The impact of architectural spaces’ geometric forms and construction materials on the users’ brainwaves and consciousness status

The impact of architectural spaces’ geometric forms and construction materials on the users’... Abstract Biogeometry is the patented science of using the energy of shapes and forms to qualitatively make a balance between the biological energy systems and accommodate their interactions with the environment. Balancing the activities of daily life, attaining harmony with our environment, humanizing modern technology, and incorporating science and spirituality are the work of the science of biogeometry. The research in biogeometry was and still is mainly dedicated to the development of a new form of architecture that would improve the human biological system. In this context, the current study aims to develop a scientific approach to investigate the influence of the geometric forms and construction materials of the architectural spaces on the users’ brainwaves and then on their consciousness status which is considered as the main controlling factor in human bioenergy. Trying to consolidating the theoretical views of this effect to be measurable scientifically, the study is based on using a numerical analysis based on a computerized simulation. The results of this study show different influences based on geometric forms and construction materials. The study is carried out using CST Microwave Studio to identify the resonance frequency occurred inside different geometric forms with different construction materials, and then distinguish the related user’s brainwaves which influence his/her consciousness status. This may assist architects and designers in identifying appropriate geometric forms to suit the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. 1 INTRODUCTION Biogeometry is the science which studies the relationships between all the elements in the universe and human life, and the impact of these relationships on the quality of life in order to identify how to improve this quality. This science uses shapes, colors, motions and sounds to achieve balance to all energy levels. It believes that architecture is the language of the formation of a space for human use, whether for living, work, hospitalization or for any other purposes. As the space quality is affected by air quality and ventilation, it also is affected by its geometric form and construction materials. Biogeometry is the science that studies the effect of geometric shapes and forms on human bioenergy, and then it is possible to mitigate negative energies and enhance their positive qualities. Biogeometry aims to achieve a balance between architectural space and energy quality produced inside it. This balance is capable of promoting the quality of architectural spaces. Many of the biogeometry studies have concerned with the interior design of spaces due to its great importance as it contains many beneficial and detrimental energies, which negatively or positively affect their users in a direct or indirect ways. Internal space is argued as the main factor that affects physiologically and psychologically the human health. Its influence extends to its ability to control the human bioenergy. One of the objectives of this science is to identify a geometric design language that interacts with the energy of forms to provide spaces with the balance required for their users’ comfort [1]. In December 2011, a study investigating the effect of a building with a pyramid form (Maitreya Buddha Pyramid, Bengaluru, India) on a number of meditators’ brainwaves was conducted [2]. An effort was made to investigate the cerebral electrical activity of fifteen meditators that are recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a physiological electrical signal recorded from the scalp to study the brain function. EEG is recorded before and after meditation inside and outside the pyramid. In this study, 13 meditators had an increase while 2 meditators had a drop in alpha waves. The amplitude of theta parameters for 14 meditators showed an increase while 1 meditator showed a decrease. In addition, the amplitude of delta shows an increase of 11 meditators and a decrease of the others. This increase in the alpha and theta waves showed the suggestive of relaxation after meditation. With the same methodology, another study published in 2014 [3] aimed to measure the impact of staying inside a historic building space with a vault ceiling shape (El-Sultan Hassan mosque, Cairo) on the users’ consciousness status, by recording the brain electrical signals (EEG) of a number of volunteers inside and outside the building. The results showed that 14 of the volunteers showed an increase while 8 volunteers showed a drop in alpha activity. The amplitude of theta/beta ratio for eight volunteers showed a decrease while three volunteers showed an increase. This increase in the alpha and decrease in theta/beta waves showed the suggestive of relaxation and calm awareness after staying for 20 min inside the building. Haberakn et al. [4] argued that it is hard to separate the human behavior and the form of spaces that human lives in. In this regard, architecture can affect negatively on human as it could be shown in the monotonous repetition which leads to weariness and boredom and thus leads to a status of depression and social confusion, leading to the prevalence of psychological diseases and behavioral deviations. This supports the point of view that the building starts with an ideology and a philosophy of a designer and then turns into influential in human relations that take place either positively or negatively in our communities. Hence, the trend which aims to revive the social side in contemporary architecture arises, because the spatial behavior is a form of social interaction resulting from an individual’s life in the environment and community. Karim [1] argued how critical it is to recognize the significance of building to human health inside a building. Consequently one can locate power spots, anciently used as healing places, where concentrations of healing powers appear. This is one of the key principles of building timeless architecture. These features cause buildings to be considered of great effect on human health on the physical, psychological and spiritual levels. The main problem is the lack of the scientific measuring instruments used to identify the impact of the geometric form of the architectural space on the users’ bioenergy through their brainwaves and consciousness. In this sense, this research attempts to identify the scientific relationship between the geometric form of the architectural space and the user’s brainwaves and consciousness, which may affect the quality of architectural design process. This study is based on linking brainwaves to geometric form of architectural spaces by using a computational method in order to identify a scientific measuring tool that can use the frequencies of resonance in predicting and identifying the impacts of the architectural spaces on the user’s mental status and consciousness. This may support architects and designers in identifying appropriate geometric forms to meet the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. 