Stravinsky in Vancouver, 1917–2017: Concerts, Premieres, Collections

Stravinsky in Vancouver, 1917–2017: Concerts, Premieres, Collections Readers interested in Stravinsky will know that in 1917 he was in Switzerland, not Vancouver, and, moreover, that he died in 1971. The bizarre chronology of the above title is easily resolved.1 This study examines a half-dozen occasions (the last one posthumous) apropos of the composer and his music in Canada’s third-largest city.2 Beginning just before the United States entered World War I, these events span a full century. Midway through World War I, and surely unaware of Stravinsky’s contributions, Vancouverites welcomed Serge Diaghilev’s touring Ballets Russes at what was then the Canadian Pacific Railway Opera House (on the west side of Granville Street, midway between Georgia and Robson streets).3 On the evening of 15 January 1917, with conductor Pierre Monteux and fifty-seven musicians, ballet fans heard Chopin’s A-flat-major Nocturne to open Les sylphides choreographed by Mikhail Fokine, and his Grande valse brillante to close it.4 Back in St. Petersburg in 1909, the twenty-six-year-old Stravinsky had orchestrated both Chopin works for Diaghilev.5 In 1917, of course, Vancouver was welcoming neither Stravinsky nor his own music.6 Still, it was the first Canadian city to experience what had enraptured Debussy in 1911 about Stravinsky’s scoring: the “sonorous magic” and “orchestral certainties” that the French composer heard in Petrushka.7 In 2017, that very score—heavily annotated by the composer on his own signed copy of the orchestral score that Boosey & Hawkes had reprinted in the early 1940s from Koussevitzky’s 1912 Édition Russe publication—arrived in Vancouver and joined the University of British Columbia’s Stravinsky collection.8 Long before arriving in Vancouver himself, Stravinsky had visited Canada’s two largest cities. In January 1937, he conducted jointly with Sir Ernest MacMillan in Toronto;9 then, a few weeks later, he concertized in Montreal with violinist Samuel Dushkin.10 With World War II winding down, Stravinsky led Montreal’s orchestra in March 1945,11 and in the early 1960s he was often in Toronto, recording with the CBC orchestra.12 On 17 May 1967, that city witnessed his final appearance anywhere as conductor.13 Vancouver welcomed him twice as a conductor, in 1952 and 1965, and again, though very briefly, as a visitor while changing trains in late April 1955.14 Since 1998, his presence has been maintained through a collection given to UBC that year15 and subsequent additions to it. As in most cities, Stravinsky’s musical engagements in Vancouver generated numerous images. Some of the lesser-known ones are reproduced here, and others are cited. His first appearance in the city occurred somewhat by chance. On 27 February 1952, violinist Harry Adaskin, founding professor and chair of the music department at UBC’s Point Grey campus, wrote to Stravinsky, inviting him to lecture at a concert of his music to be given by faculty and students in Brock Hall in April. That 7 April program (fig. 1) featured Stravinsky’s 1935 Concerto for Two Solo Pianos, played by John Brockington and me; and the 1931 Duo concertant with Adaskin and his pianist wife, Frances Marr. After intermission came Stravinsky’s 1923 Svadebka (The Wedding, sung in English). I conducted faculty members Mrs. Adaskin and composer-pianist Barbara Pentland,16 plus two student pianists, student percussionists, student choristers, and the requisite solo singers.17 Two photographs show rehearsals for The Wedding in a World War II Quonset Army hut at UBC (figs. 2a and 2b). Among the solo singers was undergraduate Milla Andrew (visible at my right), later a well-known operatic soprano.18 Both the two-piano Concerto and The Wedding were Canadian premieres.19 Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Program for the 7 April 1952 Stravinsky concert at UBC, Vancouver. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Program for the 7 April 1952 Stravinsky concert at UBC, Vancouver. Figure 2a and 2b. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Author rehearses The Wedding for 7 April 1952 UBC concert. Figure 2a and 2b. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Author rehearses The Wedding for 7 April 1952 UBC concert. Having already written Adaskin from Los Angeles that he could not come to UBC in April, but thanking him for sending the concert’s program, Stravinsky mentioned that he had heard that Vancouver had a “good orchestra up there.” Might it engage him during the coming season?20 Adaskin promptly contacted the Symphony Society. On 25 April, it authorized its business manager to suggest 5 October 1952 for Stravinsky to conduct the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra (VSO). (This approach delighted the frugal composer since it avoided his having to pay an agent’s commission.) Instead of the normal four rehearsals, there were to be five. The first one was taken on 30 September (the day before Stravinsky arrived) by the VSO’s concertmaster, Jean de Rimanoczy. It was, in one first violinist’s recollection, “not a success.”21 1952 “Stravinsky, Greatest Name of Modern Music, On Way Here” was the headline on 29 September in the Vancouver Daily Province. Stravinsky, his daughter, and his son-in-law flew from California to Seattle on Wednesday night, 1 October,22 and thence by train, settling in the Hotel Vancouver. Stravinsky had already sent a 1945 photograph of himself to the Province and written to the editor of its weekly BC Magazine: I am looking forward with great pleasure to conducting the Vancouver Symphony and getting acquainted with your beautiful western province which I have always been eager to know. I am sure that I will enjoy my 1952 visit to Canada as much as I did my previous visits to Toronto and Montreal.23 But he little knew that he would be visiting a still relatively unsophisticated city. For example, the VSO was forbidden from programming Debussy’s Prélude à l’après-midi d’une faune for its 1919–20 season because its board of directors considered it to be “too erotic.”24 And one music lover remembered that during Ravel’s piano recital in the winter of 1928 at the Hotel Vancouver ballroom, “people left in droves all through the concert, banging the doors.”25 Years later, Mrs. Adaskin observed: “Vancouver in the mid ’forties was a country town. There wasn’t much in art or music.”26 Not surprisingly, in 1952 a Vancouver Province reporter headed his interview with the just-arrived composer “Stravinsky Assails Modern Junk,” and then wrote: “Asked about his so-called ‘instinct’ for musical fashions, he said that if his music was ‘in fashion’ that was good.”27 Worse, the front page of the Vancouver Sun greeted him with a punning (and too clever) headline: “Stravinsky Lights No Fire; Council Gives Him the Bird.”28 The city council was debating the Symphony Society’s request to honor him with Vancouver’s golden key. Alderman Showler—whose candidate was Ginger Rogers—objected: “Some fellow blows into town and picks up a nice chunk of money. Why should we do anything for him? … I can’t see it.”29 The Vancouver Province reported still more grousing from Showler: “These guys come in here and pick up a nice chunk of dough—why don’t we do it for our own people?”30 Yet, the very next day, the Sun announced the city council’s affirmative decision. Unruffled, the composer allowed that he would “most likely” accept the key, delaying (mischievously perhaps?) the honor until Friday afternoon, 3 October, when he would be “free from rehearsals.” Stravinsky first rehearsed the VSO on Thursday morning, 2 October, in a rather dismal and cramped CBC studio. Figure 3 shows him at that rehearsal, holding his jacket, and aided by Edmund Newton, bass trombonist and the orchestra’s representative, he sheds his heavy overcoat. Concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy stands on the other side.31 In two of several images held by the city’s public library, Stravinsky, cigarette holder in hand, chats next to the concertmaster before addressing the orchestra (figs. 4 and 5). Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky arrives for first VSO rehearsal, 2 October 1952. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky arrives for first VSO rehearsal, 2 October 1952. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky with concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky with concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky at rehearsal. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky at rehearsal. The refulgent and engaging charm of Vancouver’s distinguished émigré ethnomusicologist, Vienna-born Ida Halpern (1910–87),32 an honorary director of the Symphony Society, allowed only her—not even its officers—into Stravinsky’s rehearsals. She made several observations in the Vancouver Province about the first one: It was gratifying to see how eager our musicians were to please. And they succeeded… . “Very good,” he said on several occasions. The praise worked wonders because the orchestra sounded amazingly well for a first rehearsal… . His manner of conducting is concise… . His movements are swift, precise and always well-controlled … [while] at the same time quick, electric and nervous… . [H]is expressive hands interpret the music clearly. To give certain effects he sometimes [claps] his hands and snaps his fingers. … His manner towards the orchestra is very polite, very kind …, [showing] only eagerness to help.33 She also noted corrections he made for one orchestra player: “‘There are mistakes,’ said Stravinsky and asked that player to come up to the podium with his part.” Halpern exclaimed, “What a manuscript to have, what a collector’s item,” but she identified neither work nor player. These corrections to the Firebird Suite for the VSO’s keyboardist at that time, John Avison, had to be repeated in 1965 at Stravinsky’s next concert appearance in Vancouver for a different pianist, though not a regular member of the VSO. One image of Stravinsky, jacket shed, was probably taken the next morning, on Friday, 3 October, and in the same crowded CBC studio.34 Betty Tangye (a first violinist) recalled sixty years later that at this rehearsal “Stravinsky made a number of corrections of notes in the orchestra parts,” including her own, but she did not identify them.35 His third and fourth rehearsals were on Saturday and Sunday mornings. On Friday afternoon, Mayor Fred Hume awarded Stravinsky the city’s ceremonial golden key. Clearly, this award elicited some grateful (perhaps even ironic?) words from the composer. A photograph of the presentation shows him smiling in satisfaction (fig. 6).36 Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Mayor Fred Hume awards Stravinsky ceremonial key to the city of Vancouver. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Mayor Fred Hume awards Stravinsky ceremonial key to the city of Vancouver. That evening, Harry and Frances Adaskin invited Stravinsky to a dinner party at their renovated Army hut in Acacia Camp, near the Point Grey campus. After dinner, both Adaskins queried him about a passage in dispute: an A-flat, or A-natural, in the printed piano part of his Divertimento, which they were preparing for performance later that fall. Trying out the passage several times on their piano and with some considerable frustration—he had even rehearsed the Divertimento that very morning—he ultimately declared: “could be eizer.” The Adaskins’ dilemma went unresolved until they (and I) heard Stravinsky’s final Sunday-morning rehearsal of the Divertimento, where the VSO’s cellos and basses played A-natural.37 For Adaskin, a collector of inscribed photographs of composers and performers, Stravinsky soon obliged with a mounted photograph taken by Gene Fenn in April 1948 at the Ambassador Hotel in New York. Below it, he wrote: “To Harry Adaskin / all best from Igor Stravinsky / Vancouver Oct[ober] 3/52.”38 He also gave UBC’s music department and the Adaskins copies of his Poétique musicale in its recently published third edition (April 1952). One copy he inscribed, “To the Department of / Music, University of / British Columbia / Vancouver, Oct. 1952 / I Stravinsky.”39 The Adaskins’ own copy (now in Vancouver’s public library) he inscribed more personally: “à Frances Marr / et / Harry Adaskin / cordialement.” Stravinsky later mailed them a just published periodical, Musik der Zeit, celebrating his sixtieth birthday, which he inscribed, “To my good friends / the ADASKINS / all best / IStravinsky / 1952.”40 (Another copy that he had sent to UBC’s music department is now in the Vancouver Public Library.) The business manager of the VSO, Colin E. Barraclough, kindly invited me to Stravinsky’s last rehearsal, on 5 October.41 At 9 a.m. that Sunday morning, in front of the Hotel Vancouver, he introduced me to the composer. Barraclough then drove us four blocks southeast to the orchestra’s concert hall, the Orpheum Theater. Awestruck in the car’s back seat and sensing Stravinsky’s concentration on his final rehearsal, I remained silent about our April UBC concert.42 Scribbles made during that final rehearsal on my Kalmus full score of the 1919 Firebird Suite (another pirated edition) now call back to memory Stravinsky’s subtle rubatos, his pleas for articulation in several forte passages—“Make a comma between your notes”43—and his disdain for so-called expressive playing. (Accordingly, on his 1910 manuscript of the complete Firebird ballet he once wrote in Russian: “To hell with the legatos!”44) When rehearsing lyric passages in his own scores and in those by Glinka and Tchaikovsky, he would often turn his back on the VSO’s string section. Directly after that Sunday morning rehearsal, the city’s then most fashionable photographer, Eric Skipsey, took an important likeness of Stravinsky. The composer cherished this sole formal image taken in Vancouver.45 The following year he wrote Skipsey: “This portrait