History and their Use. The country house museum The subject of the country house museum in the British Isles has not received a great deal of scholarly attention, compared with other early museum studies. Nor has the collection of arms and armour as an important element of interior decoration, in the context of the private museum, been much considered until the late Clive Wainwright’s pioneering The Romantic Interior, where five houses – Strawberry Hill, Fonthill, Abbotsford, Goodrich Court and Charlecote Park – are all examined in detail.1 An article in Country Life, in October 1985, by Sarah Bevan discussed earlier displays of arms such as the civil war Popham armoury at Littlecote, Wiltshire, and the early eighteenth-century armouries at Boughton House, Northamptonshire, and that of the Earl of Stanhope at Chevening House, Kent.2 Adrienne Kaeppler’s continued research into the dispersal of ethnographic artefacts from Cook’s voyages, in her Holophusicon,3 unearthed a number of forgotten English country house museums such as Bidwell House, Widdicombe House, and Wortham Manor, all in Devon, where some of these objects found a home. More recently the examination of the history and contents of the Cobbe family cabinet, an Anglo-Irish museum established at Newbridge, near Dublin in the eighteenth century and relocated to Hatchlands Park, Surrey, has brought together contributions by experts in many fields, under the editorship of Arthur MacGregor. The introductory survey by MacGregor also covers the current state of our knowledge of these museums, especially in their devotion to natural history, and opens up the little-known history of collecting in Ireland.4 Scaitcliffe Hall Scaitcliffe Hall, the seat of the Crossley family for many generations, is off the Burnley Road, a couple of miles from Todmorden in Calderdale. It is described as a house of 1666 with additions of 1738, substantially altered in 1833–5 with attractive Gothic glazing and an added bay of c.1850 (Fig. 1).5 When the hall was rebuilt in the 1830s, after James Crossley senior had died, the armoury and museum was probably rehoused and after 1838 (as watermarked) the paper archive of the museum was organized in a series of seven folio albums; letters and papers, prints and posters, were mounted on stubs (the backing paper for letters in vol. i is watermarked John Livesey 1821) and bound up in albums of red morocco, or russia leather, lettered in gilt on the spines and upper covers, with suitably Gothic ornamentation (see Fig. 6). Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Anonymous postcard. Scaitcliffe Hall, near Todmorden. Circa 1900. Courtesy of Hartleys of Ilkley, Auctioneers. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Anonymous postcard. Scaitcliffe Hall, near Todmorden. Circa 1900. Courtesy of Hartleys of Ilkley, Auctioneers. The setting of the hall is a wooded valley, though not as wild as the steel-engraved view of the old house in 1832 would indicate (Fig. 2). Todmorden itself was little more than a village in the Calder valley until the coming of the first turnpike road in 1780 and the Rochdale canal in 1802. The Lancashire-Yorkshire boundary divided the town in half until the local Government Act of 1888 awarded it to the West Riding of Yorkshire (now Calderdale). For the purpose of this article it remains in the Palatinate of Lancaster, as it was until the transfer of jurisdiction from the Duchy of Lancaster to the High Court in 1873. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Scaitcliffe. The seat of John Crossley,Esq., engraved by W. Le Petit after J. Harwood and W. Purser. 1832. From E. Baines, History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster (London, 1836). Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Scaitcliffe. The seat of John Crossley,Esq., engraved by W. Le Petit after J. Harwood and W. Purser. 1832. From E. Baines, History of the County Palatine and Duchy of Lancaster (London, 1836). The Calder valley was a centre of the woollen industry and later of cotton manufacture; textile mills, utilizing the extensive water sources of river and canal, proliferated in the 1820s, rapidly making the noxious smoke from numerous factory chimneys a feature of the valley. In stark contrast were the bleak surrounding South Pennine moors and the 1,200-foot Stoodley Pike, topped by a monument commissioned in 1814 to mark the surrender of Paris to the Allies, and erected in 1815 after Waterloo. In the 1840s the coming of the railway, with its dramatic viaduct, transformed Todmorden and brought new municipal building in the grand manner. The old Todmorden Hall, a fine Jacobean mansion in the centre of town, once also in the possession of the Crossleys, became an anachronistic symbol of pre-industrial Lancashire and has ended its days as a post office sorting depot. Scaitcliffe itself, which the Crossleys relinquished in the late nineteenth century after some 500 years of occupation, became a luxury hotel, although for the past five years it has stood empty. The Crossley family The Crossleys were proud of their lineage6 and a family tradition of military service, going back to Marston Moor in 1644 (where John Crossley fought on the Royalist side) and the Jacobite incursion of 1745 where Luke Crossley (a younger son) served as a Cornet in the Light Dragoons under the Duke of Cumberland. Luke may also have fought at Culloden in 1746 but the documentation is now lost. Both their swords are catalogued in the inventory of the collection (item nos 1 and 9),7 the first a ‘broad two-handed sword’ and the second basket-hilted, were in the Scaitcliffe armoury, along with the fusee and bayonet of Anthony Crossley (no. 4), who served in the Lancashire Militia during the rebellion of 1745. These long-preserved weapons, along with some related early family papers, seem to have sparked the idea, at around the time the Stoodley monument was mooted, of establishing an armoury as a repository of the family arms and armour, as well as their original manuscript commissions in various local regiments and volunteer forces. This, as will be seen, was rapidly extended to cover the activities of ‘local heroes’ on the battlefield, in major events such as Waterloo (and later, more locally, at Peterloo) and in travel to the remote regions of North America and the Arctic from whence a network of merchants and local friends provided relics for the burgeoning museum. The Scaitcliffe armoury and museum seems to have been the brainchild of John Crossley (1778–1830) (Fig. 3) who took over the estate from his brother Anthony (1762–1810). Most of the Crossleys were named Anthony or John, and John the founder of the museum, elected FSA in 1827,8 in turn passed it on to his son John Crossley (1807–1864) (Fig. 4), Justice of the Peace and Deputy-Lieutenant of the county of Lancaster, a Cambridge MA (Christ’s College) and barrister of Inner Temple, who died without issue and left the estate to his nephew, Croslegh Dampier. The earliest non-family acquisitions appear to date from about 1809 and were of a military nature, such as the piece of red and blue cloth (no. 3) from the regimental coat of Captain Dewhurst of Bolton, worn at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 and presented by Captain Chippendale, adjutant of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia. Other accoutrements such as swords, belts, pistols, coats, neck stocks, etc. were contributed by troopers who had been kitted out at the expense of Anthony Crossley in 1797. A drinking song of that date from the local Volunteers (preserved in vol. 1 of the manuscript catalogue) celebrates the brave Lieutenant Crossley and his troop in five verses.9 Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Anonymous photograph, John Crossley, 1778–1830, marble bust by F. A. Legé, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825. From Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (London, 1904). Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Anonymous photograph, John Crossley, 1778–1830, marble bust by F. A. Legé, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1825. From Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (London, 1904). Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Joseph Severn, Portrait of John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, 1851. By kind permission of Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand. Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Joseph Severn, Portrait of John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, 1851. By kind permission of Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand. Volunteer and local militia regiments A local newspaper, the British Volunteer and Manchester Weekly Express for 10 August 1816 (folded into archive vol. 1), gives a long account of the events surrounding the presentation of a silver sword to Captain John Crossley by the non-commissioned officers, privates and drummers of the 5th (Todmorden) Company of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia.10 The article concludes: It is worthy of remark upon this occasion, that in most of the great national struggles that have occurred within the last three centuries, it appears from the family records, that the strength of the valley was led forth by a Crossley, in support of their King and Country. Many of the weapons that were borne by the warriors of Scaitcliffe upon those occasions, together with various articles of other defensive armour, besides many curious military records, are now in the possession of Captain Crossley, by whom they are cherished with no little veneration, as monuments of the loyalty of his family. Crossley’s own manuscript account of the events (no. 22) adds that each contributor to the sword fund was presented with a Bible containing a lengthy inscription in which ‘he requests to express a hope, that this Bible may always be found in the hands, or the Knapsack of the Hero to whom it is now given’. A letter from John Elliott of Townhead, Rochdale (no. 27), a week later, on 16 August, presenting a musket from the 84th Regiment of Foot, used in the Netherlands, elicited an interesting response from Crossley which underlines his thinking about the museum. ‘I contemplate this weapon of war, as having been borne to the Field of Battle, in the sections of the 84th, by some Hero from the Valley of Todmorden, probably some brave Fellow whom I personally knew, as more than half of that Regiment at that period was composed of men from my immediate neighbourhood.’ He adds that Elliott’s letter itself will be preserved ‘with no small degree of veneration and respect in the family archives of Scaitcliffe’, as indeed it was. Crossley, like his fellow arms and armour collectors Sir Walter Scott and Joseph Mayer of Liverpool (1803–1886), the jeweller and philanthropist, who also had an interest in relics of Napoleon, had all joined volunteer regiments and maintained an amateur interest in military matters throughout their lives. Scott, whose collection survives at Abbotsford, had founded the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Light Dragoons in 1797 and had been called out (like Crossley in 1808) to quell rioters south of the city protesting against the price of oats in May 1800. Mayer, aged twelve, had been a drummer-boy in the 34th Regiment of Foot only weeks before Waterloo; by 1860 he was Commanding Officer of the Liverpool Volunteer Borough Guard.11 Sir Ashton Lever (1729–1788) of Alkrington Hall, Middleton, Manchester, whose great museum was relocated to London in 1774, had founded a semi-military Toxophilite Society of Archers, with a uniform of green jackets and feathered hats.12 A major purchaser at the sale of his Leverian Museum in 1806 was Richard Cuming (1777–1870), amateur scientist and chemist and founder of the Cuming Museum in Southwark.13 Cuming was in the Newington branch of the Surrey Volunteers during the Napoleonic Wars and the museum still holds his haversack (Crossley’s ‘knapsack of the Hero’), sword, sash, epaulettes and badge.14 The Surrey Volunteers sported a light dragoon style helmet in fur, dark blue turban and yellow piping. Many of these early nineteenth-century private museum owners seemed to have loved the costume and display of contemporary militaria, which they sometimes found mirrored in their collections of ethnographica. It is not surprising that Cuming owned an important Hawaiian feather cape, an exotic example of warrior peacockry and authority. The Peninsular War The Peninsular War provided fresh material for the armoury. A batch of correspondence (no. 185) from Sergeant-Major Timothy Grindrod (c.1779–1820) of the 16th Queen’s Light Dragoons to his mother in Rochdale, along with a manuscript account of the battle of Talavera, accompanied documentation of Crossley’s attempts to secure a pension for the widow of this ‘Lancashire Hero’. Other Peninsular memorabilia included some beads and a cross taken from a convent in Coimbra after the battle of Bussaco (no. 35), a coat (no. 36) worn by Adjutant Day of the 34th Regiment, killed at the Battle of the Pyrenees on 11 August 1813, and a belt and sword (no. 37) taken from a French officer at San Sebastian in the same year. A clutch of silk monogrammed garments (shirt, handkerchief and pair of stockings) belonging to Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte when King of Spain (no. 34), were taken at the Battle of Vittoria on 21 June 1813. A letter of 2 October 1816 from Henry Smith of the 2nd Battalion of the 7th Regiment of Fusiliers to John Crossley gives the background to this modest haul of royal loot which he had been given by William Blackburne, servant to Colonel Burton, appointed Commandant at Vittoria.15 The items ‘were taken from the carriage of Joseph Bonaparte upon the road leading from Vittoria to Bayonne, after he had quitted it, and mounted upon one of the lead Horses (his Servant upon the other) and made his escape thereby and entered Bayonne in that manner.’ Henry Smith also provided a ‘manuscript Journal [no. 312] of six years service in the Peninsular War, kept by Sergt. Major Dove of the 7th Regt. Royal Fusiliers’. The Battle of Waterloo Sir Walter Scott was one of the first celebrities to visit the site of the battle of Waterloo, and found that relics could no longer be picked up freely on the field, but had been effectively commandeered by the local inhabitants and were ruthlessly offered for sale. In Paul’s Letters to his Kinfolk (1816),16 Scott paints a grisly picture of the commercial aftermath of war; ‘All ghastly remains of the carnage had either been burned or buried and the reliques of the fray which yet remained were not in themselves of a very imposing kind. Bones of horses, quantities of old hats, rags of clothing, scraps of leather, and fragments of books and papers strewed the ground in great profusion.’ Scott described men, women and children rushing out of the hamlets on the approach of visitors to offer swords, pistols, carbines, and holsters. The price of a reasonable carbine was about five francs. But the great object of ambition was to possess the armour of a cuirassier, which at first might have been bought in great quantity, almost all the wearers having fallen in that bloody battle. The victors had indeed carried off some of these cuirasses to serve as culinary utensils. I myself have seen the Highlanders frying their rations of beef or mutton upon the breast-plates and back-pieces of their discomfited adversaries. But enough remained to make the fortunes of the people of St. John, Waterloo, Planche-noit, &c. When I was at La Belle Alliance I bought the cuirass of a common soldier for about six francs; but a very handsome inlaid one, once the property of a French officer of distinction which was for sale in Brussels, cost me four times the sum. As for the casques, or head-pieces, which by the way are remarkable handsome, they are almost introuvable, for the peasants immediately sold them to be beat out for old copper, and the purchasers, needlessly afraid of their being reclaimed, destroyed them as fast as possible.17 Crossley was fortunate in being able to draw on a network of Lancashire old soldiers who had either served at Waterloo or knew someone who had. Typical is a letter from William Shaw of Rochdale (no. 287), who states: on the 25th of June last [1824], I was at the celebrated Field of battle of Waterloo, and at la belle alliance, the silk Handkerchief herewith sent you, and which I beg your acceptance of, was dug out of the ground on the 17th of the same month, which was found in the pocket of an officer’s pantaloons, who had been buried there in the great battle – the Handkerchief was in a bad state when first discovered, but upon being washed and exposed to the air, became not unpleasant. In 1827 a Manchester correspondent writes to Crossley saying that he is sending the skull of a French cuirassier via Mr Butterworth of Rochdale and that it was vouched for by Sergeant Ewart who had been at the battle (no. 396). This was presumably Sergeant Charles Ewart (1769–1846) of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons (Scots Greys), who was famous for the capture of the Eagle Standard of the 45th Regiment, now in the Regimental Museum of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards at Edinburgh, as is his 1796 pattern heavy cavalry sabre. This sword (no. 90) may well have been the very one owned by Crossley, with the note in the Index volume that it had been returned to Ewart. As a measure of his celebrity after the battle, Ewart had attended a Waterloo dinner at Leith in 1816 where Sir Walter Scott had proposed a toast to this gallant Scotsman. Crossley owned both a Star and a Cross of the Légion d’honneur;18 the Star (no. 236) presented by Captain John Thompson in 1822, the Cross picked up at Waterloo. Sir Walter Scott commented that ‘Crosses of the Legion of Honour were in great request, and already stood high in the market. I bought one of the ordinary sort for forty francs.’19 Crossley had two ‘Imperial Eagles [no. 320] from the Plains of Waterloo’, an ordinary Eagle (no. 298) ‘being part of the appointments of the 2nd Regiment from Waterloo’, another Eagle (no. 131) ‘being part of the ornaments belonging to a Piece of Ordnance’ and an ‘Eagle and Tri-coloured Flag [no. 89] with fringed scarf’. According to Scott, ‘The eagles which the French soldiers wore in front of their caps, especially the more solid ornament of that description which belonged to the Imperial Guards, were sought after, but might be had for a few sous’.20 Typical of the Scaitcliffe Waterloo collection were the front and back plates from a French cuirass, a breast-plate, a French cuirassier’s helmet, two Life Guardsman’s helmets, and the pistol, bridle-bridoon and collar (nos 57–8) of the horse ridden by Joshua Pickles of the 1st Life Guards. From the same regiment came a sword and spurs, with an affidavit from Robert Dawson that they had been worn by him on 18 June 1815. A letter from Lieutenant John Eastwood of the Oldham Local Militia to Captain Crossley certified the strange history of the cuirass, helmet and sword (nos 82–4) of John Richards of Hamburg, forced to serve in the French army when General Soult took the city, and making his escape to Paris after Waterloo. More Waterloo militaria included two lances with regimental crests in brass, a French cuirassier’s sword from Joseph Towner, a French rifle and bayonet (no. 73), and other small items from the field such as buttons and musket balls. A number of Napoleonic medals and coins included the Waterloo medal of Corporal William Dunlop – the first military medal to be awarded to all ranks. Shaw of the Life Guards The perfect examplar of the hero (though not a son of Lancashire) that Crossley wished to commemorate in his armoury was Corporal John Shaw (1789–1815) of the 2nd Regiment of Life Guards. Shaw, the son of a Nottinghamshire farmer, enlisted in 1807. He had become a famous prizefighter and sat as a model for both William Etty and Benjamin Robert Haydon, in whose studio Sir Walter Scott may have encountered him in London. He was about to challenge Tom Cribb himself when the regiment was sent overseas. Shaw was not only a noted pugilist but an accomplished swordsman and had given demonstrations of his sabre skills in the army. On the field of battle he proved his remarkable ability by killing or disabling a reputed nine Frenchmen before his sword broke and he was shot by a distant marksman.21 Shaw’s body was later exhumed, possibly at the request of Scott, and his skull, lacking the jawbone, was sent to England where plaster casts were made.22 Scott had two of these at Abbotsford, and another is to be found in the Household Cavalry Museum. His lasting popular celebrity was such that in February 1840 Batty’s Circus Royal featured a performance by a Mr Wilkinson with his celebrated impression of ‘Shaw the Life Guards Man’ at Waterloo.23 But Scaitcliffe could boast more tangible relics of this remarkable man than the plaster casts at Abbotsford. By some agency, Crossley had acquired the frock coat (no. 61) Shaw had worn before going on foreign service, gold-lace bars from his full dress uniform (no. 62), similar bars which ‘he wore upon his right arm at the time he so gloriously fell in the Battle of Waterloo’ and ‘foot chains [no. 64], worn by him in the same Battle; taken from his feet when he was found dead after the Battle’. Documentation (now dispersed) accompanied these memorials of the heroic soldier and pugilist, who was commemorated in 1876 in a biography by Major Knollys titled Shaw. The Life of a Guardsman. Napoleon’s personal effects Crossley owned one of Napoleon’s shirts made by Charvet (no. 237), his ‘Razor with a mother-of-pearl handle, gold mounted and case of blue morocco’ (no. 305), a wispy lock of his hair (no. 106) cut at St Helena, with confirming documentation from Major Richard Boys, Chaplain at St Helena, and a golden bee (no. 69), ‘one of the 365 which adorned Bonaparte’s coronation robe in 1804’, purchased from the ‘High Priest of Notre Dame, Paris’. An unrecorded printed sale catalogue24 (no. 235) of ‘Sundry articles of wearing apparel and dressing apparatus, formerly belonging to the Emperor Napoleon, and given by the Grand Marshal of the Palace Count Bertrand, to M. Charvet, Keeper of the Wardrobe, on the occasion of Napoleon’s Abdication at Fontainebleau, sold by auction by Mr. Stanley at Old Bond Street, London, on Friday 2nd of June, 1819’, was probably the source of the shirt and razor. This Charvet provenance seems fairly convincing for objects of minor value but there was a growing market for personal relics of Napoleon even in his lifetime, not always reliably sourced or authentic, which has continued to the present day. William Bullock, the owner of the Egyptian Hall museum, was in Paris shortly after Waterloo, acquiring arms and armour associated with Napoleon, then acquired by the dealer Thomas Gwenapp and later dispersed by Christie’s (1821) and George Robins (1833) at their sales of his Gothic Hall exhibition. Not even objects of real quality with this kind of early provenance were proof against optimistic attribution, as current research by Guy M. Wilson has shown.25 Crossley also collected autograph letters26 and manuscript material of Napoleonic interest, such as letters of 1810 from the Grand Chamberlain, the Count of Montesquieu, on the appointment of a new Conservateur de la Garderobe for Napoleon, letters of Prince Schwartzenberg, Prince Metternich and others, ten letters sending M. Charvet to Elba with Napoleon in April 1814, and two legal agreements on the transfer of ownership of some of Napoleon’s personal effects to Charvet and subsequently to Dr Auguste Duboys, later finding their way to the auctioneer Stanley in London. Documents in French were sent to Henry Lucas of Liverpool for notarized translations as this seemed to increase their value to Crossley.27 Count Platov of the Don Cossacks One of the