2 THE HUMAN BRAIN AND STATUSES OF CONSCIOUSNESS The brain is the most important part of the human nervous system. It gathers and analyzes information, and controls most of the body’s organs and systems. The brain is mainly composed of three areas that are cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebrum cares about cognitive, sensory and mental functions of the human body. The mind is not a part of the brain, but it is the process of the activities and functions, in particular, those functions in which the human being aware of such as personality, thinking, controversy, memory, intelligence and even emotion. Hence, the mind is what distinguishes between the human and the animal, not the brain [5]. 2.1 Brainwaves Brainwaves are very accurate electrical signals reflecting the changes which occur in the frequency of brainwaves during different mental statuses. Studying brainwaves has a key role in understanding how the human brain and mind work and the relationship between the neurological functions the main brain parts. The electrical activity of the brain is actually defined as the collection of all activities of brain cells. While each brain cell has its own frequently wave, but what we can measure is the combined activities of all brain cells [6]. 2.2 Types of brainwaves Brainwaves are classified into five major types, as follows (Table 1): ▪ Delta waves ▪ Beta waves ▪ Theta waves ▪ Gamma waves ▪ Alpha waves Table 1. Brainwaves types. Wave type  Frequency  Wave shape  Characteristics  Delta  0 4    Associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep  Theta  4 8    Involved in daydreaming and sleep  Alpha  8 12    Bridges the gap between our conscious thinking and subconscious mind  Beta  12 40    Conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating effect  Gamma  40 100    Higher processing tasks as well as cognitive functioning  Wave type  Frequency  Wave shape  Characteristics  Delta  0 4    Associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep  Theta  4 8    Involved in daydreaming and sleep  Alpha  8 12    Bridges the gap between our conscious thinking and subconscious mind  Beta  12 40    Conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating effect  Gamma  40 100    Higher processing tasks as well as cognitive functioning  Source: Micheal et al. [7]. This classification based on the frequency of brainwaves. It was noticed that certain patterns of brainwaves related to cases of consciousness, such as alertness, relaxation, sleep and deep sleep. The following table shows each of brainwaves characteristics and its relation to the status of consciousness as well as the shape of the waves [7]. 2.3 The effect of brain frequencies on statuses of consciousness Table 2 presents the effects of frequencies in each band on the human brain statuses of consciousness [8]. Table 2. The relationship between brainwaves and human consciousness. Frequency  Unit  Consciousness status  Delta brainwaves (0.5–4 Hz)   0.5  Hz  Relax—help to soothe headaches   0.5–1.5  Hz  Relieve pain   0.9  Hz  A sense of joy   1.0  Hz  The feeling of well-being—the harmony and balance   2.5  Hz  Relieve pain and reduce anxiety   2.5  Hz  Relieve migraine pain   3.4  Hz  Help achieve restful sleep   3.5  Hz  Autism with the outer perimeter   3.9  Hz  Promote internal awareness   4.0  Hz  Reduce stress   4.0  Hz  Enhance the memory capacity—enhance learning ability  Theta brainwaves (4–8 Hz)   4.9  Hz  Induces relaxation, meditation and deep sleep   5.35  Hz  Relax and breathe freely and efficiently   5.5  Hz  Internal guidance and intuition   6.5  Hz  Activate creativity   7.5  Hz  Technical and creative thought   7.5  Hz  Ease of overcoming the nagging issues   7.8  Hz  Schumann frequency waves—activity and balance  Alpha brainwaves (8–12 Hz)   8.0–10.0  Hz  Learning new things depending on the memory   10.0  Hz  Improve the status of general mood   11.0  Hz  Relax status after waking up   12.0  Hz  Moderation and mental stability  Beta brainwaves (12–40 Hz)   14.0  Hz  Attention—focus on tasks and vitality   12.0–15.0  Hz  Concentration and relaxation   13.0–27.0  Hz  The attention to external stimuli focus   13.0–30.0  Hz  Problem solving and conscious thinking   18.0–27.0  Hz  A sense of euphoria (euphoria)  Frequency  Unit  Consciousness status  Delta brainwaves (0.5–4 Hz)   0.5  Hz  Relax—help to soothe headaches   0.5–1.5  Hz  Relieve pain   0.9  Hz  A sense of joy   1.0  Hz  The feeling of well-being—the harmony and balance   2.5  Hz  Relieve pain and reduce anxiety   2.5  Hz  Relieve migraine pain   3.4  Hz  Help achieve restful sleep   3.5  Hz  Autism with the outer perimeter   3.9  Hz  Promote internal awareness   4.0  Hz  Reduce stress   4.0  Hz  Enhance the memory capacity—enhance learning ability  Theta brainwaves (4–8 Hz)   4.9  Hz  Induces relaxation, meditation and deep sleep   5.35  Hz  Relax and breathe freely and efficiently   5.5  Hz  Internal guidance and intuition   6.5  Hz  Activate creativity   7.5  Hz  Technical and creative thought   7.5  Hz  Ease of overcoming the nagging issues   7.8  Hz  Schumann frequency waves—activity and balance  Alpha brainwaves (8–12 Hz)   8.0–10.0  Hz  Learning new things depending on the memory   10.0  Hz  Improve the status of general mood   11.0  Hz  Relax status after waking up   12.0  Hz  Moderation and mental stability  Beta brainwaves (12–40 Hz)   14.0  Hz  Attention—focus on tasks and vitality   12.0–15.0  Hz  Concentration and relaxation   13.0–27.0  Hz  The attention to external stimuli focus   13.0–30.0  Hz  Problem solving and conscious thinking   18.0–27.0  Hz  A sense of euphoria (euphoria)  Source: Alsan et al. [8]. 2.4 Brainwave entrainment Brainwave entrainment (pronounced ‘ehn-TRAIN-mint’) refers to the brain’s electrical response to rhythmic sensory stimulation, such as pulses of sound or light. When the brain is exposed to a stimulus, through the eyes, ears or other senses, it produces an electrical charge in response, called a cortical evoked response (CER) (Figure 1). These electrical responses are carried throughout the brain to become what you ‘see or hear’ for example. This activity can be measured using sensitive electrodes attached to the scalp [9]. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Human brain evoked response of an influential voice. Source: Huang and Charyton [9]. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Human brain evoked response of an influential voice. Source: Huang and Charyton [9]. When the brain is exposed to a rhythmic stimulus, such as a drum beat, for instance, the rhythm is reproduced in the brain in the form of these electrical impulses. If the rhythm becomes fast and regular, it can start to resemble the natural internal rhythms of the brain, called brainwaves. When this happens, the brain responds by synchronizing its own electric cycles to the same rhythm (Figure 2). This is commonly called the Frequency Following Response (FFR) [10, 11]. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Human brain EEG shows the response of an influential voice frequency 10 Hz. Source: Nyström [10]. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Human brain EEG shows the response of an influential voice frequency 10 Hz. Source: Nyström [10]. FFR could be valuable since brainwaves are very much related to mental status. For instance, a 4 Hz brainwave is associated with sleep, so a 4 Hz sound pattern would help reproduce the sleep status in the brain. The same concept could be implemented to many other mental statuses, including meditation, relaxation and concentration. If a person listens closely during a music session, he will hear small, quick pulses of sound. When the session progresses, the frequency rate of these pulses is changed gradually, thus changing his brainwave patterns and guiding his mind to several useful mental statuses [12]. Since we live in built spaces all time, the functional efficiency of the architectural space affected by the user’s psychological and mental status. Some activities need special mental statuses as relaxation in residential buildings, attention, and activity in educational buildings,…etc. This section concludes that brainwaves control the human consciousness and mental status. Moreover, the human brain has shown its ability to respond to external effects and the possibility to enter required consciousness brain status. 