of myself is very good and very interesting indeed.” He asked if the photographer would let him “use it for non-commercial and non-public uses.” In 1956, he did just that, inscribing a copy, “To prof. Cesare Frugoni / sincerely / Igor Stravinsky / Venice Sept. 13/56.”46 Harry Adaskin’s “Open Letter to Igor Stravinsky” was printed in the VSO’s program booklet for its Sunday afternoon concert. He noted that Vancouver “has waited a long time for this visit” and that “the musical world celebrates your 70th birthday this year.” Referring to UBC’s Stravinsky concert the previous April, Adaskin felt he could now safely claim that the “musical world” really did include Vancouver. He finished by telling Stravinsky “with what keen delight we welcome your visit here, and how much we wish it will be often repeated.” Repeated it was, but just twice more—on successive summer evenings in 1965. The booklet also advised that the second half of the program—Circus Polka, Scherzo à la Russe, Divertimento, and the Firebird Suite—would be: broadcast over the Trans-Canada network through the courtesy of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and over many of the stations of the American Broadcasting Company through arrangements with the C.B.C. Unfortunately, no recording of these broadcasts has been located. That Monday, the Vancouver Sun ran Stanley Bligh’s enthusiastic review, even underlining its heading: “3000 Hear Impressive Program; Great Ovation Accorded Stravinsky and His Music.” Bligh noted that “Stravinsky was recalled time and time again, audience and players rising to their feet in a moving tribute to the composer-conductor.”47 Also on that Monday, the Vancouver Province printed Ida Halpern’s review, “Expectations Fulfilled: Stravinsky, Orchestra, in Great Concert.”48 Concerning his performance of Tchaikovsky’s Little Russian Symphony, she wrote: “There was none of the over-emotionalism of Tchaikovsky’s last symphony in this work.” In Stravinsky’s copy of her review (now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel), he underlined her misstatement: “whom he [Stravinsky] heard [Tchaikovsky] conducting his own works.”49 Stravinsky then sent her a gift, which she acknowledged that November: “thanking you for your delightful book.” Alas, which book remains unknown. 1965 In 1965, Stravinsky again conducted in Vancouver. On Monday and Tuesday evenings, 12 and 13 July, he shared two concerts with Robert Craft for the city’s Eighth Festival, held at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre. This time, Stravinsky was brought to the city by Hugh Pickett,50 longtime manager (1946–85) of the concert agency Famous Players, which sometimes served as a local outlet for Sol Hurok and his New York-based Famous Artists. At Hurok’s urging (perhaps even against Pickett’s better judgment?),51 he booked the composer. In 2002, Pickett confessed that “the notoriously hard-to-handle Igor Stravinsky … was terrible at first. Really obnoxious. Slowly he came around. He was here four days before we really got to know him.”52 On 9 July, a Friday, Stravinsky had flown from Chicago with his wife, Craft, and Hurok’s press agent, Lillian Libman. On the way from Vancouver’s airport to their lodgings, Libman noticed that even the city’s gas stations had banners reading “Welcome to Igor Stravinsky” (a considerable difference from his reception in 1952). At eighty-three, he needed a wheelchair for any significant distance. Lawrence Morton, a Los Angeles friend, joined them in Vancouver, allowing Stravinsky to visit parts of Stanley Park, and especially the zoo with its polar bears.53 On Saturday, 10 July, the Daily Province ran a photograph of the Stravinskys settled at the Bayshore Inn.54 Interviewed there two days later, Mrs. Stravinsky would not admit her husband’s reputation for “temperament,” only that, like herself, he was sometimes “capricious.”55 Mary White (née Buckerfield),56 wife of Victor White, the VSO’s general manager at that time, recalled gossip that Stravinsky “could be difficult,” but that he “enjoyed Chivas Regal.” Accordingly, her manager husband placed bottles of Chivas in the Stravinsky suite at the Bayshore Inn—in their living room, in their bedroom, even one in their bathroom—all to the composer’s delight.57 Sharing half of each concert on Monday and Tuesday evenings at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre, Stravinsky and assistant Craft led the VSO in four works for the Vancouver Festival (fig. 7). At some juncture, Stravinsky autographed a festival program for an unidentified attendee. This program shows that the original plan had carefully balanced a pair of memorials before and after intermission: Variations, for Aldous Huxley, and Introitus, for T. S. Eliot, the latter requiring a male chorus. Only Variations was performed. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide Cover of joint concert by Stravinsky and Craft, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, 12 and 13 July 1965. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide Cover of joint concert by Stravinsky and Craft, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, 12 and 13 July 1965. A last-minute notice on 12 July in the Vancouver Sun (a late morning–early afternoon newspaper) reveals that by his first rehearsal, Stravinsky had altered his own portion of the program. Though retaining its opening with a Vancouver premiere of his 1908 Fireworks (rev. 1909), he replaced his other premiere for the city, the Symphony in Three Movements, by closing with the 1945 revised Firebird Suite,58 the reason for which will become clear. While in Vancouver, Stravinsky also made important changes to two works that were to be performed there for the first time—one an early composition, the other late. During Craft’s rehearsals for The Rite of Spring, “Stravinsky made his final corrections to the score.”59 Even while Craft was rehearsing Variations, the composer was drafting several alterations on the spot, and ten days later he lauded the city for its Canadian premiere.60 Three photographs taken by Ken Oakes for the Vancouver Sun depict Stravinsky at his first rehearsal on Sunday, 11 July (fig. 8). Hal Leiren, the newspaper’s reporter, wrote: He walked to the podium looking frail and bent and old, leaning on a cane. But when [the] rehearsal began he seemed to become a different man. His whole length straightened until he stood on the tips of his toes with his arms uplifted, seeming to hover above the orchestra. His movements were sure and energetic as he moved the orchestra through the violent rhythms and splashing tonal colors of the Firebird. He encouraged, chided, and praised the musicians: “That’s not quite right. Play it faster, more staccato. Once again. That’s good. My compliments.” For more than an hour he kept the musicians at it, repeating and polishing difficult passages, appearing as fresh when it was over as when the rehearsal began.61 Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Vancouver Sun, Stravinksy in rehearsal, 11 July 1965. Photos taken by Ken Oakes. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Vancouver Sun, Stravinksy in rehearsal, 11 July 1965. Photos taken by Ken Oakes. Leiren added that during a rehearsal break, Stravinsky said, “‘It’s a pleasure for me to be here, and this orchestra—it’s wonderful. You should be proud to have such an orchestra in this city.’” Having autographed a copy of the festival’s program, he certainly knew that the “wonderful” VSO was “augmented to 100.” This was necessary for his performances of Fireworks and Craft’s of Le sacre du printemps. During that first rehearsal (as in 1952), Stravinsky corrected passages in several players’ parts. A young trumpet player in 1965, George Laverock recalled in 2000: Stravinsky kept cueing the harp but nothing happened. He went up to her and she pointed at the score and said, “There isn’t anything written there.” … Stravinsky scowled: “It was written 60 years ago.” [He] grabbed a pencil from one of the musicians and simply wrote the missing part in.62 “60 years ago” could refer to any one of the three harps he had scored in his 1908 Fireworks. It could also mean just the single harp in one of his three Firebird Suites, since he was rehearsing both Fireworks and a Firebird Suite. In 1911, 1919, and 1945 he had culled three suites from his score for the ballet. Which suite the VSO was rehearsing in 1965 is resolved by accounts from several witnesses at these rehearsals. Mary White—her access to rehearsals facilitated by her manager husband and her mother’s long patronage of the orchestra—wrote: They were rehearsing Firebird… . At a certain point the piano was to come in, but nothing happened. Stravinsky tapped his baton impatiently. Finally, the voice of a rather nervous pianist said: “Maestro, there is no piano part written in my score here.” “Oh,” said Stravinsky, “you’ve got the 1948 score.”63 Mrs. White’s account provides the clue. That “1948 score” identifies the corrections Stravinsky had to make in 1965 to the VSO’s piano part: they were for the third Firebird Suite of 1945, a version not published until 1948 (by Leeds and Schott). Stravinsky had arranged it, “working from the pirated Kalmus edition” of his second suite (1919).64 Also attending that Sunday rehearsal, press agent Libman told newspaperman Leiren that the music for the third Firebird Suite from “the VSO’s library had been misprinted.”65 Later, she wrote that this same third suite “used to provoke the lengthiest diatribe” from the composer.66 And no wonder. While in Vancouver, Lawrence Morton saw the composer leading this very suite, and, moreover, “once again” from “a Kalmus pirated edition of the score.”67 This means that in 1965 (and perhaps also in 1952) Stravinsky was using a score of his second 1919 Firebird Suite, whereas the VSO players were reading the score from his third 1945 suite! Mary White recalled Stravinsky speaking to the VSO’s pianist in 1965: “‘Bring it [the score] here, son.’” Stravinsky then “wrote from memory the early music he had written many years before and gave it [back] to him.”68 In 1965 that “rather nervous pianist,” that “son,” that “him” was the twenty-nine-year-old Robert G. Rogers.69 However he was recruited, his student years at UBC (BA 1952), followed by private piano study with Mrs. Adaskin in 1954, might suggest that either or both of the Adaskins70—well acquainted with Stravinsky from his 1952 visit—recommended Rogers to the VSO in July 1965. Be this as it may, in 2002 (a half-dozen years before his death) Rogers told a reporter: “I hadn’t intended to do the bloody Firebird. It was supposed to be another equally difficult piece [the Symphony in Three Movements], but at the last minute the conductor fired the first pianist.” Rogers [had to] virtually sight-read the tremendously difficult part [of Firebird] and then caught a look from the composer: the copyist had omitted 10 notes in the score, which Stravinsky calmly walked over and penciled in. Rogers retains that treasure, augmented “by terror,” and got Stravinsky to autograph his score. “I earned it. It aged me 30 years,” Rogers says.71 As noted, all three newspaper photographs taken by Oakes on Sunday, 11 July, show Stravinsky rehearsing Firebird.72 (fig. 8) They reveal the same vigor that Fred Fehl’s dozen photographs had captured three years earlier during Stravinsky’s rehearsal of Firebird in New York.73 Those photographs, and remarks by Mrs. White, Rogers, Craft, Libman, and Morton, show that at his first rehearsal in 1965 Stravinsky again corrected the piano part of his 1945 Firebird Suite, as he had been obliged to do in 1952—and for the same reason (missing notes) that Ida Halpern had given. Still another (and hitherto unpublished) photograph was taken at one or the other of the 1965 rehearsals and autographed soon thereafter: “IStravinsky / 1965”74 (fig. 9). It might document an actual moment of correction by the composer. Figure 9. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy, 1965. Figure 9. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy, 1965. Beyond the piano’s greater role in Stravinsky’s 1945 revision, and before I had access to Rogers’s Firebird manuscript, just one discrepancy could be detected between the otherwise very modest piano part in the 1919 suite and the instrument’s expanded function in the 1945 revision. The 1919 suite has a D-flat augmented triad in second inversion for the piano. The suite’s final version lacks this triad because in 1945 Stravinsky had transposed it an octave lower and assigned it to the harp.75 Three notes, however, do not match those ten notes missing from Rogers’s piano part, as he stated in his interview. Study of his “earned” manuscript resolves this discrepancy (fig. 10). Access in Vancouver on 4 June 2017 to the professional copyist’s piano part—courtesy of Mrs. Rogers—shows that Stravinsky penned in those “omitted 10 notes.” They form a ten-note phrase in the piano part near the close of the suite’s “Introduction.”76 Stravinsky added a helpful eighth rest and a two-eighth-note rhythmic cue for the pianist, preceding them with a treble clef and “Arpe.” Writing at the upper left corner: “To Robert Rogers / all best / I Stravinsky / VANCOUVER / July 12/65.” he also revealed the date of a (second) Firebird rehearsal for the inaugural festival concert that evening. Figure 10. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy’s corrections to Rogers’s manuscript part. Courtesy of Mrs. Rogers. Figure 10. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy’s corrections to Rogers’s manuscript part. Courtesy of Mrs. Rogers. Except for this first page of the piano part thus autographed, all the other VSO parts for the 1945 suite have perished, discarded when the VSO’s librarian purchased a new set of parts in 2015.77 Yet, even had the other parts in the first set survived, there would be no feasible way to distinguish Stravinsky’s markings from those demanded by later (and earlier) conductors, aside, of course, from his handwritten emendations. Just as Stravinsky raised his arm in 1965 to begin his “dress rehearsal” (12 July), Lillian Libman reported that he called for help—an ill-fitted hernia belt had slipped. Trying to hide his embarrassment, he addressed the musicians: “Forgive me, gentlemen, I must leave the room. Don’t go away.” Impresario Hugh Pickett helped out, and when Stravinsky returned, the orchestra cheered the composer.78 Pickett’s timely aid could explain Stravinsky’s cordial inscription on a publicity photograph used by Hurok’s firm: “To you, dear Mr. Pickett / most sincerely / IStravinsky July 1965”79 (fig. 11). Figure 11. View largeDownload slide Photograph inscribed for Hugh Pickett, July 1965. Figure 11. View largeDownload slide Photograph inscribed for Hugh Pickett, July 1965. Along with Stravinsky’s photograph, the Vancouver impresario published a brief memoir, “On Stravinsky.”80 It harbors an insinuating reminiscence. Pickett cited an unnamed male companion with the composer in 1965 at Vancouver: “He had a ‘friend’ who also traveled with him.” And, even more knowingly: “I got it all very quickly.” By “friend” Pickett could not have meant Craft, whose vaunted heterosexuality abounds in his diaries and journals. This sly implication was as ridiculous as it was inaccurate. Without naming him, Pickett meant Lawrence Morton, the composer’s wheelchair helpmate, for whom not a smidgeon of evidence exists for any such implied relationship with Stravinsky.81 Two photographs taken at one or the other of his two concerts show Stravinsky on the podium for the July 1965 festival. The first one has him conducting;82 the other shows him accepting applause while leaning on his cane (figs. 12 and 13). The same young VSO trumpeter recalled, “At the end of the [second] concert, people didn’t want to go home. Finally, on about the 10th bow, Stravinsky came back with his heavy woolen coat on and just walked across the stage and out the door.”83 Figure 12. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy at the 1965 Vancouver festival. Figure 12. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy at the 1965 Vancouver festival. Figure 13. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky accepting ovations at the festival. Figure 13. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky accepting ovations at the festival. But “out the door” to where? The young trumpet player probably did not know that Stravinsky had one more engagement to fulfill in Vancouver. J. E. Horvath’s notation on the back of his business card (accompanying his gift to UBC of his photograph of the composer rehearsing the VSO in 1965)84 alludes to an otherwise undocumented event for the Stravinskys while in Vancouver. The widow of Otto Koerner, Iby Koerner (née Molnar; 1899–1983)—married into a prosperous Jewish émigré lumber family from Vienna—was one of the founders in 1958 of the Vancouver Festival.85 She had invited Stravinsky (and surely, his wife and Craft) to dine at her home. It would have made for a late evening: her spacious residence—on Matthews Avenue in Vancouver’s upscale Shaughnessy district—was a goodly distance from the Queen Elizabeth concert hall. It was even farther from the Bayshore Inn, the Stravinskys’ temporary residence, from whence they, along with Craft, Libman, and Morton, departed for Vancouver’s airport and their return flight to Los Angeles the next day.86 * * * Virtually every item in UBC’s collection at Point Grey bears Stravinsky’s DNA. On no other work is it more palpable,87 however, than on his personal copy of Boosey & Hawkes’s 1940 s reprint—auctioned in December 201588—of Petrushka’s first orchestral score (Édition Russe, 1912). Preparing his revised edition of the B&H reprint late in 1945 and early 1946 for the same firm, Stravinsky annotated seventy-four of the reprint’s 152 pages.89 Thus, his annotated B&H reprint and nine other Petrushka items at UBC, spanning some fifty-six years of his composing life, could well serve as touchstones for the riches of the UBC collection. Brief descriptions of these items follow:90 Four days before he had finished his orchestral score of Petrushka, and just three weeks before the ballet’s world premiere in Paris on 13 June 1911, Stravinsky wrote from Rome to the Greek-French critic Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi, in Paris, that he would be pleased to have him attend the performance. Writing to his London admirer and propagandist Edwin Evans early in 1914, Stravinsky was obliged to inform Evans that the score’s first edition was already out of print. That summer he wrote (somewhat unclearly) to fellow composer and conductor Alfredo Casella that he planned to conduct Firebird in London in April 1915,91 though he did not do so—World War I essentially confined him to the continent, chiefly Switzerland—but he also inquired as to whether Casella might care to conduct Petrushka. In fact, Casella did just that: in Rome in February 1915, as a postcard sent from there, signed by Stravinsky, Diaghilev, Casella, and Marya Freund and sent to Mrs. Casella in Paris, affirms. Writing from Nice in 1926, Stravinsky informed his American-born patroness in Paris, Princesse Edmond de Polignac (née Winnaretta Singer), that Toscanini had fallen ill and that he would be leading Petrushka himself that May (9 and 12) at La Scala. Upon returning to Paris in June 1937 at the close of his fourth transatlantic tour, Stravinsky sent a beautifully copied and carefully hand-mounted inscription of the opening bars of the “Magic Trick” to a Cleveland patroness and autograph collector. Having twice led the staged ballet himself in mid-March 1937 in Los Angeles, in December 1939 he autographed its miniature orchestral score (a Kalmus pirate of 1933)—property of a Los Angeles woman friend and pianist who had attended his 1937 production of the ballet—but warned of the score’s many mistakes.92 Lastly, bedridden from 2 to 28 November 1967 in a Los Angeles hospital, and in great pain and sedated,93 he twice wrote out the incipit of the ballet’s “Russian Dance” in a wobbly hand. Canceling his first attempt, he signed and dated a second version on 10 November, adding: “Every kooky note I hope, [of] this music.” Of course, the bulk of Stravinsky’s Nachlass is in the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel. Yet UBC’s Point Grey collection in Vancouver is an important North American resource for scholars concerned with Stravinsky’s life, his works, and his own critical opinions as well as those of his associates.94 No private collection in the city matches it, and it outshines by far the several items and photographs in the public library and a half-dozen items in the Vancouver Historical Society. Its current 143 items compare favorably with smaller collections at Harvard, Princeton, Oberlin, Berkeley, UCLA, USC—even with major ones in the Morgan Library, the New York Public Library, Juilliard, and the Library of Congress. When Stravinsky led his 1945 Firebird Suite with the VSO in 1952 and 1965, its textual problems at his rehearsals there—and elsewhere95—epitomized mistakes still found in many of his works. Such mistakes exasperated the composer and wasted valuable (and expensive) rehearsal time. When all his music comes into the public domain, the next generation of scholar musicians must produce a critical edition, free of error. Quite a few items at UBC will aid them in this task. Near the end of his life, Stravinsky yearned for such an edition.96 Once complete, it will beget new analyses, new assessments, and new understandings. Footnotes H. Colin Slim received his BA from the University of British Columbia and his PhD from Harvard University. He held teaching positions at the University of Chicago, University of California at Irvine, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the City University of New York (Graduate Center). Slim was president of the American Musicological Society from 1989 to 1990 and received an honorary doctorate from McGill University in 1993. He retired in 1994. Slim’s earlier writings focused on the keyboard and vocal music of Renaissance Italy and his later work on the iconographic representation of Renaissance music, musicians, and instruments. Editions prepared by Slim include A Gift of Madrigals and Motets; Keyboard Music at Castell’Arquato, as well as Scarlatti’s Massino Puppieno and Rossini’s La donna del lago. 1 A shorter version of this study was presented in Vancouver, 4 November 2016, at the Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society (AMS), a session shared with Kevin Madill, fine arts and music librarian at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Point Grey campus. Despite Robert Craft conducting at Vancouver with Stravinsky in 1965, his “Stravinsky in Canada and the U.K.,” in Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories (Great Britain: Naxos Books, 2013), 80–95, mentions neither concerts nor city. Mr. Madill, Richard Kurth, Mrs. Robert Rogers and her husband Leonard Lythgoe, and Vera Michnik and her husband Michael Bushnell offered much assistance during my stay in Vancouver in early June 2017. 2 Contrary to Dale McIntosh, History of Music in British Columbia, 1850–1950 (Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Press, 1989), 75, Stravinsky never conducted the Vancouver Bach Choir. Possibly, members of the choir had anticipated singing the Canadian premiere of Stravinsky’s Introitus at the Vancouver Festival in mid-July 1965, but Introitus was deleted from the program. Craft led its world premiere the preceding April at a concert in Chicago that I attended. 3 Anne Kloppenborg, Alice Niwinski, Eve Johnson, and Robert Gruetter, eds., Vancouver’s First Century: A City Album, 1860–1960 (Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1977), 55, upper image. It shows its stage early in the twentieth century. The building could seat 1,500 people; see John Becker, Discord: The Story of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra (Vancouver: Brighouse Press, 1989), 1–2. 4 See the advertisement “Russian Ballet” and a review (by a not-further-identified “Stilacho”), “Serge de Diaghileff’s Ballet Russe at the Opera House,” Vancouver Daily Sun, 10 January 1917 and 16 January 1917, respectively. 5 Mario Bois, Près de Strawinksy, 1959–70 (Paris: Marval, 1996), 157–58, plate of Stravinsky telegram. Felix Meyer, ed., Settling New Scores: Music Manuscripts from the Paul Sacher Foundation (Mainz: Schott, 1998), item no. 20; ill., 70. 6 The first Canadian city to hear any Stravinsky composition is thought to be Montreal: a performance on 12 January 1919 of the Scherzo from his Symphony in E-flat Major (1905–7); see “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada, 1937–1967: Regards en arrière / Looking Back,” Les Cahiers Canadiens de Musique / The Canada Music Book 4–5 (Spring/Summer 1972): 31. 7 Claude Debussy, letter of 13 April 1912 to Robert Godet about Petrushka; see Stephen Walsh, Stravinsky: A Creative Spring—Russia and France, 1882–1934 (New York: Knopf, 1999), 164. 8 H. Colin Slim, Annotated Catalogue of the H. Colin Slim Stravinsky Collection: Donated by Him to the University of British Columbia Library (Vancouver: Benwell-Atkins for the UBC Library, 2002). The annotated Petrushka score was donated in 2017. UBC’s collection also houses the famous 1912 picture-postcard of Debussy standing next to the seated young composer, its exemplar inscribed in 1926 by Stravinsky in black ink: “Debussy et moi chez lui (Av. du Bois) en 1912” (item no. 34). 9 See the plates in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 23; Ezra Schabas, Sir Ernest MacMillan: The Importance of Being Canadian (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 [1996]), 30–31 (top); and Musical America 57 (25 January 1937): 27. Stravinsky led both Firebird and Petrushka. 10 Excerpts from reviews of their 25 January concert are in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 21 and 23. 11 Thomas Archer, “Igor Stravinsky Given Ovation,” Montreal Gazette, 6 March 1945, with a photograph of Stravinsky rehearsing. 12 Philip Stuart, Igor Stravinsky—The Composer in the Recording Studio: A Comprehensive Discography (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991), 45–46, item nos. 117–31. On 2 November 2016, Kimberly Francis read a paper, “The Stravinsky Venture: Stravinsky and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1961–62,” at the AMS Annual Meeting in Vancouver referenced in note 1. 13 Robert Craft, Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, rev. ed. (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1994), 451–52. 14 Robert Craft, ed., Dearest Bubushkin: The Correspondence of Vera and Igor Stravinsky, 1921–1954, with Excerpts from Vera Stravinsky’s Diaries, 1922–1971, trans. Lucia Davidova (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985), 210. 15 See Slim, Annotated Catalogue, a collection enlarged since its initial donation in 1998. 16 Then studying at UBC, I recall Pentland—a past student of Copland and a Bartók and Webern zealot—railing in our classes against what she regarded as Stravinsky’s too close ties with such “conservatives” as Nadia Boulanger and T. S. Eliot. Still, when Stravinsky arrived in Vancouver, she eagerly engaged with him at the Adaskins’ dinner party on 3 October (see note 37) and also attended several of his VSO rehearsals. 17 Two photographs of myself, twenty-two years old at the time, rehearsing The Wedding at UBC are in “Special Events Program,” Totem 41 (Vancouver: UBC, 1952): 61 (bottom right). The Totem’s editor added that the April UBC all-Stravinsky concert “proved to be an immensely exciting experience.” 18 See Helmut Kallmann, Giles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters, eds., Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992), 24. 