strangest aspects of the Napoleonic relic-collecting mania was the veneration afforded to the remarkable old Hetman of the Don Cossacks, Matvei Ivanovitch Platov (1757–1818), a hero of the Russian campaign. This noble Cossack first struck the public imagination when he appeared in Hyde Park on 20 June 1814, reviewing the troops with the Prince Regent, the Emperor Alexander, the King of Prussia and Marshal Blucher. Sir Walter Scott was an early fan of Count Platov and as early as 1813 was corresponding with friends to try and acquire a Cossack pike from the Russian campaign. In November of that year he wrote to Lady Abercorn: ‘An English officer who was known to this renowned partisan begged one of his lances to add to my collection of arms but I believe it was lost when the French re-entered Hamburgh’.28 Scott was thrilled to meet his hero in Paris in 1815 at a dinner given by Lord Cathcart for the Czar, but failed to add anything to his armoury. It did however give him the opportunity to dress up ‘in the black boots, white leather breeches and scarlet coat with blue trimmings and silver lace of the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Light Cavalry’, a uniform unfamiliar to Cathcart.29 Crossley was less ambitious and had less opportunity, but was no doubt pleased to be sent on 14 February 1817, a few hairs (no. 26) from Platov’s famous white horse affixed by the seal of John Sutcliffe of Stansfield Hall, Halifax (Crossley’s brother-in-law), with his note of 28 May 1814: The above hair was plucked from Count Platoff’s Horse this day, in the King’s Stables in Portman Street London. The Horse was 17 year’s old, and had been rode 13 year’s by the Count who presented him to the Prince Regent as noticed in the English Chronicle of June 11 to June 14, 1814, sent herewith. Punctilious as ever in his documentation, Crossley preserved the newspaper and the hair, together with its annotated paper wrapper, in the first volume of his paper museum (Fig. 5). Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Hair from Count Platov’s horse, with the seal and inscription of John Sutcliffe, 1817. Photo: Author. Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Hair from Count Platov’s horse, with the seal and inscription of John Sutcliffe, 1817. Photo: Author. The Peterloo Massacre The tragic events which took place on 16 August 1819 at St Peter’s Field, Manchester, later known ironically as ‘Peterloo’ after the Battle of Waterloo four years earlier, had a particular resonance for Crossley, both as a magistrate and as an officer in the Yeomanry Cavalry; he devoted a portion of his paper museum to both printed and manuscript records of the massacre. The background to Peterloo was the post-war decline in the textile trade, with wages cut to the bone, and from 1815 also the rise in food prices brought about by the Corn Laws. Demands for political reform were particularly strong in Lancashire where the million-plus population of Greater Manchester (including Rochdale and Oldham) was barely represented by the two Members of Parliament who sat for the county town of Lancaster. Unrest was already endemic in the region and as early as 1808 Crossley recorded the effects of rioting in the neighbourhood of Rochdale when the inhabitants sent messages to Manchester, Halifax and Brockwell, pleading for the security of a military presence. On 31 May 1808 Crossley received orders from Colonel Moore to ‘attend the Head-quarters of the West-Halifax Corps of Volunteer Infantry at Brockwell’. He joined them on the march to Rochdale at the New Inn at Blackstonedge but in view of the torrential rain he had the ammunition taken into the chapel at Littleborough where the regiment processed through the chapel and was issued with ball cartridges before forming up outside in ‘marching order by sections, and arrived at Rochdale at the hour of three in the morning of the said 1st June, when we found the Prison had been set on fire and was then burning’. The account of this relatively minor event was formally written out and signed by Crossley as Ensign of the West-Halifax Volunteers to explain why the Halifax Regiment was first into action rather than his own regiment. To illustrate the situation he included a large watercolour of Littleborough Chapel by J. Shuttleworth (probably the only record of the chapel, as it was torn down in 1818). The incident was not of any great consequence but it serves to point out the prevailing uncertainty, fear and distress in the county, years before Waterloo and the end of the war. St Peter’s Field, Manchester, had been the scene of at least two large public demonstrations before Peterloo. In 1817 the so-called ‘Blanketeers’ had chosen the Field to commence a march to London but the magistrates had read the Riot Act and the crowd was dispersed by the King’s Dragoon Guards without incident. In January 1819 a crowd of 10,000 had gathered there peacefully, to hear Henry ‘Orator’ Hunt and to petition the Prince Regent. By July the magistrates were writing to the Home Secretary, Lord Sidmouth, to warn of a ‘general rising’ and there were reports by the following month of large groups of disaffected men ‘drilling’ in quasi-military formations in the surrounding villages. This was apparently intended as a sensible rehearsal for the procession of expected large numbers of demonstrators, including some groups of women, to converge on the Fields in an orderly manner. The organizers of the proposed grand demonstration announced speeches from the hustings by Hunt and other radical leaders, and the Manchester Patriotic Union Society had insisted on a ‘prohibition of all weapons of offence and defense’ at the meeting planned for August. The Manchester magistrates later reported to Sidmouth that ‘there was no appearance of arms or pikes but great plenty of sticks and staves’. In this atmosphere of nervous foreboding, the deployment by the municipal authorities of 600 men of the 15th Hussars, 400 Cheshire Yeomanry, 400 special constables, a great many other infantrymen, and two six-pounders, could only be regarded as excessive, although the majority were professional soldiers and unlikely to be provoked into attacking unarmed civilians. The problem lay with the recently formed (1817) Manchester and Salford Yeomanry, 120 cavalry consisting mostly of local shopkeepers and traders, ill-disciplined and possibly drunk. On being ordered by the magistrates to arrest Hunt and the others on the hustings, they attempted to enlarge the path through the vast crowd; people were trampled by the horses and the troopers panicked and began laying about with their sabres. Between twelve and fifteen people were killed and at least 500 injured. Conspiracy theorists at the time claimed that their sabres had been sharpened and the Manchester Observer of 28 August falsely claimed that the Manchester Royal Infirmary had been cleared of patients and the surgeons had been ordered to stand by. The crowd was estimated as at least 60-80,000 by witnesses – possibly more – and the events of the day were observed by journalists from a number of newspapers including John Tyas of The Times who was on the hustings and briefly arrested, along with Hunt and others. The effects of the Peterloo Massacre were both immediate and long lasting. The oppressive ‘Six Acts’ made gatherings of likely radicals illegal, the Manchester Guardian newspaper was founded, and, in Italy, Shelley wrote the Masque of Anarchy, written on the occasion of the Massacre at Manchester which he sent to Leigh Hunt for The Examiner, but Hunt was too nervous to publish it.30 The trial of the main protagonists took place at York Assizes on 16 March 1820 and prison sentences were handed down. On the other hand a civil case brought against four members of the Manchester Yeomanry by a wounded weaver was dismissed at Lancaster Assizes on 4 April 1822. In a final irony, among the victims at Peterloo were veterans of Waterloo, such as John Lees, a cloth-worker from Oldham who died of his wounds, exclaiming ‘At Waterloo there was man to man but there it was downright murder’.31 Crossley was anxious to preserve as much paper documentation, as well as material relics, as he could from this dreadful affair. A great portion of vol. iv was given over to contemporary newspapers, broadsides, placards, depositions, and correspondence by or about the ‘Radical Reformers’ as he called them. They included copy statements from the magistrates of Lancaster and Cheshire about the affair, the Cause List and Calendar of Crown Prisoners at the March Assizes. He also owned one of the famous ‘Peterloo Handkerchiefs’, depicting the cavalry riding down the crowd (no. 207). Among various objects in the museum was a bugle (no. 164), part of a bassoon (no. 188), a truncheon (no. 165) ‘presented by Mr. John Pilling of 31 Dale Street, Manchester, which he used at the dispersion of the eventful meeting 16 August 1819 he being at the time one of the Special Constables of Manchester’, a ‘brickbat [no. 117] found in the pockets of one of the Prisoners at the New Bayley Prison. Presented by Mr. Henry Horsefall’, and a stone or missile (no. 166) which was thrown by one of the Radical Reformers at Major J. Trafford Esq. Commandant of Manchester Yeomanry, which missed him and struck Mr. Henry Horsefall a Special Constable, by whom it was gathered and presented to Mr. Crossley.’ Radical pikes and banners In view of the controversy about the possible arming of demonstrators, the collection of what Crossley termed ‘pikes’ is not without interest. The best documented piece came from a known radical, Amos Ogden, later the subject of a biography by Samuel Bamford, the weaver and author of Passages in the Life of a Radical (1854). ‘Pike [no. 163] – belonging to Amos Ogden of Royton, a Radical Reformer, who was committed to the New Bayley, for attending at the Drilling meeting on Tandle Hills 15th August 1819, the day before the Memorable Meeting at St. Peter’s field (Peterloo). vide 398 [inserted note]. This Pike presented to Mr. Crossley by his particular friend Capt. Crompton of the Oldh. L. Militia. [With] Deposition of Dr. Butterworth and Edmund Pilling against A. Ogden. Newspaper report of his trial and sentence of 12 months imprisonment; by the Rev. Mr. Hay.’ The reference to no. 398 is as follows; ‘Pike-head belonging to the Radical Reformers of 1819; made to screw on the end of a shaft with axe and hook similar to the ancient Battle Axe. (NB. The above description applies to No. 163; this Pike head is plain).’ Ogden’s pike was evidently an offensive weapon or could be used as such. Crossley also had a ‘Pike Shaft [no. 169] taken from one of the Radical Reformers by Colonel Hargreaves (15 August 1819) of Ormerod House, by whom it was presented to Mr. Crossley. Copy examination of Christopher Edmondson and Henry Sellers, respecting the seizure of the same’, and a pike (no. 175) found on the estate at Balderstone, near Rochdale on 1 May 1820, which had no identifiable radical provenance but seemed to have looked the part and was duly described as a ‘Radical Pike’. The immediate target of the yeomanry at Peterloo, apart from the arrest of the speakers, seems to have been the flags and banners on poles carried by demonstrators, in the same way that considerable effort was expended at Waterloo on the seizure of the regimental Eagles of Napoleon’s troops. Crossley acquired ‘the Flagstaff [no. 188] on which Mr. Hunt’s Flag was carried, and which was borne by Mrs. Fildes in front of the Carriage in which he went to the Meeting at St. Peter’s field Manchester on the 16th August 1819. Presented by Mr. Robt. Darbyshire, Deputy Constable of Salford, 15 August 1820.’ He also had a rare survival in the form of ‘part of one of the Flags [no. 168], inscribed “Hunt and Liberty” and “Universal Suffrage”, taken from the Radical Reformers on the 16th August 1819.’ The only surviving Peterloo banner, in Middleton Public Library, was carried by Thomas Redford; it is in green silk, lettered in gold with the words “Liberty and Fraternity” and “Unity and Strength”. The Newport Rising Some twenty years after Peterloo came the less well known but equally bloody Newport Rising of 4 November 1839, when about 10,000 men, many of them coal-miners, descended on the town of Newport, Monmouthshire, intent on the rescue of Chartists believed to be imprisoned in the Westgate Hotel. The local authorities enrolled 500 special constables and authorized about sixty soldiers of the 45th Regiment of Foot to guard the hotel and break up the demonstration, which had turned violent. About twenty-two demonstrators were killed and over fifty wounded when the soldiers opened fire. The Chartist leaders were arrested and transported. The homemade weapons – pikes and bludgeons – were seized as evidence, or as curiosities, and some remain in the Newport Museum. Others passed into the armoury of Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick (1783–1848) of Goodrich Court, Herefordshire. Charles Nash, the author of The Goodrich Court Guide (1845) quoted by Clive Wainwright from the unique copy in his possession, itemizes ‘many of the insurrectionary weapons wrested from the rioters at the (so called) Chartists’ emeute at Newport, during the night of Sunday Nov. 4 1839 . . . presented by the authorities of that port to this collection.’32 Both Crossley (after Peterloo) and Meyrick (after Newport) felt that these primitive weapons should find a place in their armouries as documents of contemporary social history. Swords Crossley lettered his folio albums of the works on paper in his collection variously as the ‘Scaitcliffe Armory [sic] and Museum’, or the ‘Scaitcliffe Armoury and Trophies of Antiquity’ (Fig. 6), but the armoury element always assumed the prime position. He liked swords, pole arms, daggers and dirks, flags and banners, and had less interest in firearms. A drawing, pasted in to vol. vi (now lost except for a photocopy) illustrates twenty swords, six daggers and a brace of pistols. The swords are roughly depicted but include brief comments such as ‘ivory handle’, ‘blued and engraved blade’, ‘brass and silver hilted side arms’, ‘double ground sword in heavy steel case’, and recorded mottoes and inscriptions such as ‘a faithful servant in the hand of the Brave’ or ‘In my Country’s Cause’. Most of the swords were eighteenth- or early nineteenth-century, apart from a few earlier family weapons, and represented many of the sabre patterns favoured by the light yeomanry cavalry or the heavy cavalry of Uxbridge’s ‘Union Brigade’ (a composite brigade of English, Scottish and Irish troops) at Waterloo. The French cavalry sword was longer and used for thrusting whereas the British light cavalry favoured a weapon with a distinctly curved blade, the pattern 1796, which could deliver a devastating cut. The British heavy cavalry pattern 1796 blade, such as that believed to have belonged to Sergeant Ewart, and preserved at Edinburgh, was straight.33 The very last acquisition of the armoury, presented on 9 June 1858, was a ‘Sikh Talwah [cavalry sabre], [no. 433] captured at the battle of Sobraon by Major (then Captain) John C. Richardson of the Bengal Artillery’.34 But the museum seems by that date to have been dormant for nearly twenty years Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Spine of the Index volume to the Scaitcliffe museum and upper cover of vol. 1. Photo: Author Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Spine of the Index volume to the Scaitcliffe museum and upper cover of vol. 1. Photo: Author Antique arms and armour There was little interest at Scaitcliffe in the sort of antique arms and armour favoured by the grander collectors and supplied by dealers (‘brokers’ as they were called) like Pratt of Bond Street who also produced armour for the Eglinton Tournament in 1839.35 Pratt assembled tilting suits or fluted Maximilian suits that both looked good in a long gallery and were, in some cases, actually worn to fancy dress balls by such bold spirits as the Baron de Cosson or the 2nd Earl of Craven, over half a century later.36 Crossley was not one for dressing up, nor was he very interested in the ‘true rust of the Barons’ Wars’ or dubious medieval relics of the age of chivalry. His heroes were contemporary, or within the reaches of family and local memory, but not stretching back much beyond the seventeenth century. However he did like edged weapons, and some display of helmets and cuirasses. At Scaitcliffe some armour vaguely identified as from the time of Henry VIII (no. 145), a couple of seventeenth-century swords and relics of the 1745 rebellion such as the musket (no. 187) ‘taken by Mr. Henry Sharples from a Rebel Officer in the Pretender’s Army in the year 1745 at Walton-le-Dale near Preston’, were about the limit for historic weapons. The doyen of the marchands-amateur, in the wider field of collectable arms and armour, was probably Thomas Gwennap (c.1774–1850), founder of The Oplotheca (armoury), later called The Gothic Hall at 6 Pall Mall, and a purchaser of many things at the dispersal of William Bullock’s museum in 1819. Gwennap’s armoury was sold at Christie’s in 1821 and Crossley owned a copy of the 1818 catalogue (no. 226) for sale to visitors. Gwennap’s son, also Thomas (c.1798–1845), was a Soho picture restorer and keeper of the picture galleries at Alton Towers, Staffordshire,37 for the Earl of Shrewsbury, whose fine arms and armour collection, housed in an armoury built in 1829–30, was sold by Christies in 1857 in 302 lots. The foremost authority on the subject at the time was Sir Samuel Meyrick; other serious collectors included John Beardmore (1816–1861) of Uplands, Fareham, Hampshire.38 In Lancashire the romantic hall of arms and armour at Browsholme Hall, near Clitheroe, in the Forest of Bowland, collected by the Parker family, has something in common with Scaitcliffe. Thomas Lister Parker was the dedicatee of the pioneering Specimens of Ancient Furniture, written by his friend Sir Samuel Meyrick and illustrated by Henry Shaw, in 1835, which must have influenced the look of Browsholme with its old oak and stained glass. The Parkers had originally kept their treasures, including a ‘buff leathern jacket, worn by one of the family in the rebellion of 1645’ (similar to those in the Popham Armoury at Littlecote) in a large chest in the oak drawing room, but T. L. Parker arranged the arms and armour, antlers and tiger skins, bobbin-turned chairs and old dressers, in the entrance hall, around 1804, much as they are today. Like Crossley he revered the family’s role in the Civil War and also published contemporary documents in their possession.39 Andrea Ferrara and the 1745 rebellion Crossley did, however, own one of the great desiderata of early nineteenth century collectors, an ‘Andrea Ferrara’ blade (no. 154), without realizing what it was. The cult of Andrea Ferrara and the Jacobite Rebellion was fostered by Sir Walter Scott in his novels; he wrote in a later footnote, ‘The name of Andrea de Ferrara is inscribed on all the Scottish broadswords which are accounted of peculiar excellence’.40 Scott owned two of these broadswords and gave another to Meyrick,41 whose son took it to Scotland to the great delight of the highlanders. Scott and Meyrick corresponded at length about these puzzling inscriptions but reached no conclusion. The legend of a Spanish master sword maker who killed a disloyal apprentice and fled to the Court of James V in Scotland had no foundation in fact, but the existence of a sword maker called Zanandrea of Ferrara who supplied swords to a London maker in 1578 is documented and may be the origin of the myth.42 Many of these swords were apparently made in Germany much later and given the Andrea Ferrara name because the Scots saw it as a mark of quality.43 Crossley’s sword, he claimed, . . . belonged to Andrea Ferrara, a Field officer in the Army of the Young Pretender in the Rebellion 1745. The Major was quartered in the vicinity of Oldham, and being sick at the time that the Rebel Army marched from Manchester, he was left behind; on his recovering he marched after the Army and left the sword in his quarters, which was preserved in the family, until it was presented to John Crossley, Captain in the Oldham Local Militia, by his dear friend Captain Chippendale Adjutant of the same Regiment. Crossley clearly thought that Ferrara was the name of the owner of the sword but the Jacobite provenance sounded convincing and he was presumably unaware of its desirability to Scottish collectors. Monuments to memory Crossley was less interested in the arcana of edged weapons – the quillons, fullers, falchion points, ricassos, pommels and tangs – than in their early owners and the brave deeds these weapons evoked. The armoury at Scaitcliffe was a sort of Valhalla for heroes of one stripe or another and he probably valued the ‘brass hilted sword [no. 10] taken in personal combat from a French Hussar by Anthony Crossley at the Battle of Hesse Homberg in 1760’ as much as the ‘spurs [no. 180] of the Irish Rebel Father Michael Murphy of Ballycornew’, a leader of the United Irishmen in the Irish Rebellion, who was shot on horseback at the Battle of Arklow on 9 June 1798. This memorial tradition of display, going back to the famous armour Rustkammer of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol at Schloß Ambras and to the earlier Musaeum Jovianum of hero portraits at Lake Como, was very much alive in Crossley’s day. What is left of the armoury of the Percy Tenantry Volunteers, raised by the Duke of Northumberland and his son Earl Percy in 1798, still remains as a memorial in the Constable Tower at Alnwick Castle, where it was maintained until 1848, although the Corps was disbanded in 1814.44 Tipu Sultan It has already been noted that Crossley had a discernable weakness for relics of celebrities, and one of the most prized sources for such treasures was the sack and looting of the royal treasury, palace and library of Tipu Sultan of Mysore at Seringapatam by British troops in 1799. The decorative gold elements of the royal throne and richly jewelled objects and weapons in gold and silver were beyond Crossley’s reach but his old friend Jesse Lee of Manchester,45 who we shall meet again, came up with a gold ring (no. 354) with an impeccable provenance. He wrote to Crossley in June 1830 sending a ‘gold ring which was gathered on the 4th May 1799 under the Gateway (exactly in the place where the body of Tippoo Saib was found at Seringapatam) by the late Major Clayton (father of Col. Clayton of Carr Hall) who on his return from the East presented the same to his friend the late Mr. Scott of Preston, whose widow died on the 25th May last, at the house of my friend Mr. Jas. Lazarus Threlfall, whose wife is niece to the late Mrs. S and with whom she had resided for several years . . .’ Threlfall had been left the ring and in turn passed it on to Lee who is presenting it ‘to be preserved in your collection of curiosities’. Lee knew that this was the kind of relic that Crossley favoured, and that he would appreciate such details of provenance, validating the presumed descent from the hand of Tipu himself.46 Lord Byron and the Manor of Rochdale One of Crossley’s local friends was James Dearden of The Orchard, Rochdale who had purchased the Manor of Rochdale from Lord Byron in 1823.47 Dearden’s son, also James Dearden, had collected various curiosities and coins (nos 269–83) ‘when he made a journey overland to Greece for the purpose of getting the Deeds conveying the said Manor executed by the late Lord Byron’, and presented them to the Scaitcliffe museum in 1825. The attached list in Dearden’s hand includes a few mineral specimens such as ‘native quicksilver from the only mine known in Europe at Tobria near Trieste in Austria. These mines are about 350 yards deep and worked by murderers only when condemned to the mines: few of them survive 6 months.’ He also had a specimen of cinnabar from the same mines which he described as ‘an oxide of mercury and is reduced to Quicksilver by the heat of the blast furnace’ and sulphurous lava from Vesuvius, ‘gathered during our ascent’. A specimen of Egyptian porphyry came from a mosaic pavement in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. Among the Roman and Greek coins on the list were ‘some old Greek coins I procured at Missolonghi’.48 One odd souvenir was a ‘petrified oyster shell’ which he cut out of a stone in the castle of Otranto, where he was confined for twenty-eight days’ quarantine on 1 May 1824, probably on his return from visiting Byron in Greece. This was more likely through boredom than as a tribute to Horace Walpole’s gothic novel. Both Deardens, father and son, evidently shared Crossley’s interests although James Dearden snr died in 1831. There is a long report in the Gentleman’s Magazine 173 (1843) on a Bronze Age torc found by Dearden in the grounds of his house, Handle Hall, Rochdale, and in 1846 he became treasurer of the new archaeological association based on the journal Archaeologia Cambrensis. Dearden was also a friend of Meyrick. ‘He stayed at Goodrich Court several times in the 1840s and Sir Samuel stayed with him in the autumn of 1845, on his way back from a visit to Raby Castle’.49 Under Meyrick’s influence Dearden erected a medieval chapel within Rochdale Church, with a knight’s tomb and reproductions of memorial slabs and brasses from different medieval periods. Dearden jnr died in 1862. Ethnographica The Scaitcliffe museum was by no means limited to European artefacts, and its contents stretched from militaria to ethnographica, though the agency by which Crossley acquired objects from the remoter corners of the globe was usually Lancastrian and often very local. From Africa he had a war club (no. 94), a quiver of twenty-three African arrows (no. 98) and a ‘leather pocket, worn by the Africans’ (no. 101). From Malaysia a ‘Malay cress [kris] or poisoned dagger and another similar’ (nos 95–6). From Tahiti, and possibly from the dispersal of Cook’s voyage finds, were specimens of tapa cloth; ‘Specimens of cloth, made by the Inhabitants of Otaheite’ (nos 99–100). But no provenance or specific locations are given beyond the fact noted in James Butterworth’s parish history of Rochdale, 1828, that they were all presented by Richard Shuttleworth, a Rochdale attorney. More interesting are the specimens from North America and Canada which are detailed in the accompanying letters of presentation to Crossley. Charles Payant of Manchester (wine merchants) wrote in October 1822 offering a ‘canoe [no. 286] made from the Bark of the Birch Tree and the ornamental parts from the quills of the porcupine’.50 He notes that ‘the large canoes used in navigation are made upon the same plan’ and that it had been given to him yesterday by Mr Cannon,51 a friend who had just returned from Canada. Scaitcliffe was not the only museum in Lancashire to collect such things and the British Museum has a few surviving North American pieces from the Farington (or ffarington) family museum at Shaw Hall (later Worden Hall), Leyland, Lancashire.52 Another important group of Native American artefacts in the British Museum (on loan since 1977 and acquired by purchase in 2004) came from Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, as the gift of Bryan Mullanphy in 1825.53 From John Midgley of Deeplish Hill, Rochdale, came a whole group of American Indian artefacts which he had been given in 1820 by a Mr C. Cretson of Philadelphia.54 Cretson’s letter to Midgley says he had received these specimens ‘from a correspondent who resides at St. Louis, about 1500 miles west of this city, who trades with the Indians up the Missouri 2000 miles westward of that place and whose manufacture they are’. Midgley’s letter presenting them to Crossley gives a little more detail. The calumet or Indian pipe (no. 323) ‘such as they pass round when assembled in Council, as a token of friendship’, the beaver skin tobacco pouch (no. 324) and the pair of moccasins (no. 325) came from the far West, as Cretson said. The two ears of Indian corn (no. 326), the smaller one called ‘chicken corn is grown in gardens for ornaments’, came from New York State, the two pods of cotton (no. 327) are upland cotton from Georgia, which he plucked himself in December 1820. The wampum [belt] (no. 328) ‘was presented me by a Mrs Walker who received it presumably from the Indians as a token of friendship’. The ‘other pair of Moccasins [no. 329] I bought from some Indians near Buffaloe not far distant from the falls of Niagara’. ‘The little pipe [no. 331] was presented me by the tribe of Shakers who live at Lebanon near Hudson’. Midgley sends his kind regards, along with these gifts, to the Crossleys and their ‘lovely daughter’ Miss Matilda. Another Lancashire friend of Crossley was Fielden Hodgson of Shore, near Rochdale, who obtained for him probably the single best-documented North American piece in the museum. Mr D. Hall, a merchant of Pearisburg, Giles County, Virginia writes to Hodgson from New York on 17 July 1826 to offer him a belt (usually decorated with beads or wampum, a kind of shell), ‘made by the Indian women and worn by the warrior or chief, It was procured of an eminent chief Wa-ba-min or White Dog, of the Potawatomi Tribe who had worn it to a Council held at Chicago, Illinois, in October 1825.’55 Hall confirms the provenance and says that the Indians value such belts at from $3 to $5; Hodgson notes that he paid $2 for it in New York. Hodgson must have returned to England by 1828 when he writes from Shore in September to offer Crossley a shell he had picked up in the Savannah River in May, ‘which I request your acceptance of for placing in your collection of curiosities’, and a pair of antlers from a buck (no. 208): ‘It was shot by Mr. Wm. Craig in the woods near Savannah, North America’ and the antlers took a prominent position in the Museum. One further American object of interest from the French and Indian War was ‘a Powder Horn [no. 93], with a map of part of America engraved thereon. By Wm. Anderson, Feb. 1760’, given by Richard Shuttleworth of Rochdale. 56 Arctic exploration Further north the largely unknown Arctic exerted its lure. Crossley had somehow befriended the young scientist and naval officer, Lieutenant Henry Forster RN (1796–1831), who had served on various Arctic expeditions led by Captain William Parry.57 In 1823 Forster was a midshipman under Captain Clavering on HM Sloop Griper as an assistant to the astronomer Edward Sabine on an expedition to make observations on magnetism and the pendulum measurement of gravity, and visited Spitzbergen and Greenland. The following year, in February 1824, as a Lieutenant, he joined Parry’s Northwest Passage expedition aboard HMS Hecla. His manuscript account in a letter to Crossley (nos 339–40) says that they ‘left the Nore on 1st of May and after a difficult passage, we arrived at Port Bowen on the Eastern side of Prince Regent’s Inlet in the latter end of September where the Expedition passed the Winter of 1824 and 25.’ The fossil shells (no. 338) that he gave Crossley were ‘picked up about 60 miles SW of Port Bowen where we abandoned the Fury after her wrecked state by the ice. The place in consequence has obtained the name of Point Fury.’ He returned to Scotland in October 1825. One evocative memento of Parry’s expedition, given to Crossley by Forster on 14 March 1827, was a ‘Box [no. 335] made out of His Majesty’s Ship Fury, employed in Captain Parry’s celebrated [3rd] Voyage to the Northern Regions; and lost by the pressure of the ice, August 1, 1825, Lat. 72 D 46 Min, brought from thence by the late talented, enterprising and deeply lamented Lieut. Henry Forster RN.’ The Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge has a barrel organ made by John Longman of London in 1810, which accompanied Parry’s several Arctic expeditions to entertain the crew during their isolated winter sojourns. ‘It has five barrels, each of which play eight tunes, including jigs, reels, patriotic songs and hymns.’ Visiting Inuit were, not surprisingly, fascinated by this machine.58 Crossley followed Forster’s progress in the Polar regions with interest and kept a copy of the Leeds Intelligencer and Yorkshire General Advertiser for 18 November 1824, which announced the appearance of Captain Lyon of HMS Griper at the Admiralty, with the latest news of Captain Parry who had reached Lat. 71’. The passage is underlined, and with a bold ink manicule in the margin. Among the Arctic memorabilia a specimen (no. 336) of ‘Macintosh’s Water Proof Cloth, such as was used by Captain Parry in his voyage to the Polar Regions’ is still preserved, but the sea biscuit (no. 337) proved less durable. Natural history specimens were highly valued from such an exotic source and Crossley had a ‘Tusk of the waldrus [sic] or Sea Horse’ (no. 339), a piece of carbonate of lime (no. 338b) from Port Bowen on the Eastern side of Prince Regent’s Inlet, 1825, with the later pencil note ‘amongst the Specimen cards’, and ‘various specimens of minerals etc from the Arctic Regions’ (341-345c), all presented by Forster. A commanding presence in the Museum was a large glazed ‘case of Birds [no. 407], shot by Lieut. Hy. Forster RN. In the Expedition under Captain Parry to the Polar regions’, and a fine sight they must have been.59 Contemporary curiosities Like most country house museums of the time, Scaitcliffe was dependent on random gifts from well-wishers as well as the owner’s own enthusiasm for local curiosities, rather than purchases made at auction or from dealers, so many strange and probably unwelcome objects found a home there. A tin water can (no. 171) ‘struck by the Electrical Fluid in the Thunder Storm, on the night of the 22/23rd March 1817 in the house of Mrs Williams of Todmorden . . . she was asleep at the time’, was accompanied by an earthenware cup (no. 393) from the ‘home of John Clegg of Bagslate near Rochdale’, also struck by lightning in the thunderstorm of 17 November 1828, though Clegg writes to say he was unharmed. Part of the ‘skin of a Boa-Constrictor serpent [no. 123] which it quitted during the time it was exhibited in Rochdale’ once shared space with ‘part of a Rattle snake’s tail [no. 209] brought back from America by Fielden Hodgson of the same town. There was a ‘specimen of minute engraving [no. 222] by Wm. Snow containing the Lord’s Prayer in a very small circle’ and ‘an iron instrument [no. 290] supposed to be for picking pockets’, as well as a ‘swine’s snout ring [no. 190] which caused the death of John Harrison of Spotland in a remarkable manner’. The latter was probably as worthy of Dr Watson’s notebook as the story of the Giant Rat of Sumatra. Crossley owned a ‘piece of amber [no. 121], part of the cargo of the Alexandria East India Ship wrecked off Portland Beach in Dorsetshire 28 March 1815, when the Captain – his wife – and 7 children; and 133 of the crew and passengers perished’, and a piece of bread (no. 124) made from the ‘Bread Fruit Tree in the West Indies’, an unconscious tribute to the Mutiny on the Bounty. He had pieces of black cloth and stubs of wax candles (no. 172) from the lying in state at Windsor of George III, 17 February 1820, and a piece of carpet (no. 193b) from Westminster Hall where George IV dined on 19 July 1820. The arson attack on York Minster on 1 February 1829 by the deranged incendiary Jonathan Martin, brother of the noted painter John Martin, was commemorated by one of the turned wooden boxes containing a medallion of the Minster (no. 357) and by ‘part of one of the Organ Pipes [no. 381] gathered from the ruins the day after the Fire’. 