3 EXPERIMENT EXPLANATION In this section, the experiment is explained according to two main axes:  The first axis discusses the experiment aim and concept, the meaning of resonance, and the principle of the octave as a way to understand the impact of the high-frequency range to the low-frequency range of the human brain.  The second axis explains the simulation software ‘CST Microwave Studio’, the inputs and outputs of the simulation environment, and identifying how to analyze the experiment outputs. 3.1 Experiment aim and concept Practical experiments which carried out on a number of the buildings’ users indicate a significant change of 70–95% of the users in the electrical activity of their brain after staying for some time inside these buildings. This shows the effect of the geometric form of buildings on their users’ brainwaves frequencies and then their consciousness status. The current experiment depends on using a simulation program—CST Microwave Studio—which allows the rapid and accurate analysis of high-frequency devices such as antennas [13]. Antennas are designed depending on their shapes and dimensions that occur a resonance frequency between the body of the antenna and the desired receiving waves. In this context, the role of simulation software appears to investigate the range of frequencies that occur resonance with the composite geometric body of the antenna. Since we live in a wide range of frequencies generated naturally or by the electronic devices that are used in our daily life, it could be considered that the architectural space where human lives, works, learns or even enjoys is a large antenna. According to this hypothesis, the configuration of any architectural space could be investigated by antenna design software and then testing the range of frequencies resonates with this geometric configuration. Then it is possible to study the impact of these frequencies on the human brain, according to the principle of Frequency Following Response which is defined as a brainwaves (EEG) frequency response that corresponds to the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Therefore, it would be identified which status of consciousness occurred. 3.2 CST Microwave Studio CST Microwave Studio is a fully featured software package for electromagnetic analysis and design in the high-frequency range. It offers accurate and effective computational solutions for electromagnetic design and analysis. Analyses may include thermal and mechanical effects. CST benefits from an integrated design environment that offers access to the entire range of solver technology. System assembly and modeling facilitates multi-physics and co-simulation in addition to the management of entire electromagnetic systems. It provides a powerful graphical modeling interface that is depend on the ACIS modeling kernel (Figure 3). After modeling, a fully automatic meshing procedure is implemented before a simulation engine is initiated. A main feature of CST Microwave Studio is the method on demand approach that gives the choice of simulator or mesh type is that is best suited to a particular problem [13]. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide CST Microwave Studio interface. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide CST Microwave Studio interface. The transient solver of CST is a general purpose 3D electromagnetic simulator. Real time domain simulation is suitable for studying the field propagating through a component and could be used in a huge range of electromagnetic applications. On the other hand, the frequency domain solver of CST is, like the transient solver, a general purpose tool. It provides electromagnetic near and far fields as well as S-parameters. The frequency domain solver is the better choice for small structures. The simulation environment settings include units, properties of surrounding environment, frequency range and boundary domain conditions. As shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide CST simulation environment setting. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide CST simulation environment setting. As the simulation process aims to identify the resonance frequency, the simulation output is the S-parameter chart. When the S-parameter value increases this represents the resonance, as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide S-parameter output from CST studio suite. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide S-parameter output from CST studio suite. 4 SIMULATION PROCESS The process of simulating the resonance frequency of the selected geometric forms steps can be summarized in the steps shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Experiment methodology. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Experiment methodology. 4.1 Inputs A set of basic geometric of six basic geometric forms (cone, pyramid, cube, cylinder, dome and vault) is examined in the current research (Table 3). All with the same volume and in the natural air environment. Every form will be examined with four materials (wood, steel, concrete and glass) in order to identify the effect of changing building form and materials on user’s brainwaves. Table 3. Investigated geometric forms description. Geometric form  Geometric dimension  Base  Height (m)  Shape  Dimension (m)    Square  L = 1.57  1  W = 1.57    Circle  R = 1  1    Square  L = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  0.5    Rectangular  L = 1.2  0.5  W = 1  Geometric form  Geometric dimension  Base  Height (m)  Shape  Dimension (m)    Square  L = 1.57  1  W = 1.57    Circle  R = 1  1    Square  L = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  0.5    Rectangular  L = 1.2  0.5  W = 1  4.2 Results Figure 7 shows the results of S-parameter—which indicates the case of resonance—for the form of pyramid case with different materials. This is presented in a form of a graph of the parameter value with the range of the frequency. Since the results vary depending on the geometric form, as well as construction material change, it could be argued that the impact of the geometric form should not be overlooked in the case of resonance, in addition to, the impact of the construction material. The S-parameter of all tested forms is presented in Table 4. Table 4. Simulation results—resonance frequency for the investigated geometric forms. Geometric shape/material  Resonance frequency  Brainwave  S-parameter (resonance)  Units  Equivalent freq. (Hz)  Wave type  Consciousness status    Concrete  0.56  MHz  4.0  Delta  Stress reduction  Steel  0.68  MHz  2.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  0.73  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Glass  3.00  Hz  3.0  Delta  Relaxation and comfort sleep    Concrete  96.12  MHz  23.0  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Steel  0.27  MHz  16.5  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Wood  93.67  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  29.37  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information    Concrete  75.16  MHz  9.