19 Viktor Varunts, ed., I. F. Stravinsky: Perepiska z russkimi korrespondentami—Materiali k biografii, vol. 3: 1923–1939 (Moscow: Kompositor, 2003), 851, mistakenly located this Svadebka premiere in Montreal. Harry Adaskin, A Fiddler’s Choice: Memoirs, 1938 to 1980 (Vancouver: November House, 1982), 94–95, plate 17, reproduces the 7 April 1952 program, and offers many details about the concert’s genesis (see pages 132–37). For a reminiscence from a fellow UBC student in 1952, see Hilary Clark, “What I Think About Stravinsky’s Music,” Opera Canada 43, no. 4 (Winter 2002): 50. 20 Letters between Adaskin and Stravinsky, now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel, are cited in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 16n6. 21 Betty Tangye (first violin), from her communication to the late cellist Audrey Piggott, the leader of her section, conveyed in Piggott’s letter of 11 June 1995 to me. On the tenure of these and other VSO musicians cited here, see Becker, Discord, 157–65. 22 Naomi Lang, “‘Stravinsky’s Daughter’ Rarely Gets Own Name,” Vancouver Daily Province, 2 October 1952, depicts just the young couple. Wright Balfour, “Igor Stravinsky Arrives for Symphony Concert,” Vancouver News Herald, 2 October 1952, offers a photograph of Stravinsky and daughter; and “Famed Composer Stravinsky Arrives,” Vancouver Sun, 2 October 1952, provides a photograph of just the composer. All three images were probably taken at the former Great Northern Railway terminus in Vancouver’s Main Street station. 23 Igor Stravinsky, letter to the editor, Vancouver Province, 4 October 1952, supplement. Signed by its photographer, “Paola Foa, 1945,” this image also appears in Tatiana Baranova Monighetti, “Stravinsky’s Russian Library,” in Stravinsky and His World, ed. Tamara Levitz (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 72, figure 3. 24 Becker, Discord, 5 and 146. 25 As related by Don Adams, future husband of composer and UBC faculty member Jean Coultard-Adams, to Harry Adaskin, in Adaskin, A Fiddler’s World: Memoirs to 1938 (Vancouver: November House, 1977), 179. Becker, locating Ravel’s recital in the Denman Auditorium, states it was a “flop” (Discord, 146). 26 Frances Adaskin, “The Evolution of a Musical Vancouver,” in “VSO [at] 75,” Weekend Sun, 24 September 1994, Saturday Review. 27 Pat Tryon, “Stravinsky Assails Modern Junk,” Vancouver Daily Province, 2 October 1952. 28 “Stravinsky Lights No Fire; Council Gives Him the Bird,” Vancouver Sun, 1 October 1952. 29 “Rehearsals First; City to Give Composer Key in Afternoon,” Vancouver Sun, 2 October 1952. 30 “Stravinsky May Receive Golden Key,” Vancouver Province, 2 October 1952. 31 “Maestro Gets a Hand,” Vancouver Province, 3 October 1952. 32 On Ida Halpern, gracious mentor in my middle adolescence, see Paul Helmer, Growing with Canada: The Emigré Tradition in Canadian Music (Montreal: McGill–Queen’s University Press, 2009), 10, 223–25, and 260–61. 33 Ida Halpern, “Rehearsals Start: Stravinsky, Orchestra Happy,” Vancouver Province, 3 October 1952. Written communications between Stravinsky and Halpern, now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel, are cited in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 16–17n8. 34 Jack Delong, “Igor Doesn’t Give a Hoot, Out They Go” (i.e., all visitors except Halpern), Vancouver Sun, 4 October 1952. 35 Information kindly furnished by Betty Tangye to cellist Audrey Piggott on 11 June 1995. 36 See Vancouver News-Herald, 4 October 1952, and “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 36. 37 At two measures preceding rehearsal no. 10. Information about this incident was furnished by Frances Adaskin’s piano student, and my UBC contemporary, Harry Locke, who was present at her dinner that evening; see also Harry Adaskin, A Fiddler’s World, 174, and Frances Adaskin, “Evolution.” 38 Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no. 91. 39 Ibid., no. 94. 40 Ibid., no. 93. 41 Barraclough’s invitation stemmed, in part, from his knowledge of my dual roles in UBC’s all-Stravinsky concert the preceding April. 42 On 27 January 1966, however, having just sung in Symphony of Psalms under Stravinsky’s direction with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and then sitting next to him backstage in the Dorothy Chandler Music Center while Craft conducted the Symphony in C, we did exchange a few words afterward. 43 Recalled likewise by Ida Halpern in her review, “Expectations Fulfilled: Stravinsky, Orchestra, in Great Concert,” Vancouver Province, 6 October 1952. 44 Louis Cyr, ed., Stravinsky, “L’oiseau de feu”: Facsimile Edition of Autograph Full Score (Geneva: Minkoff, 1985), 201. 45 See the cover of Slim, Annotated Catalogue, and Clark, “Stravinsky Music,” 50. Skipsey’s portrait is also reproduced—misdated as a “1966 photo” and its photographer unacknowledged—in the Los Angeles Times, 15 May 1982; and, unacknowledged and slightly cropped, in Mario Bois, Près de Strawinsky, 1959–70 (Paris: Marval, 1996), 97. 46 Katalog 885: Autographen und Portraits von Musikern (Basel: Erasmushaus, n.d. [December 1996]), lot 221; ill., 61. 47 Stanley Bligh, “3000 Hear Impressive Program; Great Ovation Accorded Stravinsky and His Music,” Vancouver Sun, 6 October 1952. 48 Halpern, “Expectations Fulfilled”; quoted in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 7 and 16n8. 49 Stravinsky never did so, but as a young boy he caught a glimpse of Tchaikovsky in November 1892 in St. Petersburg; see Walsh, Stravinsky: A Creative Spring, 28. 50 Bryan N. S. Gooch, “Pickett, Hugh (1913− ),” in Kallmann, Potvin, and Winters, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, 1060. 51 Lillian Libman hints at misgivings on Pickett’s part in her And Music at the Close: Stravinsky’s Last Years—A Personal Memoir (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972), 183. 52 John Mackie, “Mr. Impresario,” Vancouver Sun, 17 August 2002. 53 Libman, And Music at the Close, 188, and Lawrence Morton, “Stravinsky at Home,” in Confronting Stravinsky, ed. Jann Pasler (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 346. 54 See Robert Craft, A Stravinsky Scrapbook, 1940–1979 (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1983), 130, plate 265. 55 Kathy Hassard, “Says Madame Igor Stravinsky,” Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965. 56 On Mrs. White’s ready access to rehearsals due to her mother’s long history of service to, and patronage of, the VSO, see Becker, Discord, 31. 57 Mary White, “Down Memory Lane,” Weekend Sun, 24 September 1994, Saturday Review. His fondness for Chivas was already evident in a 1963 North German Radio documentary film cited in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 29. 58 “Important Program Changes” (advertisement), Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965. 59 Robert Craft, An Improbable Life: Memoirs (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2002), 282. 60 See Stravinsky’s letter (24 July 1965) containing his corrections for Variations, in Igor Stravinsky, Selected Correspondence, ed. and with commentaries by Robert Craft, vol. 3 (New York: Knopf, 1985), 453n60. 61 Hal Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo,” Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965, including Oakes’s three images of the previous day’s first rehearsal. Leiren’s text is partly quoted by Lloyd Dykk, “Rear Window,” Vancouver Sun, 20–27 July 2000, and (less of it and occasionally inaccurately) by Vera Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978), 481. 62 Quoted in Dykk, “Rear Window.” 63 White, “Down Memory Lane.” 64 Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 378. 65 Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo.” 66 Libman, And Music at the Close, 134. 67 Morton, “Stravinsky at Home,” 346. 68 White, “Down Memory Lane.” 69 On Rogers, see McIntosh, Music in British Columbia, 182 and 210. 70 Harry Adaskin, in Fiddler’s Choice, adds that in 1979 Rogers—who had joined its faculty in 1966—was “one of UBC’s outstanding professors of piano” (64). (Neither Harry nor Frances Adaskin discuss Stravinsky’s Vancouver festival engagements in 1965.) 71 Lloyd Dykk, “Stravinsky Collection Goes to UBC: Legacy of a Musical Giant” Vancouver Sun, 30 March 2002. Both the identity of the original “fired” pianist and the date of his/her dismissal remain undiscovered (a dismissal perhaps effected before Stravinsky’s first rehearsal). Dykk’s initial term, “part,” followed by a twice-mentioned “score,” causes ambiguity as to whether a piano part or a full orchestral score is meant. Currently with his son in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Rogers’s manuscript is one page of a piano part. 72 Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo.” 73 Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no 111; ill., 324. Fehl’s twelve images at UBC are reproduced in Dykk, “Stravinsky Collection.” 74 This photograph—taken by a Barry Glass of Richmond, British Columbia—was generously donated by Horvath to UBC in 2002. Horvath’s note on the reverse side of his accompanying business card reads: “Taken at Stravinsky’s last public performance [recte, rehearsal (13 July?)] in Vancouver, BC and signed [by Stravinsky] at the dinner table in Mrs. Otto [Iby] Koerner’s house in Vancouver in [July] 1965. He conducted [recte, rehearsed] in a winter coat on a specially secured podium.” 75 See Kalmus (1919), 65b, measure 5, and Schott (1945), 118, one measure before rehearsal no. 149, respectively. 76 At two measures before rehearsal no. 6 in both the 1919 and 1945 full scores of the suites; the Kalmus pirated 1933 reprint of the 1919 edition lacks the piano part’s necessary lower treble clef. 77 Information kindly provided in late 2016 by Kevin Madill, who had queried the VSO’s librarian. 78 Libman, And Music at the Close, 188. Since both concerts were at 8.10 p.m., presumably the “dress rehearsal” she cites took place on Monday morning or afternoon, 12 July, the same day Stravinsky dated Rogers’s manuscript. 79 Mackie, “Mr. Impresario.” Bois, Près de Strawinsky, 141, lower plate, identifies the same image (slightly cropped) as (one used by) “Sony [Records] France.” 80 Mackie, “Mr. Impresario.” 81 Tellingly enough, even Craft, who knew Morton well, never names him in such a context. Richard Taruskin, in his introduction to Russian Music at Home and Abroad: New Essays (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016), 10–13, and 26n32, refutes charges of Stravinsky’s so-called ambisexuality, twice trotted out by Craft, whose lists of supposed partners include Andrey Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel, Delage, e tutti quanti. 82 “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 28 (its caption, “June 1965,” should read “July 1965”). 83 Photograph and commentary in Lloyd Dykk, “1965 Rear Window,” Vancouver Sun, 20–27 July 2000. (In neither this nor the preceding image of him conducting does he wear a “winter coat.”) 84 See above, note 74. 85 On Iby’s vigorous and generous personality, see Rosemary Cunningham, “A Debt Acknowledged: Iby Koerner’s Contribution to Vancouver,” British Columbia History 39, no. 2 (2006): 12–20, and Helmer, Growing with Canada, 225 and 350n149. Mrs. Koerner had even persuaded Bruno Walter to come out of retirement and lead the VSO on 19 July 1958 to inaugurate the Vancouver Festival. 86 Craft, Dearest Bubushkin, 216: 14 July 1965, and Libman, And Music at the Close, 200–201 (her “June” 14 is incorrect). 87 An exception might be Stravinsky’s thirteen-page 1942 autograph transparencies for Scherzo à la Russe, housed at UBC. See Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no. 80, and Slim, “Stravinsky’s Scherzo … and Its Two-Piano Origins,” in Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman, ed. Barbara Haggh (Paris: Minèrve, 2001), 517–37. 88 Fine Books and Manuscripts, including the Autograph Collection of Harry E. Gould Jr. (New York: Bonhams, 9 December 2015), lot 159, illustrates the Boosey & Hawkes cover for Petrushka signed by Stravinsky, c. 1945, and his revisions to its page 86. I thank Edward C. Hirschland for much assistance in obtaining this treasure. 89 Boosey & Hawkes, a worldwide firm, published Stravinsky’s revision of Petrushka in 1947 and copyrighted it the following year. 90 At the AMS conference referenced in note 1, Kevin Madill spoke very briefly about these items. They are more fully described in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, nos. 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 34, 49, 68, and 119. 91 Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 58. 92 Libman, And Music at the Close, 134, documents this same propensity in the mid-1960s, that is, Stravinsky’s willingness to autograph scores of his music while simultaneously “delivering a polemic” about the pirate publisher. 93 See the differing accounts in Craft, Chronicle of a Friendship, 463–71; in Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories, 226–27, and in Libman, And Music at the Close, 323–25, her veracity impugned by Craft in Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 592. 94 Since the publication of Slim’s Annotated Catalogue in 2002, UBC’s collection of 123 items has been enriched by some nineteen additions from Canadian and U.S. donors. 95 Libman, And Music at Its Close, 134. 96 Craft, Improbable Life, 383; and Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories, 133. This future edition will include Stravinsky’s recently discovered “Funeral Song” (1909) for Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov; see Natalia Braginskava, “New Light on the Fate of Some Early Works of Stravinsky: The Funeral Song Rediscovery,” Acta Musicologica 87 (2015): 135–51; Richard Taruskin, Times Literary Supplement, 23 December 2016, 19; John von Rhein, “Long-Lost Opus by Igor Stravinsky Gets U.S. Premiere with the CSO,” Chicago Tribune, 5 April 2017; and von Rhein, “CSO Revives Long-Lost Stravinsky,” Chicago Tribune, 8 April, 2017. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Musical Quarterly Oxford University Press

