SSFH SOCIETY NEWS

SSFH SOCIETY NEWS Abstract The Society for the Study of French History (SSFH) supports postgraduate research by funding students to carry out archival research as well as helping them to attend and/or present work at conferences. These awards are open to all postgraduate students registered at a UK university who are carrying out research on an aspect of French history, and reports from successful applicants clearly indicate the tremendous range of research interests supported by the Society. The Society also supports conferences on French history as well as Visiting Scholars to UK and Irish Universities. In this edition we present three reports from Postgraduate Research Grants, one from a Conference Bursary, and one from a Visiting Scholar Grant. The edition also includes details on the Society’s annual conference and Studies in French History series with MUP. More information on the postgraduate awards (and on the full range of bursaries and prizes offered by the SSFH) is available from the Society’s website: www.frenchhistorysociety.ac.uk. POSTGRADUATE RESEARCH GRANTS ‘Un Génie audacieux’: La Bourdonnais and his Colonial Policy in the Mascarene Islands Shyam Sridar (University of St Andrews) My M.Litt. dissertation explores the colonial policy of Mahé de La Bourdonnais, governor of the French Mascarene Islands from 1735 to 1748, and I focus particularly on his goals for France and the French East India Company during this period. Thanks to a month-long research trip to France I was able to demonstrate that his colonial policy was both intricately formulated and clearly executed. I therefore portray him as an expert strategist, revealing a previously unexplored facet of his character. In a wider historiographical context, my research engages with debates on strategic thought and personal agency in the early modern colonial world. The first week of my research trip was spent in Paris, where I explored relevant collections in the Archives nationales, notably the Archives de la Marine. Three further weeks were spent at the Archives nationales d’outre-mer in Aix-en-Provence, which provided most of the material for my dissertation. Especially valuable were La Bourdonnais’ correspondence and the records of his private investments in the Archives d’entreprise. While in Aix I also had the chance to attend the forty-third annual meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society, and the insightful discussions with other participants shaped many of the ideas in my dissertation. I would like to thank the Society wholeheartedly for its financial support, without which the breadth of archival research necessary for this project would not have been possible. Democracy and Representation in the French Revolution, 1789–1799 Minchul Kim (University of St Andrews) The rise of the notion of democracy as a legitimating principle of political regimes is in many ways a distinctly modern phenomenon. During the eighteenth century democracy was no more than a marginal force, denounced as a chimerical form of government unfit for passionate human beings living in large and modern commercial states. Focusing on this period, my doctoral thesis examines the concept of ‘representative democracy’ during the French Revolution, and particularly under the Directory (1795–1799). Then the term was an oxymoron — a neologism strategically coined by radical democrats at a time when ‘representative government’ and ‘democracy’ were understood to be diametrically opposed. My thesis places the democrats’ political thought in different but concurrent contexts. First is the rapidly changing political, economic and international situation of the French First Republic at war. Second is the anxiety about democratic decline that derived from a well-established intellectual tradition, according to which Greek and Roman history had already proved democracy to be a harbinger of anarchy, despotism and military government. (Indeed, this had long inspired a fear of popular politics in France, as elsewhere in Europe.) Building on both political and intellectual histories of the eighteenth century and French Revolution, my thesis explores the continuity between the two periods as evident in texts produced by the historical actors themselves. Using this understanding, I reinterpret the rupture of 1789 and seek to challenge categorizations that might seem facile, anachronistic or teleological. The central axis of examination is the opposition between the notion of ‘representative government’ (which defined a modern republic based on a firm rejection of what the contemporaries understood to be ‘democratic’ politics), and the idea of ‘representative democracy’ (which proposed a vision of radical democracy based on the dynamics of popular education, press freedom, universal manhood suffrage, and an egalitarian and industrious political economy). With the support of the SSFH grant I spent a month in Paris, devoting most of my time to the Archives nationales at Pierrefitte and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (François-Mitterrand). Here I consulted the administrative documents of the Directory and the debates of the two legislative Councils, as well as the