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  1.20  Hz  1.2  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  28.90  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information  Glass  11.77  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort    Concrete  4.18  MHz  8.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  27.92  MHz  6.5  Theta  Creativity    Concrete  12.28  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  18.80  Hz  18.8  Beta  Attention, focus and activity    Concrete  4.5  Hz  4.5  Theta  Stress reduction  Steel  6.66  Hz  6.66  Theta  Creativity  Wood  11.74  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  27.12  Hz  6.5  Theta  Creativity  Geometric shape/material  Resonance frequency  Brainwave  S-parameter (resonance)  Units  Equivalent freq. (Hz)  Wave type  Consciousness status    Concrete  0.56  MHz  4.0  Delta  Stress reduction  Steel  0.68  MHz  2.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  0.73  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Glass  3.00  Hz  3.0  Delta  Relaxation and comfort sleep    Concrete  96.12  MHz  23.0  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Steel  0.27  MHz  16.5  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Wood  93.67  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  29.37  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information    Concrete  75.16  MHz  9.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  1.20  Hz  1.2  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  28.90  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information  Glass  11.77  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort    Concrete  4.18  MHz  8.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  27.92  MHz  6.5  Theta  Creativity    Concrete  12.28  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  18.80  Hz  18.8  Beta  Attention, focus and activity    Concrete  4.5  Hz  4.5  Theta  Stress reduction  Steel  6.66  Hz  6.66  Theta  Creativity  Wood  11.74  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  27.12  Hz  6.5  Theta  Creativity  Figure 7. View largeDownload slide S-parameter outputs of the pyramid form with different materials. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide S-parameter outputs of the pyramid form with different materials. 5 DISCUSSION Table 4 and Figure 8 summarize the simulation results with transforming octave equivalent to the range of brain frequencies and the emotional status represented by those frequencies. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Resonance frequency and brainwave for studied geometric forms. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Resonance frequency and brainwave for studied geometric forms. 6 CONCLUSION It is identified that there are differences in the brainwaves that may be occurred for users after staying in the selected geometric forms. The pyramid with all selected construction materials causes resonance that results in changing brainwave frequency to delta waves guiding users’ consciousness to relaxation and comfort status. This is also obvious in the cases of steel square and concrete dome. In case of need to change the user’s consciousness to meditation and creativity, the brainwaves need to be guided to be theta waves that may be occurred if the user stays in a cylinder space (with steel, wood or glass materials), or in a steel or wooden dome. In addition, this case may be attained if the user stays in a space with a vault form made of concrete, steel or glass. Alpha waves that help in moderation and mental stability, learning and improving the status of general mood may be occurred during staying in a square space made of concrete or glass materials. This is also obvious in the cases of wooden cone and vault as well as the concrete cylinder. In case of need to change the user’s consciousness to attention, concentration or conscious thinking, the brainwaves need to be guided to be beta waves that may be occurred if the user stays in a cone space made of concrete, steel or glass. In addition, this case may be attained if the user stays in a space with a wooden square or a glass dome. Finally, this study identifies that there is an obvious relationship between the geometric forms of architectural spaces and their construction materials and the users’ consciousness. Each geometric form resonates with a specific resonance frequency. The resonance occurred causes a change in the human brainwaves which guides his consciousness to a particular status. Depending on the research results, it is evident that there are different effects related to the geometric forms and construction materials of the architectural spaces on the users’ brainwaves and consciousness. This may assist architects and designers in identifying appropriate which geometric form is the most suitable for their designs in order to suit the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. There is no doubt that there is a need for more studies and investigations on this subject, in particular, the possibility to study the effect of geometric forms which are constructed from more than one materials, as well as the effect of the geometric multi-forms on the resonance frequency occurring inside these forms, which may cause changes in the users’ brainwaves and consciousness. REFERENCES 1 Karim I. Back to a Future for Mankind . CreateSpace Independent Publisher, Florida, 2010. 2 Vijayalakshmi K, Tanya M, Nagaraj Y. Analysis of neuro cognitive effects on meditation. Int J Comput Appl  2011; 36: 6– 9. 3 Essawy S, Kamel B, Elsawy M. Timeless buildings and the human brain. Int J Archit Res  2014; 8: 133– 42. 4 Haberakn J, Mignucci A, Teicher J. Conversations With Form: A Workbook for Students of Architecture. Oxon: Routledge, 2014. 5 Makeig S, Gramann K, Jung T et al.  . Linking brain, mind and behavior. Int J Psychophysiol  2009; 73: 95– 100. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  6 Lee I. Brainwave Vibration , 2nd edn. Best Life Media, 2010. 7 Michael K, Cornwell A, Zoe M. Gamma and beta neural activity evoked during a sensory gating paradigm: effects of auditory, somatosensory and cross-modal stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol  2006; 117: 2549– 63. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  8 Alsan K, Bayraktaroglu E, Gurvit Z et al.  . Comparative analysis of event-related potentials during Go/NoGo and CPT: decomposition of electrophysiological markers of response inhibition and sustained attention. Clin Neurophysiol  2006; 1104: 114– 28. 9 Huang T, Charyton C. A comprehensive review of the psychological effects of brainwave entrainment. Altern Ther Health Med  2008; 14: 38– 49. Google Scholar PubMed  10 Nyström S. Effects of photic stimulation on neuronal activity and subjective experience in man. Acta Neurol Scand  1966; 42: 505– 14. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  11 Smith J, Marsh J, Greenberg S et al.  . Human auditory frequency-following responses to a missing fundamental. Science  1978; 201: 639– 41. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  12 Cahn B, Polich J. Meditation statuses and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol Bull  2006; 132: 180– 211. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  13 CST Microwave Studio. Workflow and Solver Overview. CST Computer Simulation Technology AG, 2014. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies Oxford University Press

The impact of architectural spaces’ geometric forms and construction materials on the users’ brainwaves and consciousness status