Stravinsky in Vancouver, 1917–2017: Concerts, Premieres, Collections

The Musical Quarterly , Volume Advance Article (3) – Mar 26, 2018

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
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Abstract

Readers interested in Stravinsky will know that in 1917 he was in Switzerland, not Vancouver, and, moreover, that he died in 1971. The bizarre chronology of the above title is easily resolved.1 This study examines a half-dozen occasions (the last one posthumous) apropos of the composer and his music in Canada’s third-largest city.2 Beginning just before the United States entered World War I, these events span a full century. Midway through World War I, and surely unaware of Stravinsky’s contributions, Vancouverites welcomed Serge Diaghilev’s touring Ballets Russes at what was then the Canadian Pacific Railway Opera House (on the west side of Granville Street, midway between Georgia and Robson streets).3 On the evening of 15 January 1917, with conductor Pierre Monteux and fifty-seven musicians, ballet fans heard Chopin’s A-flat-major Nocturne to open Les sylphides choreographed by Mikhail Fokine, and his Grande valse brillante to close it.4 Back in St. Petersburg in 1909, the twenty-six-year-old Stravinsky had orchestrated both Chopin works for Diaghilev.5 In 1917, of course, Vancouver was welcoming neither Stravinsky nor his own music.6 Still, it was the first Canadian city to experience what had enraptured Debussy in 1911 about Stravinsky’s scoring: the “sonorous magic” and “orchestral certainties” that the French composer heard in Petrushka.7 In 2017, that very score—heavily annotated by the composer on his own signed copy of the orchestral score that Boosey & Hawkes had reprinted in the early 1940s from Koussevitzky’s 1912 Édition Russe publication—arrived in Vancouver and joined the University of British Columbia’s Stravinsky collection.8 Long before arriving in Vancouver himself, Stravinsky had visited Canada’s two largest cities. In January 1937, he conducted jointly with Sir Ernest MacMillan in Toronto;9 then, a few weeks later, he concertized in Montreal with violinist Samuel Dushkin.10 With World War II winding down, Stravinsky led Montreal’s orchestra in March 1945,11 and in the early 1960s he was often in Toronto, recording with the CBC orchestra.12 On 17 May 1967, that city witnessed his final appearance anywhere as conductor.13 Vancouver welcomed him twice as a conductor, in 1952 and 1965, and again, though very briefly, as a visitor while changing trains in late April 1955.14 Since 1998, his presence has been maintained through a collection given to UBC that year15 and subsequent additions to it. As in most cities, Stravinsky’s musical engagements in Vancouver generated numerous images. Some of the lesser-known ones are reproduced here, and others are cited. His first appearance in the city occurred somewhat by chance. On 27 February 1952, violinist Harry Adaskin, founding professor and chair of the music department at UBC’s Point Grey campus, wrote to Stravinsky, inviting him to lecture at a concert of his music to be given by faculty and students in Brock Hall in April. That 7 April program (fig. 1) featured Stravinsky’s 1935 Concerto for Two Solo Pianos, played by John Brockington and me; and the 1931 Duo concertant with Adaskin and his pianist wife, Frances Marr. After intermission came Stravinsky’s 1923 Svadebka (The Wedding, sung in English). I conducted faculty members Mrs. Adaskin and composer-pianist Barbara Pentland,16 plus two student pianists, student percussionists, student choristers, and the requisite solo singers.17 Two photographs show rehearsals for The Wedding in a World War II Quonset Army hut at UBC (figs. 2a and 2b). Among the solo singers was undergraduate Milla Andrew (visible at my right), later a well-known operatic soprano.18 Both the two-piano Concerto and The Wedding were Canadian premieres.19 Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Program for the 7 April 1952 Stravinsky concert at UBC, Vancouver. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Program for the 7 April 1952 Stravinsky concert at UBC, Vancouver. Figure 2a and 2b. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Author rehearses The Wedding for 7 April 1952 UBC concert. Figure 2a and 2b. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Author rehearses The Wedding for 7 April 1952 UBC concert. Having already written Adaskin from Los Angeles that he could not come to UBC in April, but thanking him for sending the concert’s program, Stravinsky mentioned that he had heard that Vancouver had a “good orchestra up there.” Might it engage him during the coming season?20 Adaskin promptly contacted the Symphony Society. On 25 April, it authorized its business manager to suggest 5 October 1952 for Stravinsky to conduct the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra (VSO). (This approach delighted the frugal composer since it avoided his having to pay an agent’s commission.) Instead of the normal four rehearsals, there were to be five. The first one was taken on 30 September (the day before Stravinsky arrived) by the VSO’s concertmaster, Jean de Rimanoczy. It was, in one first violinist’s recollection, “not a success.”21 1952 “Stravinsky, Greatest Name of Modern Music, On Way Here” was the headline on 29 September in the Vancouver Daily Province. Stravinsky, his daughter, and his son-in-law flew from California to Seattle on Wednesday night, 1 October,22 and thence by train, settling in the Hotel Vancouver. Stravinsky had already sent a 1945 photograph of himself to the Province and written to the editor of its weekly BC Magazine: I am looking forward with great pleasure to conducting the Vancouver Symphony and getting acquainted with your beautiful western province which I have always been eager to know. I am sure that I will enjoy my 1952 visit to Canada as much as I did my previous visits to Toronto and Montreal.23 But he little knew that he would be visiting a still relatively unsophisticated city. For example, the VSO was forbidden from programming Debussy’s Prélude à l’après-midi d’une faune for its 1919–20 season because its board of directors considered it to be “too erotic.”24 And one music lover remembered that during Ravel’s piano recital in the winter of 1928 at the Hotel Vancouver ballroom, “people left in droves all through the concert, banging the doors.”25 Years later, Mrs. Adaskin observed: “Vancouver in the mid ’forties was a country town. There wasn’t much in art or music.”26 Not surprisingly, in 1952 a Vancouver Province reporter headed his interview with the just-arrived composer “Stravinsky Assails Modern Junk,” and then wrote: “Asked about his so-called ‘instinct’ for musical fashions, he said that if his music was ‘in fashion’ that was good.”27 Worse, the front page of the Vancouver Sun greeted him with a punning (and too clever) headline: “Stravinsky Lights No Fire; Council Gives Him the Bird.”28 The city council was debating the Symphony Society’s request to honor him with Vancouver’s golden key. Alderman Showler—whose candidate was Ginger Rogers—objected: “Some fellow blows into town and picks up a nice chunk of money. Why should we do anything for him? … I can’t see it.”29 The Vancouver Province reported still more grousing from Showler: “These guys come in here and pick up a nice chunk of dough—why don’t we do it for our own people?”30 Yet, the very next day, the Sun announced the city council’s affirmative decision. Unruffled, the composer allowed that he would “most likely” accept the key, delaying (mischievously perhaps?) the honor until Friday afternoon, 3 October, when he would be “free from rehearsals.” Stravinsky first rehearsed the VSO on Thursday morning, 2 October, in a rather dismal and cramped CBC studio. Figure 3 shows him at that rehearsal, holding his jacket, and aided by Edmund Newton, bass trombonist and the orchestra’s representative, he sheds his heavy overcoat. Concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy stands on the other side.31 In two of several images held by the city’s public library, Stravinsky, cigarette holder in hand, chats next to the concertmaster before addressing the orchestra (figs. 4 and 5). Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky arrives for first VSO rehearsal, 2 October 1952. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky arrives for first VSO rehearsal, 2 October 1952. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky with concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky with concertmaster Jean de Rimanoczy. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky at rehearsal. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky at rehearsal. The refulgent and engaging charm of Vancouver’s distinguished émigré ethnomusicologist, Vienna-born Ida Halpern (1910–87),32 an honorary director of the Symphony Society, allowed only her—not even its officers—into Stravinsky’s rehearsals. She made several observations in the Vancouver Province about the first one: It was gratifying to see how eager our musicians were to please. And they succeeded… . “Very good,” he said on several occasions. The praise worked wonders because the orchestra sounded amazingly well for a first rehearsal… . His manner of conducting is concise… . His movements are swift, precise and always well-controlled … [while] at the same time quick, electric and nervous… . [H]is expressive hands interpret the music clearly. To give certain effects he sometimes [claps] his hands and snaps his fingers. … His manner towards the orchestra is very polite, very kind …, [showing] only eagerness to help.33 She also noted corrections he made for one orchestra player: “‘There are mistakes,’ said Stravinsky and asked that player to come up to the podium with his part.” Halpern exclaimed, “What a manuscript to have, what a collector’s item,” but she identified neither work nor player. These corrections to the Firebird Suite for the VSO’s keyboardist at that time, John Avison, had to be repeated in 1965 at Stravinsky’s next concert appearance in Vancouver for a different pianist, though not a regular member of the VSO. One image of Stravinsky, jacket shed, was probably taken the next morning, on Friday, 3 October, and in the same crowded CBC studio.34 Betty Tangye (a first violinist) recalled sixty years later that at this rehearsal “Stravinsky made a number of corrections of notes in the orchestra parts,” including her own, but she did not identify them.35 His third and fourth rehearsals were on Saturday and Sunday mornings. On Friday afternoon, Mayor Fred Hume awarded Stravinsky the city’s ceremonial golden key. Clearly, this award elicited some grateful (perhaps even ironic?) words from the composer. A photograph of the presentation shows him smiling in satisfaction (fig. 6).36 Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Mayor Fred Hume awards Stravinsky ceremonial key to the city of Vancouver. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Mayor Fred Hume awards Stravinsky ceremonial key to the city of Vancouver. That evening, Harry and Frances Adaskin invited Stravinsky to a dinner party at their renovated Army hut in Acacia Camp, near the Point Grey campus. After dinner, both Adaskins queried him about a passage in dispute: an A-flat, or A-natural, in the printed piano part of his Divertimento, which they were preparing for performance later that fall. Trying out the passage several times on their piano and with some considerable frustration—he had even rehearsed the Divertimento that very morning—he ultimately declared: “could be eizer.” The Adaskins’ dilemma went unresolved until they (and I) heard Stravinsky’s final Sunday-morning rehearsal of the Divertimento, where the VSO’s cellos and basses played A-natural.37 For Adaskin, a collector of inscribed photographs of composers and performers, Stravinsky soon obliged with a mounted photograph taken by Gene Fenn in April 1948 at the Ambassador Hotel in New York. Below it, he wrote: “To Harry Adaskin / all best from Igor Stravinsky / Vancouver Oct[ober] 3/52.”38 He also gave UBC’s music department and the Adaskins copies of his Poétique musicale in its recently published third edition (April 1952). One copy he inscribed, “To the Department of / Music, University of / British Columbia / Vancouver, Oct. 1952 / I Stravinsky.”39 The Adaskins’ own copy (now in Vancouver’s public library) he inscribed more personally: “à Frances Marr / et / Harry Adaskin / cordialement.” Stravinsky later mailed them a just published periodical, Musik der Zeit, celebrating his sixtieth birthday, which he inscribed, “To my good friends / the ADASKINS / all best / IStravinsky / 1952.”40 (Another copy that he had sent to UBC’s music department is now in the Vancouver Public Library.) The business manager of the VSO, Colin E. Barraclough, kindly invited me to Stravinsky’s last rehearsal, on 5 October.41 At 9 a.m. that Sunday morning, in front of the Hotel Vancouver, he introduced me to the composer. Barraclough then drove us four blocks southeast to the orchestra’s concert hall, the Orpheum Theater. Awestruck in the car’s back seat and sensing Stravinsky’s concentration on his final rehearsal, I remained silent about our April UBC concert.42 Scribbles made during that final rehearsal on my Kalmus full score of the 1919 Firebird Suite (another pirated edition) now call back to memory Stravinsky’s subtle rubatos, his pleas for articulation in several forte passages—“Make a comma between your notes”43—and his disdain for so-called expressive playing. (Accordingly, on his 1910 manuscript of the complete Firebird ballet he once wrote in Russian: “To hell with the legatos!”44) When rehearsing lyric passages in his own scores and in those by Glinka and Tchaikovsky, he would often turn his back on the VSO’s string section. Directly after that Sunday morning rehearsal, the city’s then most fashionable photographer, Eric Skipsey, took an important likeness of