60 Among more traditional relics (365a) were the ‘Thigh, part of the Back and Finger Bones of Thomas Earl of Lancaster (also a Tooth) Beheaded on Monday March 22, 1322; discovered on the 25th March 1822. Presented by Wm. Hepworth Esq, who was present at the opening of the coffin’. An enthusiasm for such memorials of mayhem would have been gratified, post-Peterloo, by ‘part of the Timber [no. 194] of the Floor of the Room in Cato Street, London, where Thistlewood and his associates met 23 Feb 1820 upon which the blood of the murdered Police Officer flowed; which is now visible; brought from London by Miss Mary Crossley, [Crossley’s daughter], 11 May same year.’61 The museum as a local landmark By the mid to late 1820s the Scaitcliffe museum had achieved critical mass and the rate of acquisition slowed down. It was already celebrated in local guidebooks such as James Butterworth’s history of Rochdale (Appendix i) where many of the exhibits are listed. Edward Baines and William Parson’s History, Directory and Gazetteer of the County Palatine of Lancaster (1825) also gives a notice of the museum, sub Todmorden; ‘The Scaitcliffe Armoury or Museum contains a great variety of antiquities and modern curiosities, principally illustrative of the family history; they are arranged in the residence of John Crossley Esq., at Rochdale, and the freedom with which they are exhibited by the owner greatly enhances their worth to the public’. There is no indication of admission charges or restricted access, but Scaitcliffe was a private house. Crossley was quick to appreciate the value of printed ephemera – broadsides, newspaper, posters, tickets, playbills and so on – for his paper museum, as witness to local events. These printed pieces, as well as original manuscripts and copies, might concern anything from canals and freemasonry (Crossley was the Provincial Grand Master of Lancashire) to theatres and exhibitions, great public events such as coronations and royal funerals, and events of purely parochial or family concern. He also recorded personal things such as notes on the paintings of himself (aged twenty-eight) and of his wife Sarah (aged twenty-seven) in 1806, by the ‘industrious and eminent painter Mr. Robert Stott of Rochdale’ with, in his case, ‘my Helmet and Sword laid beside me upon a sideboard’. Some twenty years later he kept the catalogue of the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1825 (no. 322) in which his bust by the sculptor F. A. Legé was exhibited and a ‘plaister cast (no. 322b) of Mr. Crossley’s lips and chin, taken by Mr. Legé’.62 He clearly never threw anything away, but must have left the organization and preservation of this material to his son. Reorganization in 1839–40 In 1839–40 the armoury was reorganized by Jesse Lee of Manchester, the elder Crossley’s ‘friend and youthful companion’, who was a long-term benefactor of the museum, with an interest in local ecclesiastical history.63 He gave three pieces of stained glass (nos 292, 332–3) including one with the mitred head of a Bishop, which came from the windows of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, erected in 1422. He also gave, in 1826, the ‘pastoral staff head, or crook [no. 315] of the last Nonjuring Bishop of Manchester (or rather of the County of Lancaster)’ with a very long account of its descent to the son of Bishop Booth, a watchmaker who gave it to the local Masonic Lodge. Lee’s letter begs acceptance of this crook for ‘preservation in your valuable collection of “Relics of days gone by” as in his own hands it would suffer decay or loss, as I have not the opportunity of forming a Cabinet myself.’ It was Jesse Lee who probably made the four sketches of the museum room illustrated here (Figs. 7–10) with the note ‘Re-arranged in Sept. Dec. 1839 Feby. March & Finished (up to No. 432) April 4th 1840 – assisted by Jesse Lee’. These rather crude drawings illustrate many of the weapons and larger wall-mounted objects and give numbers (including smaller objects in cases) for some 300 of the total of 432 exhibits. The remaining 130 were largely to be found mounted into the albums to form the paper museum. The drawings enable a sort of guided tour of the Museum as it stood in 1840, ten years after the death of the founder.64 Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the entrance wall to the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the entrance wall to the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the fireplace wall of the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the fireplace wall of the Scaitcliffe museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the side wall of the Scaitcliffe museum, facing the window. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the side wall of the Scaitcliffe museum, facing the window. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the window wall of the Scaitcliffe Museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Pen and ink drawing of the window wall of the Scaitcliffe Museum. Probably by Jesse Lee, c.1840. Photo: Author. Assuming that these drawings represent the four sides of a single room, one enters from the doorway in Fig. 7. Over the door is a Waterloo flag, Luke Crossley’s sword from the 1745 rebellion and a variety of walking sticks, some of them Masonic. To the right, arranged around the large case of Arctic birds is a motley assortment of Indian bows, African quivers with arrows, an African war club and leather ‘pocket’, a Turkish dagger and Persian scimitar, a Malay kris, a truncheon and ‘radical pikes’ from Peterloo along with a ‘radical bugle’, a High Sheriff’s javelin,65 and a few crooked sticks (forerunners of Sir Harry Lauder’s). Underneath this display are shelves or cases containing a great number of small objects. On the opposite wall (Fig. 8) is a more formal arrangement above and on both sides of the fireplace. Over the mantelpiece and surmounted by the pair of ram’s horns is a selection of cavalry sabres and other swords, to the right of the fireplace are mounted rifles and muskets, the majority with fitted bayonets, and including relics of 1745 and of Waterloo with others from various local trained bands, rifle corps and volunteer regiments. Interspersed with these are pistols and holsters. To the left are six pikes, javelins, and lances, including one with the Marshal’s flag for the local proclamation of George IV in 1820. Of the other two walls one (Fig. 9) appears to be taken up with an extended cupboard, on the top shelf of which are ranged a series of cuirasses (both front- and back-plates), either French from Waterloo or from the Life Guards, and a variety of helmets, casques and caps with a similar provenance, along with the odd juxtaposition, to one side, of the North American calumet or peace pipe, and the gilt wooden crest and initials of George IV which had hung over the pulpit in Todmorden church. The final wall (Fig. 10) must represent the five-light mullioned window, with the large North American bearskin ‘tobacco pouch’ on one side and an unidentified, long implement, or weapon, on the other. Over the window, with the buck antlers from Savannah in the centre, are three long Indian arrows, a matchlock musket from the ancient Assheton family of Middleton Hall, a bandmaster’s plume, two military sword-belts and the incongruous touch of two Flemish sabots. Decline and dispersal That was the Scaitcliffe armoury and museum as it stood in 1840, about to be effectively mothballed for the next half century. On the death of John Crossley jnr on 4 June 1864 the direct line of succession in the Crossley family ended, as John and his wife were childless. Scaitcliffe and other estates in Lancashire and Yorkshire passed to his nephew Croslegh Dampier (1839–1905) who took the surname and arms of Crossley. Dampier-Crossley’s father, Christopher Edward Dampier, had emigrated to New Zealand in 1850 and Croslegh, who had been brought up as a farmer after education at Sedbergh, followed his father to New Zealand in 1858 and became the proprietor of Esk Head Station. He was also, in the Crossley tradition, a member of the Canterbury [New Zealand] Yeomanry Cavalry.66 Dampier-Crossley’s sister Mary Elizabeth married the sea captain John Frank Atkinson (1821–1898) of Micklegate House, Horsefair, Pontefract in 1860 and their son, the Revd Hepworth Frank Atkinson (1862–1921), born on board ship off Mozambique, was the ancestor of the last owner of the Scaitcliffe paper museum, Primrose Blackburn, née Atkinson (1935–2011), of Guiseley near Leeds. The Scaitcliffe estate had been offered for sale by auction at the White Hart, Todmorden, in August 1889 but was withdrawn after the highest bid reached only £13,000. In 1892 the whole remaining museum and armoury, apart from the folio volumes of works on paper, was sold at auction by Hollis & Webb of Leeds.67 Mrs Blackburn’s executors sold the final paper remains of the museum, along with a few books and other objects, at Hartleys of Ilkley, Yorkshire, in September 2011; they are now widely dispersed.68 Conclusion The Scaitcliffe museum and armoury is unusual in its focus on family, locality, military tradition, and the idealized notion of the ‘local hero’. Also in its realization of the value of manuscript and printed documents as evidence, as a record for the future, even to the extent of notarized translations of letters in foreign languages, procured at some expense. Waterloo was heroic on an international scale, Peterloo was a disaster on a local level but with national repercussions. Both had great resonance in the Calder valley through local families touched by heroism or tragedy. The Crossleys were important locally as ancient landowners, as volunteer soldiers, magistrates, canal entrepreneurs, freemasons and philanthropists. Their little museum was encouraged and supported by a network of local gentry, especially from Rochdale, and seems to have been freely available to interested parties. The contents were not particularly remarkable; even the American Indian model canoe and peace-pipe were mirrored in other country house collections, and the Arctic birds could probably be found in cases in grander collections in neighbouring counties and elsewhere. But for many years, from the Regency into the early Victorian era, this collection of swords and muskets, pikes and radical banners, relics of the battlefields of the 1745 rebellion and Waterloo, old documents with royal seals, and the whiskers of great men and their horses, would serve as a sort of memorial to the Lancashire hero, and deserves to be commemorated. Acknowledgements Particular thanks are due to John Worthy of the Rochdale Book Co. for his help in guiding me around Lancashire and for the provision of photocopies of rare texts; also to other bookselling colleagues, especially Jolyon Hudson, Dr Christian White, John Martin, Julian Browning, and Brian Lake for their generosity and interest. To my former supervisor Professor Michael Hunter for valuable advice, Dr John Martin Robinson for information on museums in his home county, and to the taxi driver who gave me a leg-up when the gate at Scaitcliffe proved an obstacle to research. I am also grateful to the two referees, Philip J. Lankester and Guy M. Wilson, both formerly of the Royal Armouries, who sacrificed their anonymity to provide extensive and valuable notes and comments on the text, as well as links to past and forthcoming articles. Appendix I Description of the museum from J. Butterworth, An Historical and Topographical Account of the Town and Parish of Rochdale in Lancashire (Manchester, 1828), pp. 7–8. The following amongst a very great collection of curiosities (chiefly modern) of Military implements, &c are to be seen in the Scaitcliffe armory, or cabinet of rarities, belonging to John Crossley, Esq. of that place, and also of Rochdale. Besides which are many valuable and curious manuscripts, amongst which papers is one recording that John Crossley, Esq. an ancestor of the present John Crossley, Esq. Was a cornet in the army of Charles the first, and fought for that monarch in the fatal battle of Marston Moor, July 2nd, 1644, his commission, signed by the Earl of Derby, is amongst these curious documents, and the Sword with which this hero fought in that memorable action. In the said museum is also the fusee and bayonet, with the sword, &c of Anthony Crossley, Esq. Ensign during