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Abstract

Abstract Biogeometry is the patented science of using the energy of shapes and forms to qualitatively make a balance between the biological energy systems and accommodate their interactions with the environment. Balancing the activities of daily life, attaining harmony with our environment, humanizing modern technology, and incorporating science and spirituality are the work of the science of biogeometry. The research in biogeometry was and still is mainly dedicated to the development of a new form of architecture that would improve the human biological system. In this context, the current study aims to develop a scientific approach to investigate the influence of the geometric forms and construction materials of the architectural spaces on the users’ brainwaves and then on their consciousness status which is considered as the main controlling factor in human bioenergy. Trying to consolidating the theoretical views of this effect to be measurable scientifically, the study is based on using a numerical analysis based on a computerized simulation. The results of this study show different influences based on geometric forms and construction materials. The study is carried out using CST Microwave Studio to identify the resonance frequency occurred inside different geometric forms with different construction materials, and then distinguish the related user’s brainwaves which influence his/her consciousness status. This may assist architects and designers in identifying appropriate geometric forms to suit the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. 1 INTRODUCTION Biogeometry is the science which studies the relationships between all the elements in the universe and human life, and the impact of these relationships on the quality of life in order to identify how to improve this quality. This science uses shapes, colors, motions and sounds to achieve balance to all energy levels. It believes that architecture is the language of the formation of a space for human use, whether for living, work, hospitalization or for any other purposes. As the space quality is affected by air quality and ventilation, it also is affected by its geometric form and construction materials. Biogeometry is the science that studies the effect of geometric shapes and forms on human bioenergy, and then it is possible to mitigate negative energies and enhance their positive qualities. Biogeometry aims to achieve a balance between architectural space and energy quality produced inside it. This balance is capable of promoting the quality of architectural spaces. Many of the biogeometry studies have concerned with the interior design of spaces due to its great importance as it contains many beneficial and detrimental energies, which negatively or positively affect their users in a direct or indirect ways. Internal space is argued as the main factor that affects physiologically and psychologically the human health. Its influence extends to its ability to control the human bioenergy. One of the objectives of this science is to identify a geometric design language that interacts with the energy of forms to provide spaces with the balance required for their users’ comfort [1]. In December 2011, a study investigating the effect of a building with a pyramid form (Maitreya Buddha Pyramid, Bengaluru, India) on a number of meditators’ brainwaves was conducted [2]. An effort was made to investigate the cerebral electrical activity of fifteen meditators that are recorded by electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a physiological electrical signal recorded from the scalp to study the brain function. EEG is recorded before and after meditation inside and outside the pyramid. In this study, 13 meditators had an increase while 2 meditators had a drop in alpha waves. The amplitude of theta parameters for 14 meditators showed an increase while 1 meditator showed a decrease. In addition, the amplitude of delta shows an increase of 11 meditators and a decrease of the others. This increase in the alpha and theta waves showed the suggestive of relaxation after meditation. With the same methodology, another study published in 2014 [3] aimed to measure the impact of staying inside a historic building space with a vault ceiling shape (El-Sultan Hassan mosque, Cairo) on the users’ consciousness status, by recording the brain electrical signals (EEG) of a number of volunteers inside and outside the building. The results showed that 14 of the volunteers showed an increase while 8 volunteers showed a drop in alpha activity. The amplitude of theta/beta ratio for eight volunteers showed a decrease while three volunteers showed an increase. This increase in the alpha and decrease in theta/beta waves showed the suggestive of relaxation and calm awareness after staying for 20 min inside the building. Haberakn et al. [4] argued that it is hard to separate the human behavior and the form of spaces that human lives in. In this regard, architecture can affect negatively on human as it could be shown in the monotonous repetition which leads to weariness and boredom and thus leads to a status of depression and social confusion, leading to the prevalence of psychological diseases and behavioral deviations. This supports the point of view that the building starts with an ideology and a philosophy of a designer and then turns into influential in human relations that take place either positively or negatively in our communities. Hence, the trend which aims to revive the social side in contemporary architecture arises, because the spatial behavior is a form of social interaction resulting from an individual’s life in the environment and community. Karim [1] argued how critical it is to recognize the significance of building to human health inside a building. Consequently one can locate power spots, anciently used as healing places, where concentrations of healing powers appear. This is one of the key principles of building timeless architecture. These features cause buildings to be considered of great effect on human health on the physical, psychological and spiritual levels. The main problem is the lack of the scientific measuring instruments used to identify the impact of the geometric form of the architectural space on the users’ bioenergy through their brainwaves and consciousness. In this sense, this research attempts to identify the scientific relationship between the geometric form of the architectural space and the user’s brainwaves and consciousness, which may affect the quality of architectural design process. This study is based on linking brainwaves to geometric form of architectural spaces by using a computational method in order to identify a scientific measuring tool that can use the frequencies of resonance in predicting and identifying the impacts of the architectural spaces on the user’s mental status and consciousness. This may support architects and designers in identifying appropriate geometric forms to meet the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. 2 THE HUMAN BRAIN AND STATUSES OF CONSCIOUSNESS The brain is the most important part of the human nervous system. It gathers and analyzes information, and controls most of the body’s organs and systems. The brain is mainly composed of three areas that are cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebrum cares about cognitive, sensory and mental functions of the human body. The mind is not a part of the brain, but it is the process of the activities and functions, in particular, those functions in which the human being aware of such as personality, thinking, controversy, memory, intelligence and even emotion. Hence, the mind is what distinguishes between the human and the animal, not the brain [5]. 