Stravinsky. The composer cherished this sole formal image taken in Vancouver.45 The following year he wrote Skipsey: “This portrait of myself is very good and very interesting indeed.” He asked if the photographer would let him “use it for non-commercial and non-public uses.” In 1956, he did just that, inscribing a copy, “To prof. Cesare Frugoni / sincerely / Igor Stravinsky / Venice Sept. 13/56.”46 Harry Adaskin’s “Open Letter to Igor Stravinsky” was printed in the VSO’s program booklet for its Sunday afternoon concert. He noted that Vancouver “has waited a long time for this visit” and that “the musical world celebrates your 70th birthday this year.” Referring to UBC’s Stravinsky concert the previous April, Adaskin felt he could now safely claim that the “musical world” really did include Vancouver. He finished by telling Stravinsky “with what keen delight we welcome your visit here, and how much we wish it will be often repeated.” Repeated it was, but just twice more—on successive summer evenings in 1965. The booklet also advised that the second half of the program—Circus Polka, Scherzo à la Russe, Divertimento, and the Firebird Suite—would be: broadcast over the Trans-Canada network through the courtesy of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and over many of the stations of the American Broadcasting Company through arrangements with the C.B.C. Unfortunately, no recording of these broadcasts has been located. That Monday, the Vancouver Sun ran Stanley Bligh’s enthusiastic review, even underlining its heading: “3000 Hear Impressive Program; Great Ovation Accorded Stravinsky and His Music.” Bligh noted that “Stravinsky was recalled time and time again, audience and players rising to their feet in a moving tribute to the composer-conductor.”47 Also on that Monday, the Vancouver Province printed Ida Halpern’s review, “Expectations Fulfilled: Stravinsky, Orchestra, in Great Concert.”48 Concerning his performance of Tchaikovsky’s Little Russian Symphony, she wrote: “There was none of the over-emotionalism of Tchaikovsky’s last symphony in this work.” In Stravinsky’s copy of her review (now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel), he underlined her misstatement: “whom he [Stravinsky] heard [Tchaikovsky] conducting his own works.”49 Stravinsky then sent her a gift, which she acknowledged that November: “thanking you for your delightful book.” Alas, which book remains unknown. 1965 In 1965, Stravinsky again conducted in Vancouver. On Monday and Tuesday evenings, 12 and 13 July, he shared two concerts with Robert Craft for the city’s Eighth Festival, held at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre. This time, Stravinsky was brought to the city by Hugh Pickett,50 longtime manager (1946–85) of the concert agency Famous Players, which sometimes served as a local outlet for Sol Hurok and his New York-based Famous Artists. At Hurok’s urging (perhaps even against Pickett’s better judgment?),51 he booked the composer. In 2002, Pickett confessed that “the notoriously hard-to-handle Igor Stravinsky … was terrible at first. Really obnoxious. Slowly he came around. He was here four days before we really got to know him.”52 On 9 July, a Friday, Stravinsky had flown from Chicago with his wife, Craft, and Hurok’s press agent, Lillian Libman. On the way from Vancouver’s airport to their lodgings, Libman noticed that even the city’s gas stations had banners reading “Welcome to Igor Stravinsky” (a considerable difference from his reception in 1952). At eighty-three, he needed a wheelchair for any significant distance. Lawrence Morton, a Los Angeles friend, joined them in Vancouver, allowing Stravinsky to visit parts of Stanley Park, and especially the zoo with its polar bears.53 On Saturday, 10 July, the Daily Province ran a photograph of the Stravinskys settled at the Bayshore Inn.54 Interviewed there two days later, Mrs. Stravinsky would not admit her husband’s reputation for “temperament,” only that, like herself, he was sometimes “capricious.”55 Mary White (née Buckerfield),56 wife of Victor White, the VSO’s general manager at that time, recalled gossip that Stravinsky “could be difficult,” but that he “enjoyed Chivas Regal.” Accordingly, her manager husband placed bottles of Chivas in the Stravinsky suite at the Bayshore Inn—in their living room, in their bedroom, even one in their bathroom—all to the composer’s delight.57 Sharing half of each concert on Monday and Tuesday evenings at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre, Stravinsky and assistant Craft led the VSO in four works for the Vancouver Festival (fig. 7). At some juncture, Stravinsky autographed a festival program for an unidentified attendee. This program shows that the original plan had carefully balanced a pair of memorials before and after intermission: Variations, for Aldous Huxley, and Introitus, for T. S. Eliot, the latter requiring a male chorus. Only Variations was performed. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide Cover of joint concert by Stravinsky and Craft, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, 12 and 13 July 1965. Figure 7. View largeDownload slide Cover of joint concert by Stravinsky and Craft, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, 12 and 13 July 1965. A last-minute notice on 12 July in the Vancouver Sun (a late morning–early afternoon newspaper) reveals that by his first rehearsal, Stravinsky had altered his own portion of the program. Though retaining its opening with a Vancouver premiere of his 1908 Fireworks (rev. 1909), he replaced his other premiere for the city, the Symphony in Three Movements, by closing with the 1945 revised Firebird Suite,58 the reason for which will become clear. While in Vancouver, Stravinsky also made important changes to two works that were to be performed there for the first time—one an early composition, the other late. During Craft’s rehearsals for The Rite of Spring, “Stravinsky made his final corrections to the score.”59 Even while Craft was rehearsing Variations, the composer was drafting several alterations on the spot, and ten days later he lauded the city for its Canadian premiere.60 Three photographs taken by Ken Oakes for the Vancouver Sun depict Stravinsky at his first rehearsal on Sunday, 11 July (fig. 8). Hal Leiren, the newspaper’s reporter, wrote: He walked to the podium looking frail and bent and old, leaning on a cane. But when [the] rehearsal began he seemed to become a different man. His whole length straightened until he stood on the tips of his toes with his arms uplifted, seeming to hover above the orchestra. His movements were sure and energetic as he moved the orchestra through the violent rhythms and splashing tonal colors of the Firebird. He encouraged, chided, and praised the musicians: “That’s not quite right. Play it faster, more staccato. Once again. That’s good. My compliments.” For more than an hour he kept the musicians at it, repeating and polishing difficult passages, appearing as fresh when it was over as when the rehearsal began.61 Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Vancouver Sun, Stravinksy in rehearsal, 11 July 1965. Photos taken by Ken Oakes. Figure 8. View largeDownload slide Vancouver Sun, Stravinksy in rehearsal, 11 July 1965. Photos taken by Ken Oakes. Leiren added that during a rehearsal break, Stravinsky said, “‘It’s a pleasure for me to be here, and this orchestra—it’s wonderful. You should be proud to have such an orchestra in this city.’” Having autographed a copy of the festival’s program, he certainly knew that the “wonderful” VSO was “augmented to 100.” This was necessary for his performances of Fireworks and Craft’s of Le sacre du printemps. During that first rehearsal (as in 1952), Stravinsky corrected passages in several players’ parts. A young trumpet player in 1965, George Laverock recalled in 2000: Stravinsky kept cueing the harp but nothing happened. He went up to her and she pointed at the score and said, “There isn’t anything written there.” … Stravinsky scowled: “It was written 60 years ago.” [He] grabbed a pencil from one of the musicians and simply wrote the missing part in.62 “60 years ago” could refer to any one of the three harps he had scored in his 1908 Fireworks. It could also mean just the single harp in one of his three Firebird Suites, since he was rehearsing both Fireworks and a Firebird Suite. In 1911, 1919, and 1945 he had culled three suites from his score for the ballet. Which suite the VSO was rehearsing in 1965 is resolved by accounts from several witnesses at these rehearsals. Mary White—her access to rehearsals facilitated by her manager husband and her mother’s long patronage of the orchestra—wrote: They were rehearsing Firebird… . At a certain point the piano was to come in, but nothing happened. Stravinsky tapped his baton impatiently. Finally, the voice of a rather nervous pianist said: “Maestro, there is no piano part written in my score here.” “Oh,” said Stravinsky, “you’ve got the 1948 score.”63 Mrs. White’s account provides the clue. That “1948 score” identifies the corrections Stravinsky had to make in 1965 to the VSO’s piano part: they were for the third Firebird Suite of 1945, a version not published until 1948 (by Leeds and Schott). Stravinsky had arranged it, “working from the pirated Kalmus edition” of his second suite (1919).64 Also attending that Sunday rehearsal, press agent Libman told newspaperman Leiren that the music for the third Firebird Suite from “the VSO’s library had been misprinted.”65 Later, she wrote that this same third suite “used to provoke the lengthiest diatribe” from the composer.66 And no wonder. While in Vancouver, Lawrence Morton saw the composer leading this very suite, and, moreover, “once again” from “a Kalmus pirated edition of the score.”67 This means that in 1965 (and perhaps also in 1952) Stravinsky was using a score of his second 1919 Firebird Suite, whereas the VSO players were reading the score from his third 1945 suite! Mary White recalled Stravinsky speaking to the VSO’s pianist in 1965: “‘Bring it [the score] here, son.’” Stravinsky then “wrote from memory the early music he had written many years before and gave it [back] to him.”68 In 1965 that “rather nervous pianist,” that “son,” that “him” was the twenty-nine-year-old Robert G. Rogers.69 However he was recruited, his student years at UBC (BA 1952), followed by private piano study with Mrs. Adaskin in 1954, might suggest that either or both of the Adaskins70—well acquainted with Stravinsky from his 1952 visit—recommended Rogers to the VSO in July 1965. Be this as it may, in 2002 (a half-dozen years before his death) Rogers told a reporter: “I hadn’t intended to do the bloody Firebird. It was supposed to be another equally difficult piece [the Symphony in Three Movements], but at the last minute the conductor fired the first pianist.” Rogers [had to] virtually sight-read the tremendously difficult part [of Firebird] and then caught a look from the composer: the copyist had omitted 10 notes in the score, which Stravinsky calmly walked over and penciled in. Rogers retains that treasure, augmented “by terror,” and got Stravinsky to autograph his score. “I earned it. It aged me 30 years,” Rogers says.71 As noted, all three newspaper photographs taken by Oakes on Sunday, 11 July, show Stravinsky rehearsing Firebird.72 (fig. 8) They reveal the same vigor that Fred Fehl’s dozen photographs had captured three years earlier during Stravinsky’s rehearsal of Firebird in New York.73 Those photographs, and remarks by Mrs. White, Rogers, Craft, Libman, and Morton, show that at his first rehearsal in 1965 Stravinsky again corrected the piano part of his 1945 Firebird Suite, as he had been obliged to do in 1952—and for the same reason (missing notes) that Ida Halpern had given. Still another (and hitherto unpublished) photograph was taken at one or the other of the 1965 rehearsals and autographed soon thereafter: “IStravinsky / 1965”74 (fig. 9). It might document an actual moment of correction by the composer. Figure 9. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy, 1965. Figure 9. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy, 1965. Beyond the piano’s greater role in Stravinsky’s 1945 revision, and before I had access to Rogers’s Firebird manuscript, just one discrepancy could be detected between the otherwise very modest piano part in the 1919 suite and the instrument’s expanded function in the 1945 revision. The 1919 suite has a D-flat augmented triad in second inversion for the piano. The suite’s final version lacks this triad because in 1945 Stravinsky had transposed it an octave lower and assigned it to the harp.75 Three notes, however, do not match those ten notes missing from Rogers’s piano part, as he stated in his interview. Study of his “earned” manuscript resolves this discrepancy (fig. 10). Access in Vancouver on 4 June 2017 to the professional copyist’s piano part—courtesy of Mrs. Rogers—shows that Stravinsky penned in those “omitted 10 notes.” They form a ten-note phrase in the piano part near the close of the suite’s “Introduction.”76 Stravinsky added a helpful eighth rest and a two-eighth-note rhythmic cue for the pianist, preceding them with a treble clef and “Arpe.” Writing at the upper left corner: “To Robert Rogers / all best / I Stravinsky / VANCOUVER / July 12/65.” he also revealed the date of a (second) Firebird rehearsal for the inaugural festival concert that evening. Figure 10. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy’s corrections to Rogers’s manuscript part. Courtesy of Mrs. Rogers. Figure 10. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy’s corrections to Rogers’s manuscript part. Courtesy of Mrs. Rogers. Except for this first page of the piano part thus autographed, all the other VSO parts for the 1945 suite have perished, discarded when the VSO’s librarian purchased a new set of parts in 2015.77 Yet, even had the other parts in the first set survived, there would be no feasible way to distinguish Stravinsky’s markings from those demanded by later (and earlier) conductors, aside, of course, from his handwritten emendations. Just as Stravinsky raised his arm in 1965 to begin his “dress rehearsal” (12 July), Lillian Libman reported that he called for help—an ill-fitted hernia belt had slipped. Trying to hide his embarrassment, he addressed the musicians: “Forgive me, gentlemen, I must leave the room. Don’t go away.” Impresario Hugh Pickett helped out, and when Stravinsky returned, the orchestra cheered the composer.78 Pickett’s timely aid could explain Stravinsky’s cordial inscription on a publicity photograph used by Hurok’s firm: “To you, dear Mr. Pickett / most sincerely / IStravinsky July 1965”79 (fig. 11). Figure 11. View largeDownload slide Photograph inscribed for Hugh Pickett, July 1965. Figure 11. View largeDownload slide Photograph inscribed for Hugh Pickett, July 1965. Along with Stravinsky’s photograph, the Vancouver impresario published a brief memoir, “On Stravinsky.”80 It harbors an insinuating reminiscence. Pickett cited an unnamed male companion with the composer in 1965 at Vancouver: “He had a ‘friend’ who also traveled with him.” And, even more knowingly: “I got it all very quickly.” By “friend” Pickett could not have meant Craft, whose vaunted heterosexuality abounds in his diaries and journals. This sly implication was as ridiculous as it was inaccurate. Without naming him, Pickett meant Lawrence Morton, the composer’s wheelchair helpmate, for whom not a smidgeon of evidence exists for any such implied relationship with Stravinsky.81 Two photographs taken at one or the other of his two concerts show Stravinsky on the podium for the July 1965 festival. The first one has him conducting;82 the other shows him accepting applause while leaning on his cane (figs. 12 and 13). The same young VSO trumpeter recalled, “At the end of the [second] concert, people didn’t want to go home. Finally, on about the 10th bow, Stravinsky came back with his heavy woolen coat on and just walked across the stage and out the door.”83 Figure 12. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy at the 1965 Vancouver festival. Figure 12. View largeDownload slide Stravinksy at the 1965 Vancouver festival. Figure 13. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky accepting ovations at the festival. Figure 13. View largeDownload slide Stravinsky accepting ovations at the festival. But “out the door” to where? The young trumpet player probably did not know that Stravinsky had one more engagement to fulfill in Vancouver. J. E. Horvath’s notation on the back of his business card (accompanying his gift to UBC of his photograph of the composer rehearsing the VSO in 1965)84 alludes to an otherwise undocumented event for the Stravinskys while in Vancouver. The widow of Otto Koerner, Iby Koerner (née Molnar; 1899–1983)—married into a prosperous Jewish émigré lumber family from Vienna—was one of the founders in 1958 of the Vancouver Festival.85 She had invited Stravinsky (and surely, his wife and Craft) to dine at her home. It would have made for a late evening: her spacious residence—on Matthews Avenue in Vancouver’s upscale Shaughnessy district—was a goodly distance from the Queen Elizabeth concert hall. It was even farther from the Bayshore Inn, the Stravinskys’ temporary residence, from whence they, along with Craft, Libman, and Morton, departed for Vancouver’s airport and their return flight to Los Angeles the next day.86 * * * Virtually every item in UBC’s collection at Point Grey bears Stravinsky’s DNA. On no other work is it more palpable,87 however, than on his personal copy of Boosey & Hawkes’s 1940 s reprint—auctioned in December 201588—of Petrushka’s first orchestral score (Édition Russe, 1912). Preparing his revised edition of the B&H reprint late in 1945 and early 1946 for the same firm, Stravinsky annotated seventy-four of the reprint’s 152 pages.89 Thus, his annotated B&H reprint and nine other Petrushka items at UBC, spanning some fifty-six years of his composing life, could well serve as touchstones for the riches of the UBC collection. Brief descriptions of these items follow:90 Four days before he had finished his orchestral score of Petrushka, and just three weeks before the ballet’s world premiere in Paris on 13 June 1911, Stravinsky wrote from Rome to the Greek-French critic Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi, in Paris, that he would be pleased to have him attend the performance. Writing to his London admirer and propagandist Edwin Evans early in 1914, Stravinsky was obliged to inform Evans that the score’s first edition was already out of print. That summer he wrote (somewhat unclearly) to fellow composer and conductor Alfredo Casella that he planned to conduct Firebird in London in April 1915,91 though he did not do so—World War I essentially confined him to the continent, chiefly Switzerland—but he also inquired as to whether Casella might care to conduct Petrushka. In fact, Casella did just that: in Rome in February 1915, as a postcard sent from there, signed by Stravinsky, Diaghilev, Casella, and Marya Freund and sent to Mrs. Casella in Paris, affirms. Writing from Nice in 1926, Stravinsky informed his American-born patroness in Paris, Princesse Edmond de Polignac (née Winnaretta Singer), that Toscanini had fallen ill and that he would be leading Petrushka himself that May (9 and 12) at La Scala. Upon returning to Paris in June 1937 at the close of his fourth transatlantic tour, Stravinsky sent a beautifully copied and carefully hand-mounted inscription of the opening bars of the “Magic Trick” to a Cleveland patroness and autograph collector. Having twice led the staged ballet himself in mid-March 1937 in Los Angeles, in December 1939 he autographed its miniature orchestral score (a Kalmus pirate of 1933)—property of a Los Angeles woman friend and pianist who had attended his 1937 production of the ballet—but warned of the score’s many mistakes.92 Lastly, bedridden from 2 to 28 November 1967 in a Los Angeles hospital, and in great pain and sedated,93 he twice wrote out the incipit of the ballet’s “Russian Dance” in a wobbly hand. Canceling his first attempt, he signed and dated a second version on 10 November, adding: “Every kooky note I hope, [of] this music.” Of course, the bulk of Stravinsky’s Nachlass is in the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel. Yet UBC’s Point Grey collection in Vancouver is an important North American resource for scholars concerned with Stravinsky’s life, his works, and his own critical opinions as well as those of his associates.94 No private collection in the city matches it, and it outshines by far the several items and photographs in the public library and a half-dozen items in the Vancouver Historical Society. Its current 143 items compare favorably with smaller collections at Harvard, Princeton, Oberlin, Berkeley, UCLA, USC—even with major ones in the Morgan Library, the New York Public Library, Juilliard, and the Library of Congress. When Stravinsky led his 1945 Firebird Suite with the VSO in 1952 and 1965, its textual problems at his rehearsals there—and elsewhere95—epitomized mistakes still found in many of his works. Such mistakes exasperated the composer and wasted valuable (and expensive) rehearsal time. When all his music comes into the public domain, the next generation of scholar musicians must produce a critical edition, free of error. Quite a few items at UBC will aid them in this task. Near the end of his life, Stravinsky yearned for such an edition.96 Once complete, it will beget new analyses, new assessments, and new understandings. Footnotes H. Colin Slim received his BA from the University of British Columbia and his PhD from Harvard University. He held teaching positions at the University of Chicago, University of California at Irvine, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the City University of New York (Graduate Center). Slim was president of the American Musicological Society from 1989 to 1990 and received an honorary doctorate from McGill University in 1993. He retired in 1994. Slim’s earlier writings focused on the keyboard and vocal music of Renaissance Italy and his later work on the iconographic representation of Renaissance music, musicians, and instruments. Editions prepared by Slim include A Gift of Madrigals and Motets; Keyboard Music at Castell’Arquato, as well as Scarlatti’s Massino Puppieno and Rossini’s La donna del lago. 1 A shorter version of this study was presented in Vancouver, 4 November 2016, at the Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society (AMS), a session shared with Kevin Madill, fine arts and music librarian at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Point Grey campus. Despite Robert Craft conducting at Vancouver with Stravinsky in 1965, his “Stravinsky in Canada and the U.K.,” in Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories (Great Britain: Naxos Books, 2013), 80–95, mentions neither concerts nor city. Mr. Madill, Richard Kurth, Mrs. Robert Rogers and her husband Leonard Lythgoe, and Vera Michnik and her husband Michael Bushnell offered much assistance during my stay in Vancouver in early June 2017. 2 Contrary to Dale McIntosh, History of Music in British Columbia, 1850–1950 (Victoria, BC: Sono Nis Press, 1989), 75, Stravinsky never conducted the Vancouver Bach Choir. Possibly, members of the choir had anticipated singing the Canadian premiere of Stravinsky’s Introitus at the Vancouver Festival in mid-July 1965, but Introitus was deleted from the program. Craft led its world premiere the preceding April at a concert in Chicago that I attended. 3 Anne Kloppenborg, Alice Niwinski, Eve Johnson, and Robert Gruetter, eds., Vancouver’s First Century: A City Album, 1860–1960 (Vancouver: J. J. Douglas, 1977), 55, upper image. It shows its stage early in the twentieth century. The building could seat 1,500 people; see John Becker, Discord: The Story of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra (Vancouver: Brighouse Press, 1989), 1–2. 4 See the advertisement “Russian Ballet” and a review (by a not-further-identified “Stilacho”), “Serge de Diaghileff’s Ballet Russe at the Opera House,” Vancouver Daily Sun, 10 January 1917 and 16 January 1917, respectively. 5 Mario Bois, Près de Strawinksy, 1959–70 (Paris: Marval, 1996), 157–58, plate of Stravinsky telegram. Felix Meyer, ed., Settling New Scores: Music Manuscripts from the Paul Sacher Foundation (Mainz: Schott, 1998), item no. 20; ill., 70. 6 The first Canadian city to hear any Stravinsky composition is thought to be Montreal: a performance on 12 January 1919 of the Scherzo from his Symphony in E-flat Major (1905–7); see “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada, 1937–1967: Regards en arrière / Looking Back,” Les Cahiers Canadiens de Musique / The Canada Music Book 4–5 (Spring/Summer 1972): 31. 7 Claude Debussy, letter of 13 April 1912 to Robert Godet about Petrushka; see Stephen Walsh, Stravinsky: A Creative Spring—Russia and France, 1882–1934 (New York: Knopf, 1999), 164. 8 H. Colin Slim, Annotated Catalogue of the H. Colin Slim Stravinsky Collection: Donated by Him to the University of British Columbia Library (Vancouver: Benwell-Atkins for the UBC Library, 2002). The annotated Petrushka score was donated in 2017. UBC’s collection also houses the famous 1912 picture-postcard of Debussy standing next to the seated young composer, its exemplar inscribed in 1926 by Stravinsky in black ink: “Debussy et moi chez lui (Av. du Bois) en 1912” (item no. 34). 9 See the plates in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 23; Ezra Schabas, Sir Ernest MacMillan: The Importance of Being Canadian (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994 [1996]), 30–31 (top); and Musical America 57 (25 January 1937): 27. Stravinsky led both Firebird and Petrushka. 10 Excerpts from reviews of their 25 January concert are in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 21 and 23. 11 Thomas Archer, “Igor Stravinsky Given Ovation,” Montreal Gazette, 6 March 1945, with a photograph of Stravinsky rehearsing. 12 Philip Stuart, Igor Stravinsky—The Composer in the Recording Studio: A Comprehensive Discography (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991), 45–46, item nos. 117–31. On 2 November 2016, Kimberly Francis read a paper, “The Stravinsky Venture: Stravinsky and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1961–62,” at the AMS Annual Meeting in Vancouver referenced in note 1. 13 Robert Craft, Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, rev. ed. (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1994), 451–52. 14 Robert Craft, ed., Dearest Bubushkin: The Correspondence of Vera and Igor Stravinsky, 1921–1954, with Excerpts from Vera Stravinsky’s Diaries, 1922–1971, trans. Lucia Davidova (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985), 210. 15 See Slim, Annotated Catalogue, a collection enlarged since its initial donation in 1998. 16 Then studying at UBC, I recall Pentland—a past student of Copland and a Bartók and Webern zealot—railing in our classes against what she regarded as Stravinsky’s too close ties with such “conservatives” as Nadia Boulanger and T. S. Eliot. Still, when Stravinsky arrived in Vancouver, she eagerly engaged with him at the Adaskins’ dinner party on 3 October (see note 37) and also attended several of his VSO rehearsals. 17 Two photographs of myself, twenty-two years old at the time, rehearsing The Wedding at UBC are in “Special Events Program,” Totem 41 (Vancouver: UBC, 1952): 61 (bottom right). The Totem’s editor added that the April UBC all-Stravinsky concert “proved to be an immensely exciting experience.” 18 See Helmut Kallmann, Giles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters, eds., Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992), 24. 