correspondence, pamphlets, newspapers and treatises of journalists, politicians, activists, priests and philosophers of the period. I was able to confirm or reject the various hypotheses in my thesis, and equally to make forays into the early nineteenth century—on which I plan to conduct later projects. I am very grateful to the SSFH for enabling my consultation of these additional sources, which both enriched and completed my thesis and have also inspired my future research. Militarized Cities? Housing and Garrisoning the French Empire’s Troops in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy Vittoria Princi (University of Oxford) The majority of primary sources for my thesis—a study of barracks and military housing issues in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy—are located in Italian archives. Yet, given the close and lengthy relationship between France and this satellite state, integrating these sources with the material in Parisian archives is essential to the development of a more complete picture. I am extremely grateful for the SSFH grant that made such a research trip possible. During my time in Paris I chose to focus on the Service historique de la Défense at the Archives de Vincennes. Here I accessed documents regarding the Armée d’Italie, of special relevance to the chapter of my thesis that examines matters of logistics and troop transits. Indeed, these archives include detailed itineraries for the marches of French military units across Italy, as well as to and from France, Austria, Germany and the Illyrian Provinces. They also cover the main campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars in this area of Europe. Studying the administrative correspondence of the French authorities allowed a better reconstruction of the chain of command running from the Armée d’Italie’s headquarters to the Italian authorities (the latter received notifications of the troops’ itineraries and were tasked with providing for their temporary housing). Furthermore, the documents gave useful data on administrative personnel such as commissaries of war, and clarified their roles in documents I had previously viewed in Italy. In addition to archival work, my Parisian trip also enabled me to attend the conference ‘“Je suis Charlemagne”: Napoléon et les archives du “Grand Empire”’. This offered a detailed perspective on current French historiography of the Napoleonic era, and I found interesting food for thought in talks by Jean-François Brun on army logistics and Gildas Lepetit on the Gendarmerie in Spain. Overall, this was a positive first experience of the Napoleonic archives in Paris, and one that has stimulated valuable reflection on my current thesis chapter and also given me greater confidence and expertise in dealing with my other source material. CONFERENCE BURSARY ‘Classics and the Other in Nineteenth-Century Travels to the Orient’ Association des Études Françaises et Francophones d’Irlande Annual Conference, Orléans, 26–28 October 2017 Sarah Budasz (University of Durham) My paper at the conference of the Association des Études Françaises et Francophones d'Irlande (ADEFFI) explored how Classics framed the ways in which French travellers apprehended their encounters with the oriental Other. It also demonstrated how Classics could be used to reinforce Western imperialism while at the same time representing a heterogeneous voice within colonial travel writings. The international conference focused on the theme of ‘writing mobility’ and was attended by researchers from a wide range of disciplines (history, literature, cinema, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy and politics). One particularly strong panel entitled ‘famille, parenté et exil’ investigated the impact of mobility on the representation of filiations and identity by contemporary francophone writers such as Leila Sebbar, Amin Maalouf and Doan Bui. There was in addition an exciting selection of invited speakers and artists. The sculptress Christine Deville presented her work, focusing particularly on steles from a series dedicated to homeless people in Orléans. Author Marcos Eymar presented his novel Hendaye (2015), and discussed some of the challenges of translating the dialect fragnol (a code-switching practice of blending French and Spanish, usually by Spanish migrants in France), featured in the novel. There was also a public viewing of the documentary film La Mécanique des Flux (2016), a reflection on the Mediterranean migration crisis. Discussion with the filmmaker Nathalie Loubèyre the following day was particularly engaging, and highlighted the topicality of the conference theme. This nineteenth ADEFFI conference was a valuable experience, showcasing a rich variety of approaches to the theme of mobility. Despite a focus on contemporary subjects, I found the discussions with scholars working on other periods and disciplines extremely valuable, not only for my paper but also for my thesis as a whole. VISITING SCHOLARSHIP Alison M. Moore at Birkbeck, University of London, September–December 2017 I am most grateful to the SSFH for supporting my research in the UK on a new project, ‘A History of Ageing Libido’. The grant enabled archival research at the Wellcome Library, as