2.1 Brainwaves Brainwaves are very accurate electrical signals reflecting the changes which occur in the frequency of brainwaves during different mental statuses. Studying brainwaves has a key role in understanding how the human brain and mind work and the relationship between the neurological functions the main brain parts. The electrical activity of the brain is actually defined as the collection of all activities of brain cells. While each brain cell has its own frequently wave, but what we can measure is the combined activities of all brain cells [6]. 2.2 Types of brainwaves Brainwaves are classified into five major types, as follows (Table 1): ▪ Delta waves ▪ Beta waves ▪ Theta waves ▪ Gamma waves ▪ Alpha waves Table 1. Brainwaves types. Wave type  Frequency  Wave shape  Characteristics  Delta  0 4    Associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep  Theta  4 8    Involved in daydreaming and sleep  Alpha  8 12    Bridges the gap between our conscious thinking and subconscious mind  Beta  12 40    Conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating effect  Gamma  40 100    Higher processing tasks as well as cognitive functioning  Wave type  Frequency  Wave shape  Characteristics  Delta  0 4    Associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep  Theta  4 8    Involved in daydreaming and sleep  Alpha  8 12    Bridges the gap between our conscious thinking and subconscious mind  Beta  12 40    Conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating effect  Gamma  40 100    Higher processing tasks as well as cognitive functioning  Source: Micheal et al. [7]. This classification based on the frequency of brainwaves. It was noticed that certain patterns of brainwaves related to cases of consciousness, such as alertness, relaxation, sleep and deep sleep. The following table shows each of brainwaves characteristics and its relation to the status of consciousness as well as the shape of the waves [7]. 2.3 The effect of brain frequencies on statuses of consciousness Table 2 presents the effects of frequencies in each band on the human brain statuses of consciousness [8]. Table 2. The relationship between brainwaves and human consciousness. Frequency  Unit  Consciousness status  Delta brainwaves (0.5–4 Hz)   0.5  Hz  Relax—help to soothe headaches   0.5–1.5  Hz  Relieve pain   0.9  Hz  A sense of joy   1.0  Hz  The feeling of well-being—the harmony and balance   2.5  Hz  Relieve pain and reduce anxiety   2.5  Hz  Relieve migraine pain   3.4  Hz  Help achieve restful sleep   3.5  Hz  Autism with the outer perimeter   3.9  Hz  Promote internal awareness   4.0  Hz  Reduce stress   4.0  Hz  Enhance the memory capacity—enhance learning ability  Theta brainwaves (4–8 Hz)   4.9  Hz  Induces relaxation, meditation and deep sleep   5.35  Hz  Relax and breathe freely and efficiently   5.5  Hz  Internal guidance and intuition   6.5  Hz  Activate creativity   7.5  Hz  Technical and creative thought   7.5  Hz  Ease of overcoming the nagging issues   7.8  Hz  Schumann frequency waves—activity and balance  Alpha brainwaves (8–12 Hz)   8.0–10.0  Hz  Learning new things depending on the memory   10.0  Hz  Improve the status of general mood   11.0  Hz  Relax status after waking up   12.0  Hz  Moderation and mental stability  Beta brainwaves (12–40 Hz)   14.0  Hz  Attention—focus on tasks and vitality   12.0–15.0  Hz  Concentration and relaxation   13.0–27.0  Hz  The attention to external stimuli focus   13.0–30.0  Hz  Problem solving and conscious thinking   18.0–27.0  Hz  A sense of euphoria (euphoria)  Frequency  Unit  Consciousness status  Delta brainwaves (0.5–4 Hz)   0.5  Hz  Relax—help to soothe headaches   0.5–1.5  Hz  Relieve pain   0.9  Hz  A sense of joy   1.0  Hz  The feeling of well-being—the harmony and balance   2.5  Hz  Relieve pain and reduce anxiety   2.5  Hz  Relieve migraine pain   3.4  Hz  Help achieve restful sleep   3.5  Hz  Autism with the outer perimeter   3.9  Hz  Promote internal awareness   4.0  Hz  Reduce stress   4.0  Hz  Enhance the memory capacity—enhance learning ability  Theta brainwaves (4–8 Hz)   4.9  Hz  Induces relaxation, meditation and deep sleep   5.35  Hz  Relax and breathe freely and efficiently   5.5  Hz  Internal guidance and intuition   6.5  Hz  Activate creativity   7.5  Hz  Technical and creative thought   7.5  Hz  Ease of overcoming the nagging issues   7.8  Hz  Schumann frequency waves—activity and balance  Alpha brainwaves (8–12 Hz)   8.0–10.0  Hz  Learning new things depending on the memory   10.0  Hz  Improve the status of general mood   11.0  Hz  Relax status after waking up   12.0  Hz  Moderation and mental stability  Beta brainwaves (12–40 Hz)   14.0  Hz  Attention—focus on tasks and vitality   12.0–15.0  Hz  Concentration and relaxation   13.0–27.0  Hz  The attention to external stimuli focus   13.0–30.0  Hz  Problem solving and conscious thinking   18.0–27.0  Hz  A sense of euphoria (euphoria)  Source: Alsan et al. [8]. 2.4 Brainwave entrainment Brainwave entrainment (pronounced ‘ehn-TRAIN-mint’) refers to the brain’s electrical response to rhythmic sensory stimulation, such as pulses of sound or light. When the brain is exposed to a stimulus, through the eyes, ears or other senses, it produces an electrical charge in response, called a cortical evoked response (CER) (Figure 1). These electrical responses are carried throughout the brain to become what you ‘see or hear’ for example. This activity can be measured using sensitive electrodes attached to the scalp [9]. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Human brain evoked response of an influential voice. Source: Huang and Charyton [9]. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Human brain evoked response of an influential voice. Source: Huang and Charyton [9]. When the brain is exposed to a rhythmic stimulus, such as a drum beat, for instance, the rhythm is reproduced in the brain in the form of these electrical impulses. If the rhythm becomes fast and regular, it can start to resemble the natural internal rhythms of the brain, called brainwaves. When this happens, the brain responds by synchronizing its own electric cycles to the same rhythm (Figure 2). This is commonly called the Frequency Following Response (FFR) [10, 11]. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Human brain EEG shows the response of an influential voice frequency 10 Hz. Source: Nyström [10]. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Human brain EEG shows the response of an influential voice frequency 10 Hz. Source: Nyström [10]. FFR could be valuable since brainwaves are very much related to mental status. For instance, a 4 Hz brainwave is associated with sleep, so a 4 Hz sound pattern would help reproduce the sleep status in the brain. The same concept could be implemented to many other mental statuses, including meditation, relaxation and concentration. If a person listens closely during a music session, he will hear small, quick pulses of sound. When the session progresses, the frequency rate of these pulses is changed gradually, thus changing his brainwave patterns and guiding his mind to several useful mental statuses [12]. Since we live in built spaces all time, the functional efficiency of the architectural space affected by the user’s psychological and mental status. Some activities need special mental statuses as relaxation in residential buildings, attention, and activity in educational buildings,…etc. This section concludes that brainwaves control the human consciousness and mental status. Moreover, the human brain has shown its ability to respond to external effects and the possibility to enter required consciousness brain status. 