19 Viktor Varunts, ed., I. F. Stravinsky: Perepiska z russkimi korrespondentami—Materiali k biografii, vol. 3: 1923–1939 (Moscow: Kompositor, 2003), 851, mistakenly located this Svadebka premiere in Montreal. Harry Adaskin, A Fiddler’s Choice: Memoirs, 1938 to 1980 (Vancouver: November House, 1982), 94–95, plate 17, reproduces the 7 April 1952 program, and offers many details about the concert’s genesis (see pages 132–37). For a reminiscence from a fellow UBC student in 1952, see Hilary Clark, “What I Think About Stravinsky’s Music,” Opera Canada 43, no. 4 (Winter 2002): 50. 20 Letters between Adaskin and Stravinsky, now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel, are cited in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 16n6. 21 Betty Tangye (first violin), from her communication to the late cellist Audrey Piggott, the leader of her section, conveyed in Piggott’s letter of 11 June 1995 to me. On the tenure of these and other VSO musicians cited here, see Becker, Discord, 157–65. 22 Naomi Lang, “‘Stravinsky’s Daughter’ Rarely Gets Own Name,” Vancouver Daily Province, 2 October 1952, depicts just the young couple. Wright Balfour, “Igor Stravinsky Arrives for Symphony Concert,” Vancouver News Herald, 2 October 1952, offers a photograph of Stravinsky and daughter; and “Famed Composer Stravinsky Arrives,” Vancouver Sun, 2 October 1952, provides a photograph of just the composer. All three images were probably taken at the former Great Northern Railway terminus in Vancouver’s Main Street station. 23 Igor Stravinsky, letter to the editor, Vancouver Province, 4 October 1952, supplement. Signed by its photographer, “Paola Foa, 1945,” this image also appears in Tatiana Baranova Monighetti, “Stravinsky’s Russian Library,” in Stravinsky and His World, ed. Tamara Levitz (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 72, figure 3. 24 Becker, Discord, 5 and 146. 25 As related by Don Adams, future husband of composer and UBC faculty member Jean Coultard-Adams, to Harry Adaskin, in Adaskin, A Fiddler’s World: Memoirs to 1938 (Vancouver: November House, 1977), 179. Becker, locating Ravel’s recital in the Denman Auditorium, states it was a “flop” (Discord, 146). 26 Frances Adaskin, “The Evolution of a Musical Vancouver,” in “VSO [at] 75,” Weekend Sun, 24 September 1994, Saturday Review. 27 Pat Tryon, “Stravinsky Assails Modern Junk,” Vancouver Daily Province, 2 October 1952. 28 “Stravinsky Lights No Fire; Council Gives Him the Bird,” Vancouver Sun, 1 October 1952. 29 “Rehearsals First; City to Give Composer Key in Afternoon,” Vancouver Sun, 2 October 1952. 30 “Stravinsky May Receive Golden Key,” Vancouver Province, 2 October 1952. 31 “Maestro Gets a Hand,” Vancouver Province, 3 October 1952. 32 On Ida Halpern, gracious mentor in my middle adolescence, see Paul Helmer, Growing with Canada: The Emigré Tradition in Canadian Music (Montreal: McGill–Queen’s University Press, 2009), 10, 223–25, and 260–61. 33 Ida Halpern, “Rehearsals Start: Stravinsky, Orchestra Happy,” Vancouver Province, 3 October 1952. Written communications between Stravinsky and Halpern, now in the Paul Sacher Foundation, Basel, are cited in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 16–17n8. 34 Jack Delong, “Igor Doesn’t Give a Hoot, Out They Go” (i.e., all visitors except Halpern), Vancouver Sun, 4 October 1952. 35 Information kindly furnished by Betty Tangye to cellist Audrey Piggott on 11 June 1995. 36 See Vancouver News-Herald, 4 October 1952, and “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 36. 37 At two measures preceding rehearsal no. 10. Information about this incident was furnished by Frances Adaskin’s piano student, and my UBC contemporary, Harry Locke, who was present at her dinner that evening; see also Harry Adaskin, A Fiddler’s World, 174, and Frances Adaskin, “Evolution.” 38 Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no. 91. 39 Ibid., no. 94. 40 Ibid., no. 93. 41 Barraclough’s invitation stemmed, in part, from his knowledge of my dual roles in UBC’s all-Stravinsky concert the preceding April. 42 On 27 January 1966, however, having just sung in Symphony of Psalms under Stravinsky’s direction with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and then sitting next to him backstage in the Dorothy Chandler Music Center while Craft conducted the Symphony in C, we did exchange a few words afterward. 43 Recalled likewise by Ida Halpern in her review, “Expectations Fulfilled: Stravinsky, Orchestra, in Great Concert,” Vancouver Province, 6 October 1952. 44 Louis Cyr, ed., Stravinsky, “L’oiseau de feu”: Facsimile Edition of Autograph Full Score (Geneva: Minkoff, 1985), 201. 45 See the cover of Slim, Annotated Catalogue, and Clark, “Stravinsky Music,” 50. Skipsey’s portrait is also reproduced—misdated as a “1966 photo” and its photographer unacknowledged—in the Los Angeles Times, 15 May 1982; and, unacknowledged and slightly cropped, in Mario Bois, Près de Strawinsky, 1959–70 (Paris: Marval, 1996), 97. 46 Katalog 885: Autographen und Portraits von Musikern (Basel: Erasmushaus, n.d. [December 1996]), lot 221; ill., 61. 47 Stanley Bligh, “3000 Hear Impressive Program; Great Ovation Accorded Stravinsky and His Music,” Vancouver Sun, 6 October 1952. 48 Halpern, “Expectations Fulfilled”; quoted in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, 7 and 16n8. 49 Stravinsky never did so, but as a young boy he caught a glimpse of Tchaikovsky in November 1892 in St. Petersburg; see Walsh, Stravinsky: A Creative Spring, 28. 50 Bryan N. S. Gooch, “Pickett, Hugh (1913− ),” in Kallmann, Potvin, and Winters, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, 1060. 51 Lillian Libman hints at misgivings on Pickett’s part in her And Music at the Close: Stravinsky’s Last Years—A Personal Memoir (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972), 183. 52 John Mackie, “Mr. Impresario,” Vancouver Sun, 17 August 2002. 53 Libman, And Music at the Close, 188, and Lawrence Morton, “Stravinsky at Home,” in Confronting Stravinsky, ed. Jann Pasler (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 346. 54 See Robert Craft, A Stravinsky Scrapbook, 1940–1979 (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1983), 130, plate 265. 55 Kathy Hassard, “Says Madame Igor Stravinsky,” Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965. 56 On Mrs. White’s ready access to rehearsals due to her mother’s long history of service to, and patronage of, the VSO, see Becker, Discord, 31. 57 Mary White, “Down Memory Lane,” Weekend Sun, 24 September 1994, Saturday Review. His fondness for Chivas was already evident in a 1963 North German Radio documentary film cited in “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 29. 58 “Important Program Changes” (advertisement), Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965. 59 Robert Craft, An Improbable Life: Memoirs (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2002), 282. 60 See Stravinsky’s letter (24 July 1965) containing his corrections for Variations, in Igor Stravinsky, Selected Correspondence, ed. and with commentaries by Robert Craft, vol. 3 (New York: Knopf, 1985), 453n60. 61 Hal Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo,” Vancouver Sun, 12 July 1965, including Oakes’s three images of the previous day’s first rehearsal. Leiren’s text is partly quoted by Lloyd Dykk, “Rear Window,” Vancouver Sun, 20–27 July 2000, and (less of it and occasionally inaccurately) by Vera Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978), 481. 62 Quoted in Dykk, “Rear Window.” 63 White, “Down Memory Lane.” 64 Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 378. 65 Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo.” 66 Libman, And Music at the Close, 134. 67 Morton, “Stravinsky at Home,” 346. 68 White, “Down Memory Lane.” 69 On Rogers, see McIntosh, Music in British Columbia, 182 and 210. 70 Harry Adaskin, in Fiddler’s Choice, adds that in 1979 Rogers—who had joined its faculty in 1966—was “one of UBC’s outstanding professors of piano” (64). (Neither Harry nor Frances Adaskin discuss Stravinsky’s Vancouver festival engagements in 1965.) 71 Lloyd Dykk, “Stravinsky Collection Goes to UBC: Legacy of a Musical Giant” Vancouver Sun, 30 March 2002. Both the identity of the original “fired” pianist and the date of his/her dismissal remain undiscovered (a dismissal perhaps effected before Stravinsky’s first rehearsal). Dykk’s initial term, “part,” followed by a twice-mentioned “score,” causes ambiguity as to whether a piano part or a full orchestral score is meant. Currently with his son in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Rogers’s manuscript is one page of a piano part. 72 Leiren, “Stravinsky Finds a Typo.” 73 Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no 111; ill., 324. Fehl’s twelve images at UBC are reproduced in Dykk, “Stravinsky Collection.” 74 This photograph—taken by a Barry Glass of Richmond, British Columbia—was generously donated by Horvath to UBC in 2002. Horvath’s note on the reverse side of his accompanying business card reads: “Taken at Stravinsky’s last public performance [recte, rehearsal (13 July?)] in Vancouver, BC and signed [by Stravinsky] at the dinner table in Mrs. Otto [Iby] Koerner’s house in Vancouver in [July] 1965. He conducted [recte, rehearsed] in a winter coat on a specially secured podium.” 75 See Kalmus (1919), 65b, measure 5, and Schott (1945), 118, one measure before rehearsal no. 149, respectively. 76 At two measures before rehearsal no. 6 in both the 1919 and 1945 full scores of the suites; the Kalmus pirated 1933 reprint of the 1919 edition lacks the piano part’s necessary lower treble clef. 77 Information kindly provided in late 2016 by Kevin Madill, who had queried the VSO’s librarian. 78 Libman, And Music at the Close, 188. Since both concerts were at 8.10 p.m., presumably the “dress rehearsal” she cites took place on Monday morning or afternoon, 12 July, the same day Stravinsky dated Rogers’s manuscript. 79 Mackie, “Mr. Impresario.” Bois, Près de Strawinsky, 141, lower plate, identifies the same image (slightly cropped) as (one used by) “Sony [Records] France.” 80 Mackie, “Mr. Impresario.” 81 Tellingly enough, even Craft, who knew Morton well, never names him in such a context. Richard Taruskin, in his introduction to Russian Music at Home and Abroad: New Essays (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016), 10–13, and 26n32, refutes charges of Stravinsky’s so-called ambisexuality, twice trotted out by Craft, whose lists of supposed partners include Andrey Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel, Delage, e tutti quanti. 82 “Dossier Stravinsky–Canada,” 28 (its caption, “June 1965,” should read “July 1965”). 83 Photograph and commentary in Lloyd Dykk, “1965 Rear Window,” Vancouver Sun, 20–27 July 2000. (In neither this nor the preceding image of him conducting does he wear a “winter coat.”) 84 See above, note 74. 85 On Iby’s vigorous and generous personality, see Rosemary Cunningham, “A Debt Acknowledged: Iby Koerner’s Contribution to Vancouver,” British Columbia History 39, no. 2 (2006): 12–20, and Helmer, Growing with Canada, 225 and 350n149. Mrs. Koerner had even persuaded Bruno Walter to come out of retirement and lead the VSO on 19 July 1958 to inaugurate the Vancouver Festival. 86 Craft, Dearest Bubushkin, 216: 14 July 1965, and Libman, And Music at the Close, 200–201 (her “June” 14 is incorrect). 87 An exception might be Stravinsky’s thirteen-page 1942 autograph transparencies for Scherzo à la Russe, housed at UBC. See Slim, Annotated Catalogue, no. 80, and Slim, “Stravinsky’s Scherzo … and Its Two-Piano Origins,” in Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman, ed. Barbara Haggh (Paris: Minèrve, 2001), 517–37. 88 Fine Books and Manuscripts, including the Autograph Collection of Harry E. Gould Jr. (New York: Bonhams, 9 December 2015), lot 159, illustrates the Boosey & Hawkes cover for Petrushka signed by Stravinsky, c. 1945, and his revisions to its page 86. I thank Edward C. Hirschland for much assistance in obtaining this treasure. 89 Boosey & Hawkes, a worldwide firm, published Stravinsky’s revision of Petrushka in 1947 and copyrighted it the following year. 90 At the AMS conference referenced in note 1, Kevin Madill spoke very briefly about these items. They are more fully described in Slim, Annotated Catalogue, nos. 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 34, 49, 68, and 119. 91 Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 58. 92 Libman, And Music at the Close, 134, documents this same propensity in the mid-1960s, that is, Stravinsky’s willingness to autograph scores of his music while simultaneously “delivering a polemic” about the pirate publisher. 93 See the differing accounts in Craft, Chronicle of a Friendship, 463–71; in Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories, 226–27, and in Libman, And Music at the Close, 323–25, her veracity impugned by Craft in Vera Stravinsky and Craft, Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents, 592. 94 Since the publication of Slim’s Annotated Catalogue in 2002, UBC’s collection of 123 items has been enriched by some nineteen additions from Canadian and U.S. donors. 95 Libman, And Music at Its Close, 134. 96 Craft, Improbable Life, 383; and Craft, Stravinsky: Discoveries and Memories, 133. This future edition will include Stravinsky’s recently discovered “Funeral Song” (1909) for Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov; see Natalia Braginskava, “New Light on the Fate of Some Early Works of Stravinsky: The Funeral Song Rediscovery,” Acta Musicologica 87 (2015): 135–51; Richard Taruskin, Times Literary Supplement, 23 December 2016, 19; John von Rhein, “Long-Lost Opus by Igor Stravinsky Gets U.S. Premiere with the CSO,” Chicago Tribune, 5 April 2017; and von Rhein, “CSO Revives Long-Lost Stravinsky,” Chicago Tribune, 8 April, 2017. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

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The Musical QuarterlyOxford University Press

Published: Mar 26, 2018

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