well as a number of public seminars based on the project. These included ‘French Medical Thought on Menopause in the Nineteenth Century’ at the Birkbeck School of History, Classics and Archaeology; ‘Morbid Love: A Transient Mental Illness that Became Defunct’ at the Birkbeck Institute for Gender and Sexuality Studies; ‘Menopause Myths’ at the Critical Sexology Inter-Institutional seminar at Queen Mary, University of London, and ‘Rethinking Homology and Analogy of the Sexes in the History of Sexuality’ at the Institute for Historical Research. As a result of this research activity I have now published ‘L’Amour morbide: how a transient mental illness became defunct’ in the Intellectual History Review, and I have a second journal article under consideration. I am very grateful for this Visiting Scholarship, which proved stimulating for the development of my research and provided many opportunities for collegial exchange. SSFH CONFERENCE 32nd Annual Conference: ‘Political Economy and Cultures of Inequality’ University of Warwick 9–10 July 2018 Organizers: Pierre Purseigle, Penny Roberts and Charles Walton Public concerns about inequality have grown in recent years. They do so at a time when historians are turning their attention increasingly to political economy. Thomas Piketty’s Le Capital au XXI siècle (2013) has been especially influential in sparking debates on the history of inequality and political economy, and it is to these debates that this conference seeks to contribute. How have political and economic cultures come together to create, reinforce or contest inequality? How has inequality been conceptualized in France and the francophone world? And what impact have wealth inequalities had on politics and culture? In addition to papers on these themes, there will also be papers and panels on a wide range of topics in French history from the early medieval to the contemporary periods. Invited speakers include: Marie-Emmanuelle Chessel (Sciences Po), Jackie Clarke (University of Glasgow) and Michael Kwass (Johns Hopkins University). There will also be a round table on the conference theme, a special panel in honour of seiziémiste Mack Holt and another in memory of Richard Bonney, one of the founding members of the Society and its journal. Further details are available from the SSFH website: http://frenchhistorysociety.co.uk/conference.htm STUDIES IN MODERN FRENCH HISTORY This series, published by MUP in collaboration with the Society for the Study of French History, aims to showcase innovative monographs relating to the history of the French, in France and in the world since c.1750. Each volume speaks to a theme in the history of France with broader resonances to other discourses about the past. Authors demonstrate how the sources and interpretations of modern French history are being opened to historical investigation in new and interesting ways, and how unfamiliar subjects have the capacity to tell us more about the role of France within the European continent. The series is particularly open to interdisciplinary studies that break down traditional boundaries and conventional disciplinary divisions. Members of the Society for the Study of French History are entitled to a 35% discount on orders for personal use on all Studies in Modern French History series titles. Recent and forthcoming titles include: Catholicism and Children’s Literature in France: The Comtesse de Ségur (1799–1874) Sophie Heywood ISBN 9780719084669 Aristocratic Families in Republican France, 1870–1940 Elizabeth C. MacKnight ISBN 9780719085017 The Routes to Exile: France and the Spanish Civil War Refugees, 1939–2009 Scott Soo ISBN 9780719086915 Émile and Isaac Pereire: Bankers, Socialists and Sephardic Jews in Nineteenth-Century France Helen M. Davies ISBN 9780719089237 The Republican Line: Caricature and French Republican Identity, 1830–52 Laura O’Brien ISBN 9780719089350 From Empire to Exile: History and Memory within the Pied-Noir and Harki Communities, 1962–2012(Winner of the 2017 RHS Gladstone Prize) Claire Eldridge ISBN 9780719087233 Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being: The Search for a Republican Morality Jonathan Smyth ISBN 9781526103789 Terror and Terroir: The Winegrowers of the Languedoc and Modern France Andrew W. M. Smith ISBN 9781784994358 The Stadium Century: Sport, Spectatorship and Mass Society in Modern France Robert W. Lewis ISBN 9781526106261 In Pursuit of Politics: Education and Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France Adrian O’Connor ISBN 9781526120564 Nobility and Patrimony in Modern France Elizabeth C. Macknight ISBN 9781526120519 Series editors: Professor Máire Cross (University of Newcastle): m.f.cross@newcastle.ac.uk Dr David Hopkin (University of Oxford): david.hopkin@history.ac.uk © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of French History. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png French History Oxford University Press

SSFH SOCIETY NEWS

French History , Volume 32 (1) – Mar 1, 2018

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Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of French History. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
ISSN
0269-1191
eISSN
1477-4542
D.O.I.