3 EXPERIMENT EXPLANATION In this section, the experiment is explained according to two main axes:  The first axis discusses the experiment aim and concept, the meaning of resonance, and the principle of the octave as a way to understand the impact of the high-frequency range to the low-frequency range of the human brain.  The second axis explains the simulation software ‘CST Microwave Studio’, the inputs and outputs of the simulation environment, and identifying how to analyze the experiment outputs. 3.1 Experiment aim and concept Practical experiments which carried out on a number of the buildings’ users indicate a significant change of 70–95% of the users in the electrical activity of their brain after staying for some time inside these buildings. This shows the effect of the geometric form of buildings on their users’ brainwaves frequencies and then their consciousness status. The current experiment depends on using a simulation program—CST Microwave Studio—which allows the rapid and accurate analysis of high-frequency devices such as antennas [13]. Antennas are designed depending on their shapes and dimensions that occur a resonance frequency between the body of the antenna and the desired receiving waves. In this context, the role of simulation software appears to investigate the range of frequencies that occur resonance with the composite geometric body of the antenna. Since we live in a wide range of frequencies generated naturally or by the electronic devices that are used in our daily life, it could be considered that the architectural space where human lives, works, learns or even enjoys is a large antenna. According to this hypothesis, the configuration of any architectural space could be investigated by antenna design software and then testing the range of frequencies resonates with this geometric configuration. Then it is possible to study the impact of these frequencies on the human brain, according to the principle of Frequency Following Response which is defined as a brainwaves (EEG) frequency response that corresponds to the frequency of an auditory stimulus. Therefore, it would be identified which status of consciousness occurred. 3.2 CST Microwave Studio CST Microwave Studio is a fully featured software package for electromagnetic analysis and design in the high-frequency range. It offers accurate and effective computational solutions for electromagnetic design and analysis. Analyses may include thermal and mechanical effects. CST benefits from an integrated design environment that offers access to the entire range of solver technology. System assembly and modeling facilitates multi-physics and co-simulation in addition to the management of entire electromagnetic systems. It provides a powerful graphical modeling interface that is depend on the ACIS modeling kernel (Figure 3). After modeling, a fully automatic meshing procedure is implemented before a simulation engine is initiated. A main feature of CST Microwave Studio is the method on demand approach that gives the choice of simulator or mesh type is that is best suited to a particular problem [13]. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide CST Microwave Studio interface. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide CST Microwave Studio interface. The transient solver of CST is a general purpose 3D electromagnetic simulator. Real time domain simulation is suitable for studying the field propagating through a component and could be used in a huge range of electromagnetic applications. On the other hand, the frequency domain solver of CST is, like the transient solver, a general purpose tool. It provides electromagnetic near and far fields as well as S-parameters. The frequency domain solver is the better choice for small structures. The simulation environment settings include units, properties of surrounding environment, frequency range and boundary domain conditions. As shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide CST simulation environment setting. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide CST simulation environment setting. As the simulation process aims to identify the resonance frequency, the simulation output is the S-parameter chart. When the S-parameter value increases this represents the resonance, as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide S-parameter output from CST studio suite. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide S-parameter output from CST studio suite. 4 SIMULATION PROCESS The process of simulating the resonance frequency of the selected geometric forms steps can be summarized in the steps shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Experiment methodology. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Experiment methodology. 4.1 Inputs A set of basic geometric of six basic geometric forms (cone, pyramid, cube, cylinder, dome and vault) is examined in the current research (Table 3). All with the same volume and in the natural air environment. Every form will be examined with four materials (wood, steel, concrete and glass) in order to identify the effect of changing building form and materials on user’s brainwaves. Table 3. Investigated geometric forms description. Geometric form  Geometric dimension  Base  Height (m)  Shape  Dimension (m)    Square  L = 1.57  1  W = 1.57    Circle  R = 1  1    Square  L = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  0.5    Rectangular  L = 1.2  0.5  W = 1  Geometric form  Geometric dimension  Base  Height (m)  Shape  Dimension (m)    Square  L = 1.57  1  W = 1.57    Circle  R = 1  1    Square  L = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  1    Circle  R = 1  0.5    Rectangular  L = 1.2  0.5  W = 1  4.2 Results Figure 7 shows the results of S-parameter—which indicates the case of resonance—for the form of pyramid case with different materials. This is presented in a form of a graph of the parameter value with the range of the frequency. Since the results vary depending on the geometric form, as well as construction material change, it could be argued that the impact of the geometric form should not be overlooked in the case of resonance, in addition to, the impact of the construction material. The S-parameter of all tested forms is presented in Table 4. Table 4. Simulation results—resonance frequency for the investigated geometric forms. Geometric shape/material  Resonance frequency  Brainwave  S-parameter (resonance)  Units  Equivalent freq. (Hz)  Wave type  Consciousness status    Concrete  0.56  MHz  4.0  Delta  Stress reduction  Steel  0.68  MHz  2.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  0.73  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Glass  3.00  Hz  3.0  Delta  Relaxation and comfort sleep    Concrete  96.12  MHz  23.0  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Steel  0.27  MHz  16.5  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Wood  93.67  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  29.37  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information    Concrete  75.16  MHz  9.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  1.20  Hz  1.2  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  28.90  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information  Glass  11.77  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort    Concrete  4.18  MHz  8.