the rebellion in 1745. The shirt, handkerchief and silk stockings that belonged to Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, when king of Spain, and taken at the battle of Vittoria, on the 21st of June, 1813, when Joseph escaped to Bayonne. Two Indian Bows, one of which has a bow string made of cane. A Powder Horn, with a map of part of America inscribed thereon. A War Club, once used by the Africans, in battle. Malay Cress, or poisoned dagger, from the East Indies, and another Malay Dagger from do. Ten African Arrows. A Quiver of 23 African Arrows. Specimens of Cloth made by the females, and other inhabitants of Otaheite. Leathern Pocket, worn by the Africans; all of which foreign curiosities were presented to John Crossley Esq. By Richard Shuttleworth, Esq. of Rochdale. Hair, cut from the head of Napoleon Bonaparte, while at St. Helena. A collection of Spanish and French coins, are also preserved herein. John Crossley, Esq.has also been presented with ten pieces of plate, commendatory of numerous laudable services he has on different occasions rendered to social and other mercantile bodies. A Persian Scymitar; a Turkish Dagger; and ancient Bow; an African Fishing Spear; armour of Henry the eighth’s time; three very ancient Arrows, one with a barbed head; two Sandals, worn in the east; a Ring which formerly belonged to an officer of a Roman Legion, found in the ground near Pontefract, in Yorkshire; Grape Shot, found on Cockey Moor, and a Shell discovered 120 yards below the surface of the earth, at Shelf Iron Works, near Northowram, in the county of York. The Hair and Hand Writing of his late Majesty George the third, and various ancient pictures and other curiosities, which to insert particularly would far exceed the limits of my work. Appendix II Auction of the contents of the Museum by Hollis & Webb of Leeds, 1892. No copy of the sale catalogue has been located in copac but a contemporary newspaper cutting (unidentified), formerly pasted into one of the folio volumes, gives an account of the sale. It is headlined ‘Sale of Waterloo Relics in Leeds. “Napoleon’s shirt, 8s”.’ A very interesting sale of antique furniture and curios of almost every description was commenced in Messrs. Hollis and Webb’s Rooms, yesterday. The property, removed from Scaitcliffe Hall, Todmorden, the seat of the Crossley family, was brought into the market consequent upon the death of the late owner. Considerable interest attached to the disposal of the contents of the Scaitcliffe Hall Museum, the formation of which was practically the life work of the late Mr. John Crossley, J.P. Collectors and dealers assembled from London, Nottingham, Hull, Goole, Beverley, Manchester, and various other parts of England, and the room was crowded, keen interest and competition being manifested for some of the lots, especially Waterloo relics. In opening the sale Mr. Webb described the sale as perfectly unique in its way, some of the lots being such as could not possibly be matched. He was well aware that many of the things were of little or no value intrinsically but they were of great historical interest. The following were some of the prices realised: A 3ft. 6in. oak Chippendale secretaire, £13. 13s; a black oak chest with carved front £18. 18s; and old oak inlaid cabinet £37. 16s; a crown Derby tea and breakfast service, £23. 2s; a sepode [sic (Spode)] dinner service, £15. 4s. 6d; Napoleon’s Star of the Legion of Honour, £5. 5s; a Cross of the Legion of Honour found on the field of Waterloo, £5. 5s; the razor of Napoleon Bonaparte, 17s. 6d; a brass eagle from the appointment of one of the 2nd Regiment of Waterloo, £2; two small brass eagles from the plains of Waterloo; an old deed bearing the great seal of Queen Elizabeth, £1; deed of appointment to the rectory of Middleton, £6. 10s; two bars taken from the coat of Corporal Shaw, who fell at Waterloo [no. 8?]; Queen Adelaide’s money tablet, and an old embroidered [cap?] £8; an old piece of needlework, £2. 12s; an old flint [axe?] £2. 10s; two bones of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, beheaded £2. 13s; Napoleon Bonaparte’s shirt, 8s; handkerchief of Joseph Bonaparte, 5s. 3d; a ring of an officer of the Roman Legion, found near Pontefract, 1716; pastoral star of the last nonjuring Bishop of Manchester, 8s; an old pistol taken from a Frenchman by a British sailor in the Peninsular War 14s; two old French flintlock pistols taken during the Peninsular War, £1. 7s; two bundles of African arrows, £1. 7s; front and back plates, from a French Cuirassier taken at Waterloo, £1. 12s. 6d; a breast plate, £1. 7s. 6d; two lances from Waterloo, £2. 2s; two lances with regimental crest in brass, £3. 4s; two old banners, £1; Life Guardsman’s helmet from Waterloo, £1. 3s.; another ditto £1. 16s.; two French cuirassier helmets from Waterloo £1. 7s.; two small cannons, £2. 10s.; autograph of General Washington, £1. 2s. Notes and references 1 Clive Wainwright, The Romantic Interior. The British collector at home 1750–1850 (New Haven and London, 1989). 2 Sarah Bevan, “Three-dimensional decorations: displays of arms in English Houses’, Country Life 128 no. 4601 (1985), pp. 1229–1238. 3 Adrienne L. Kaeppler, Holophusicon. The Leverian Museum (Vienna, 2011). 4 Arthur MacGregor (ed.), The Cobbe Cabinet of Curiosities, an Anglo-Irish Country House Museum (London and New Haven, 2015). 5 See British Listed Buildings (ngr: sd 9260525142), Historic England, list entry no. 1228135. 6 James Burke. A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1835), vol. ii, pp. 536–8, Crossley of Scaitcliffe. Burke’s earliest Crossley recorded is a John del Croslegh, c.1356 of Todmaredene, up to the contemporary John Crossley. See also Charles Croslegh, Descent and Alliances of Croslegh, or Crossle, or Crossley of Scaitcliffe (privately printed, London, 1904) 7 Scaitcliffe Armory & Museum. Reference Book (manuscript in private collection). All the item numbers quoted henceforth refer to this inventory. 8 Crossley’s testimonial for election as a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London was signed by Admiral W. H. Smyth (1788–1865), hydrographer, astronomer and numismatist, and by Thomas Amyot (1775–1850) literary scholar. Information kindly provided by Heather Rowland, the Society’s Librarian. 9 The third verse begins: This man is of great spirits He’s a man of great renown His Dwelling is at Scaitcliffe near Todmorden Town He’s raising both men and horse So valiant, stout and strong Four Hundred Lancashire Lads For- the King. The fourth verse commences: Their clothing it is green my Boys and turned up with Red a Glittering Cap and Feather For to adorn their Head a glittering Sword and pistols Hanging by your side Five Guineas of advance and a gallant Horse to ride. The chorus to each verse goes: In the Cavalry of Todmorden so merrily we’ll go and with Lieutenant Crossley ye valiant Hero. 10 ‘The individuals by whom the sword was purchased, having previously assembled in a central part of the valley, marched in military order to Scaitcliffe, and formed a circle upon the terrace in front of the ancient Mansion, the scene of his birth and his paternal inheritance, transmitted to him in regular descent from a long line of ancestors, distinguished in times past for their loyalty and patriotism. Being conducted into the centre of the circle, the sword was presented to him by Serjeant Slater, the Pay Serjeant of the Company, (who had been selected by his comrades for that office), a fine war-worn veteran, who during 18 years’ arduous service had shared in the glorious achievements of the 28th Regiment of Foot, under the brave Sir Edward Paget. In the brief and emphatic language of the soldier, he requested Captain Crossley’s acceptance of the sword . . . Captain Crossley replied in a speech of considerable length . . . a Bible suitably inscribed, was presented by him to each individual present. The whole of the party were then regaled with roast-beef and strong ale, which was supplied in great abundance from the venerable old Mansion.’ 11 Fiona A. Paton, ‘Arms and armour’, in Joseph Mayer of Liverpool, 1803–1886, ed. Margaret Gibson and Susan M. Wright (London, 1988), p. 167. 12 The Toxophilite Society was formed in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, becoming the Royal Toxophilite Society under the patronage of the Prince of Wales from 1787. They practised in the grounds of Leicester House, Leicester Fields (later Leicester Square). Alicia Amherst, London Parks and Gardens (London, 1907), p. 97. 13 Richard Cuming had founded his museum at 3 Deans Row, Walworth. After the death of his son Henry Syer Cuming (1817–1902) the Museum opened in 1906 above Newington Library on Walworth Road, Southwark. After a recent fire the contents of the Museum are temporarily in store. See Bryn Hyacinth, ‘The ethnographic collection at the Cuming Museum’, Journal of Museum Ethnography (Hull, 2008), pp. 128–44. 14 ‘Richard and his brother John were members of the Newington Armed Association in 1798 and while this lapsed, it revived again around 1803 and became the 1st Surrey Regiment of Volunteer Infantry. Richard was first a corporal, as he had been when in the naa, and then became a sergeant in 1804’: Judy Aitken, Curator of the Cuming Museum, Southwark Library and Heritage team, personal communication, 16 March 2017. 15 The memoirs of Sir Richard Drake Henegan, Seven Years’ Campaigning in the Peninsula and the Netherlands. From 1808 to 1815 (London, 1846), vol. ii, p. 10, states that Colonel Burton of the Royal Welch Fusiliers at Vittoria had authorized him to dispose of some 160 carriages, brought or commandeered by the French, by giving them to the local inhabitants who had suffered from the French occupation. He adds that some of them were later discovered to have had money and jewels hidden in the silk and velvet linings. 16 Sir Walter Scott, Paul’s Letters to his Kinfolk, 2nd edn (London, 1816), pp. 198, 207–8. 17 Ibid. 18 See Anne de Chefdebien, ‘Les insignes des ordres de l’empereur’, in La Berline de Napoléon, Le mystère du butin de Waterloo, ed. Jean Tulard (Paris, 2012), pp. 164–258. 19 Scott, op. cit. (note 16), p. 207. 20 Ibid. 21 A 1796 pattern heavy cavalry sword with a later inscription (c.1864) recording that it belonged to Sergeant Shaw is in the Royal Armouries (inv. no. ix.968). Shaw no doubt owned several swords. 22 The original skull was believed to have belonged to Admiral Ryder and spent twenty years in an unnamed ‘Gentleman’s Club’ in London, before being sent by General Maltby to Wollaton Church in June 1898 where it was interred underneath Shaw’s Waterloo memorial in the churchyard. 23 Poster in Nottinghamshire Archives. Inventory number unknown. 24 Offered for sale again at Forum Auctions, London, 15–16 November 2016, lot 88. 25 Guy M. Wilson, ‘A group of guns and a sword exhibited in London from 1816 to 1833 as those presented to General Napoleon Bonaparte by the Directory in 1797,’ in The Robert M. Lee Collection: European and Oriental arms and armour, forthcoming. 26 He also owned an autograph letter (no. 216) of George Washington, Philadelphia, 7 September 1795, to Samuel Meredith, respecting some early wheat seeds. 27 Henry Lucas of 10 King Street, Liverpool, was a wine merchant, notary public, translator and language teacher. See Baines & Parson, Gazetteer of the County Palatine (Liverpool, 1824), and Pigot & Co., National Commercial Directory for 1828–9. 28 Scott, op. cit. (note 16), vol. iii, p. 178. 29 Paul O’Keeffe, Scott on Waterloo (London, 2015), pp. 10–11. 30 Shelley’s open letter to Leigh Hunt was written in Florence, 3–6 November 1819.‘Post succeeds post, & fresh horrors are forever detailed. First we hear that a troop of the enraged master-manufacturers are let loose with sharpened swords upon a multitude of their starving dependents & in spite of the remonstrances of the regular troops that they ride over them & massacre without distinction of sex or age . . .’ B. C. Barker-Benfield, Shelley’s Guitar, exh. cat., Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1992), p.122. The poem was published posthumously in 1832 with a preface by Leigh Hunt. 31 R. Reid, The Peterloo Massacre (London, 1989), p. 201. 32 Wainwright, op. cit. (note 1), p. 254. 33 See Brian Robson, Swords of the British Army. The regulation patterns, 1788 to 1914, revised edn (London, 1996), pp. 18–24. Also, Michel Pétard, Des Sabres et des épées, tome second: troupes à cheval, de l’Empire à nos jours (Nantes, 1999). 34 The decisive battle of the first Anglo-Sikh War on 10 February 1846. 35 Wainwright, op. cit. (note 1), pp. 52–3 and passim. 36 Gerald Reitlinger, The Economics of Taste, vol. ii (London, 1963), pp. 108–9. 37 Advertisement in the Morning Post, 16 October 1840. 38 See John Beardmore, A Catalogue with illustrations of the Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour at Uplands, near Fareham, Hampshire (London, 1844). A watercolour for pl. 2 of this book, by Edwin Fudge, was offered as lot 3061 in the sale of the library of Stuart Schimmel, Bonhams, New York, 27 June 2013. The Beardmore collection was sold at Christie’s in 1921 in over 200 lots. 39 Thomas Lister Parker, Description of Browsholme Hall in the West Riding of the county of York (London, 1815). p. 7, lists some of the contents, ‘A British battle-axe, found in the field near Preston; the buff leather jacket; the Roman stone found at Ribchester, belonging to the 20th Legion (or Agricola’s); a pair of boots of Charles the First’s reign, and two large cannon-balls; and a most curious crossbow, used as a military weapon, were presented by Tho. Clarke Esq. of Waddow. The spur found in the apartment called Henry the Sixth’s at Waddington Hall; a Danish pike, armour, and funeral escutcheons belonging to the neighbouring families, presented by Pudsey Dawson Esq. of Bolton Hall. A very perfect round shield, presented by Richard H.Beaumont, Esq.of Wheatley Hall, near Wakefield. The skull found in the west wing. The long oak table presented by Walter Fawkes of Farnley, Esq. A very curious and ancient Scottish piggin [a small wooden pail], dug out of a turbary near Long Preston in Craven, the swords, helmets &c were many of them in the house before the alterations were made.’ 40 Sir Walter Scott, Introduction and Notes and Illustrations to the Novels, Tales, and Romances of the Author of Waverley (Edinburgh and London, 1833), p. 116. 41 See Rosalind Lowe, Sir Samuel Meyrick and Goodrich Court (Little Logaston, 2003). 42 Claude Blair, ‘New light on Andrea Ferrara’, Arms and Armour Society Newsletter no. 1 (1984). 43 John Wallace, Scottish Swords and Dirks (London, 1970), p. 25. 44 Guy M. Wilson, ‘Percy’s tenants volunteered: an early example of total war or a truly English shambles?’, in Mars & Clio. The Newsletter of the British Commission for Military History no. 27 (2010), pp. 19–32. 45 See C. H. Timperley, Records Historical, Municipal . . . of Manchester (1874), p. 126. ‘Mr. Jesse Lee, of Hulme, died February 17 [1844] was a native of Rochdale but came to this town in early life. As a heraldist and genealogist few could surpass him; he was particularly conversant with the history of the old Lancashire families; he also particularly excelled in copying old prints with the pen, in such a manner as to render it difficult to distinguish the original.’ He also edited and continued John Seacome’s Memoirs ... of the House of Stanley, and projected an elaborate edition of the works of John Collier, ‘Tim Bobbin’, with a glossary of dialect words, but the publisher went bankrupt. 46 See Susan Stronge, Tipu’s Tigers (London, 2009) and Lucian Harris, ‘British Collecting of Indian Art and Artifacts in the 18th and early 19th Centuries’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Sussex University (2002), pp. 39–50. 47 Byron wrote to Dearden from Genoa on 22 January 1822: ‘Sir, You and I have now been eighteen years at law with various success . . . of the original occasion of this suit I have no great knowledge, since I inherited it and was a child when it began, and for ought I know may arrive at second childhood before it terminates.’ Dearden managed to purchase the manor of Rochdale for £11,250 late in 1823 and sent his son (also James Dearden) to Greece with the deeds of conveyance for Byron’s signature. Donald H. Reiman, Shelley and his Circle 1773–1822 (New York, 1986), p. 452 note. In 1828 a legal document drawn up between the trustees of the 6th Lord Byron, deceased, and James Dearden and his trustees may have finally concluded this long-drawn-out saga of the Rochdale manorial rights and certain coal mines (Maggs Bros, Modern Books andmssCatalogue no. 1122). 48 Byron arrived at Missolonghi in January 1824 and died of a fever on 19 April. 49 Lowe, op. cit. (note 41), pp. 195–6. 50 A similar miniature canoe of birch bark decorated with porcupine quills is in the Museum at Central Michigan University and had been given to David Truman Corp in the 1820s by an Indian lady of the Chippewa settlement at Pointe aux Chenes in Mackinac County of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. There is also a canoe in the Cobbe museum, described as Mi’kmaq and probably collected c.1805; other North American artefacts in that collection include a Plains Indian pipe of catlinite with an ash stem and a pair of moccasins from Eastern Canada: Jeremy Coote, ‘Africa, Oceania and the Americas’, in MacGregor, op. cit. (note 4), cat. nos 18.25, 18.22, 18.24. 51 Cannon seems to have been a kind of bounty hunter who had been sent to America in search of William Borthwick, the absconding cashier of the East Lothian Bank, whom he finally apprehended, with a great quantity of bills and cash, in Charleston, South Carolina. 52 The collection was founded by Sir William Farington or ffarington (1730–1781) of Shaw Hall, Leyland, Lancashire, who made a six-month Grand Tour of Italy in 1765 (see John Ingammells, Dictionary of British and Irish Travellers in Italy, 1701–1800 (New Haven, 1997), p. 348), and built a ‘Grecian Gallery’ to house his museum. Shaw Hall was renamed Worden Hall and subsequent Faringtons enlarged the museum; the house was entirely rebuilt by Anthony Salvin in 1840–45 for James Nowell Farington, who died in 1847. A disastrous fire in 1941 led to eventual demolition in 1960, save for one surviving wing, but much of the museum had been re-housed in a barn at Mawdesley and was dispersed throughout the 1940s (Dr John Martin Robinson, personal communication). Most of the ethnographica seems to have been bought by the New Zealander Kenneth Athol Webster (1906–1967). See Hermione Waterfield and J.C.H. King, Provenance. Twelve collectors of ethnographic art in England 1760–1990 (London, 2009), p. 150. A 1948 sale catalogue of the contents of Worden Hall, annotated by Colonel D.A.S. Houghton is at the Lancashire Record Office, Preston (ddx 1913/3/4). Three surviving North American Indian artefacts from Worden Hall, purchased by the antiquary and dealer William Ockleford Oldman (1879–1949) from Webster in the late 1940s, were sold to the British Museum by his widow in 1949: they are a North Eastern animal head carved wooden club (Am 1949,22.147), a Cherokee stone tobacco pipe-bowl (Am 1949,22,154) and an Iroquois wampum belt (Am 1949,22.119). 53 Bryan Mullanphy was sent to school at Stonyhurst in 1821 by his father John Mullanphy of Enniskillen who had emigrated to New Orleans (later based at St Louis) in the early 1800s and became a successful cotton merchant exporting cotton to Lancashire. Mullanphy jnr became mayor of St Louis in the 1840s. 54 A Charles Cretson, possibly his son, is recorded as being born at Philadelphia on 31 July 1821. 55 The Powatomi were widely located in the Great Plains and Lakes. White Dog was based on the Iroquois River. Many of the Powatomi were relocated by the US government to Oklahoma after the Chicago Treaty of 1833. 56 There are a number of these engraved powder horns dated 1759–60 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. See Stephen V. Grancsay, American Engraved Powder Horns (Philadelphia, 1965). There are also many fakes on the market. 57 Henry Forster, FRS 1824, and Copley Medal 1827. From 1828 to 1831 he was Commander of HMS Chanticleer on the expedition to the South Atlantic and drowned in the Chagres River in Panama in 1831. See Scott Polar Research Institute (spri) Archives, Cambridge, for the Henry Forster Collection, 1825–31. 58 spri Museum, y:56/14. Given by Admiral Sir Edward Parry, 1954. 59 See MacGregor, op. cit. (note 4), pp. 25–6. Other important collections of North American birds were in the museum of Marmaduke Tunstall (1743–1790) at Wycliffe, North Yorkshire, transferred on his death to William Constable (1743–1791) of Burton Constable Hall, East Yorkshire, and in the museum of Anna Blackburne (1726–1793) at Orford Hall, transferred in 1787 to Fairfield, near Warrington, Lancashire. Anna Blackburne was a cousin and neighbour of Sir Ashton Lever and a significant botanist and collector in her own right. She corresponded with J. R. Forster and Linnaeus, and over 100 of her North American birds were described by Thomas Pennant in his Arctic Zoology (1785). Many of these had been sent by her brother Ashton Blackburne from North America where he lived. Anna’s nephew John Blackburne (1754–1833) of Orford Hall was once High Sheriff and for very many years Member of Parliament for Lancashire, in which capacity he must have known the Crossleys. 60 See Thomas Balston, The Life of Jonathan Martin, incendiary of York Minster (London, 1945). 61 The Cato Street Conspiracy was a plot to kill all the members of the cabinet and overthrow the government. The leader was Arthur Thistlewood with the planning and inspiration from George Edwards, a police spy and agent provocateur. When the Bow Street Runners raided the headquarters of the plotters in Cato Street, London, Thistlewood killed a policeman and the other conspirators were rounded up. Five were hanged and the others transported. 62 Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660–1851 (London, 1953), p. 237; Ingrid Roscoe, Emma Hardy and M. G. Sullivan, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851 (London and New Haven, 2009), p. 733. F. A. Legé worked in Liverpool, c.1800, for Messrs Franceys, and later moved to London to work for Francis Chantrey. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1814 to 1825. By 1900 the bust of Crossley was in the possession of the Revd Hepworth Frank Atkinson. 63 See note 28, above. 64 A very similar drawing of the interior of the Cuming Museum, Walworth, South London (illustrated in Kaeppler, op. cit. (note 3), fig. x, of about the same year, shows what must have been standard practice for displaying weapons and smaller objects. 65 On his election as High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1834, ‘Sir Samuel [Meyrick] had chosen to resurrect the custom of the Sheriff being accompanied by javelin-men who would escort the judges to the Assizes. He designed their costumes himself, in the style of the time of Henry VIII, and gave them £5 each to buy the clothing-though one Hereford Times correspondent later claimed it was a bribe for appearing in such a ridiculous garb’: Lowe, op. cit. (note 41), p. 138. 66 The Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry was established as a volunteer corps at Christchurch in 1864. It was the oldest light cavalry unit in New Zealand. The uniform was scarlet and blue with black facings and a red plumed helmet (Wikipedia). 67 See Appendix ii. 68 See the sale catalogue of Hartleys of Ilkley, W.Yorkshire, 14 September 2011, for an interesting illustrated introduction to the Scaitcliffe albums which are described in some detail, by Dr Christian White, in lots 757 to 763. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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Journal of the History of CollectionsOxford University Press

Published: Jan 29, 2018

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