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  27.92  MHz  6.5  Theta  Creativity    Concrete  12.28  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  18.80  Hz  18.8  Beta  Attention, focus and activity    Concrete  4.5  Hz  4.5  Theta  Stress reduction  Steel  6.66  Hz  6.66  Theta  Creativity  Wood  11.74  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  27.12  Hz  6.5  Theta  Creativity  Geometric shape/material  Resonance frequency  Brainwave  S-parameter (resonance)  Units  Equivalent freq. (Hz)  Wave type  Consciousness status    Concrete  0.56  MHz  4.0  Delta  Stress reduction  Steel  0.68  MHz  2.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  0.73  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Glass  3.00  Hz  3.0  Delta  Relaxation and comfort sleep    Concrete  96.12  MHz  23.0  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Steel  0.27  MHz  16.5  Beta  Attention, focus and activity  Wood  93.67  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  29.37  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information    Concrete  75.16  MHz  9.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  1.20  Hz  1.2  Delta  Brain reduction  Wood  28.90  MHz  14.0  Alpha  Focus and receive information  Glass  11.77  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort    Concrete  4.18  MHz  8.0  Alpha  Learn depending on memorize  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  27.92  MHz  6.5  Theta  Creativity    Concrete  12.28  MHz  1.5  Delta  Brain reduction  Steel  0.04  MHz  7.8  Theta  Showman waves—activity and balance  Wood  0.47  MHz  7.0  Theta  Meditation and inner peace  Glass  18.80  Hz  18.8  Beta  Attention, focus and activity    Concrete  4.5  Hz  4.5  Theta  Stress reduction  Steel  6.66  Hz  6.66  Theta  Creativity  Wood  11.74  MHz  11.0  Alpha  Relaxation and comfort  Glass  27.12  Hz  6.5  Theta  Creativity  Figure 7. View largeDownload slide S-parameter outputs of the pyramid form with different materials. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide S-parameter outputs of the pyramid form with different materials. 5 DISCUSSION Table 4 and Figure 8 summarize the simulation results with transforming octave equivalent to the range of brain frequencies and the emotional status represented by those frequencies. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Resonance frequency and brainwave for studied geometric forms. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Resonance frequency and brainwave for studied geometric forms. 6 CONCLUSION It is identified that there are differences in the brainwaves that may be occurred for users after staying in the selected geometric forms. The pyramid with all selected construction materials causes resonance that results in changing brainwave frequency to delta waves guiding users’ consciousness to relaxation and comfort status. This is also obvious in the cases of steel square and concrete dome. In case of need to change the user’s consciousness to meditation and creativity, the brainwaves need to be guided to be theta waves that may be occurred if the user stays in a cylinder space (with steel, wood or glass materials), or in a steel or wooden dome. In addition, this case may be attained if the user stays in a space with a vault form made of concrete, steel or glass. Alpha waves that help in moderation and mental stability, learning and improving the status of general mood may be occurred during staying in a square space made of concrete or glass materials. This is also obvious in the cases of wooden cone and vault as well as the concrete cylinder. In case of need to change the user’s consciousness to attention, concentration or conscious thinking, the brainwaves need to be guided to be beta waves that may be occurred if the user stays in a cone space made of concrete, steel or glass. In addition, this case may be attained if the user stays in a space with a wooden square or a glass dome. Finally, this study identifies that there is an obvious relationship between the geometric forms of architectural spaces and their construction materials and the users’ consciousness. Each geometric form resonates with a specific resonance frequency. The resonance occurred causes a change in the human brainwaves which guides his consciousness to a particular status. Depending on the research results, it is evident that there are different effects related to the geometric forms and construction materials of the architectural spaces on the users’ brainwaves and consciousness. This may assist architects and designers in identifying appropriate which geometric form is the most suitable for their designs in order to suit the required uses and functions that need particular consciousness statuses. There is no doubt that there is a need for more studies and investigations on this subject, in particular, the possibility to study the effect of geometric forms which are constructed from more than one materials, as well as the effect of the geometric multi-forms on the resonance frequency occurring inside these forms, which may cause changes in the users’ brainwaves and consciousness. REFERENCES 1 Karim I. Back to a Future for Mankind . CreateSpace Independent Publisher, Florida, 2010. 2 Vijayalakshmi K, Tanya M, Nagaraj Y. Analysis of neuro cognitive effects on meditation. Int J Comput Appl  2011; 36: 6– 9. 3 Essawy S, Kamel B, Elsawy M. Timeless buildings and the human brain. Int J Archit Res  2014; 8: 133– 42. 4 Haberakn J, Mignucci A, Teicher J. Conversations With Form: A Workbook for Students of Architecture. Oxon: Routledge, 2014. 5 Makeig S, Gramann K, Jung T et al.  . Linking brain, mind and behavior. Int J Psychophysiol  2009; 73: 95– 100. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  6 Lee I. Brainwave Vibration , 2nd edn. Best Life Media, 2010. 7 Michael K, Cornwell A, Zoe M. Gamma and beta neural activity evoked during a sensory gating paradigm: effects of auditory, somatosensory and cross-modal stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol  2006; 117: 2549– 63. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  8 Alsan K, Bayraktaroglu E, Gurvit Z et al.  . Comparative analysis of event-related potentials during Go/NoGo and CPT: decomposition of electrophysiological markers of response inhibition and sustained attention. Clin Neurophysiol  2006; 1104: 114– 28. 9 Huang T, Charyton C. A comprehensive review of the psychological effects of brainwave entrainment. Altern Ther Health Med  2008; 14: 38– 49. Google Scholar PubMed  10 Nyström S. Effects of photic stimulation on neuronal activity and subjective experience in man. Acta Neurol Scand  1966; 42: 505– 14. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  11 Smith J, Marsh J, Greenberg S et al.  . Human auditory frequency-following responses to a missing fundamental. Science  1978; 201: 639– 41. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  12 Cahn B, Polich J. Meditation statuses and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol Bull  2006; 132: 180– 211. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  13 CST Microwave Studio. Workflow and Solver Overview. CST Computer Simulation Technology AG, 2014. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

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International Journal of Low-Carbon TechnologiesOxford University Press

Published: Mar 1, 2018

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