10.1093/fh/crx097
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Abstract

Abstract The Society for the Study of French History (SSFH) supports postgraduate research by funding students to carry out archival research as well as helping them to attend and/or present work at conferences. These awards are open to all postgraduate students registered at a UK university who are carrying out research on an aspect of French history, and reports from successful applicants clearly indicate the tremendous range of research interests supported by the Society. The Society also supports conferences on French history as well as Visiting Scholars to UK and Irish Universities. In this edition we present three reports from Postgraduate Research Grants, one from a Conference Bursary, and one from a Visiting Scholar Grant. The edition also includes details on the Society’s annual conference and Studies in French History series with MUP. More information on the postgraduate awards (and on the full range of bursaries and prizes offered by the SSFH) is available from the Society’s website: www.frenchhistorysociety.ac.uk. POSTGRADUATE RESEARCH GRANTS ‘Un Génie audacieux’: La Bourdonnais and his Colonial Policy in the Mascarene Islands Shyam Sridar (University of St Andrews) My M.Litt. dissertation explores the colonial policy of Mahé de La Bourdonnais, governor of the French Mascarene Islands from 1735 to 1748, and I focus particularly on his goals for France and the French East India Company during this period. Thanks to a month-long research trip to France I was able to demonstrate that his colonial policy was both intricately formulated and clearly executed. I therefore portray him as an expert strategist, revealing a previously unexplored facet of his character. In a wider historiographical context, my research engages with debates on strategic thought and personal agency in the early modern colonial world. The first week of my research trip was spent in Paris, where I explored relevant collections in the Archives nationales, notably the Archives de la Marine. Three further weeks were spent at the Archives nationales d’outre-mer in Aix-en-Provence, which provided most of the material for my dissertation. Especially valuable were La Bourdonnais’ correspondence and the records of his private investments in the Archives d’entreprise. While in Aix I also had the chance to attend the forty-third annual meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society, and the insightful discussions with other participants shaped many of the ideas in my dissertation. I would like to thank the Society wholeheartedly for its financial support, without which the breadth of archival research necessary for this project would not have been possible. Democracy and Representation in the French Revolution, 1789–1799 Minchul Kim (University of St Andrews) The rise of the notion of democracy as a legitimating principle of political regimes is in many ways a distinctly modern phenomenon. During the eighteenth century democracy was no more than a marginal force, denounced as a chimerical form of government unfit for passionate human beings living in large and modern commercial states. Focusing on this period, my doctoral thesis examines the concept of ‘representative democracy’ during the French Revolution, and particularly under the Directory (1795–1799). Then the term was an oxymoron — a neologism strategically coined by radical democrats at a time when ‘representative government’ and ‘democracy’ were understood to be diametrically opposed. My thesis places the democrats’ political thought in different but concurrent contexts. First is the rapidly changing political, economic and international situation of the French First Republic at war. Second is the anxiety about democratic decline that derived from a well-established intellectual tradition, according to which Greek and Roman history had already proved democracy to be a harbinger of anarchy, despotism and military government. (Indeed, this had long inspired a fear of popular politics in France, as elsewhere in Europe.) Building on both political and intellectual histories of the eighteenth century and French Revolution, my thesis explores the continuity between the two periods as evident in texts produced by the historical actors themselves. Using this understanding, I reinterpret the rupture of 1789 and seek to challenge categorizations that might seem facile, anachronistic or teleological. The central axis of examination is the opposition between the notion of ‘representative government’ (which defined a modern republic based on a firm rejection of what the contemporaries understood to be ‘democratic’ politics), and the idea of ‘representative democracy’ (which proposed a vision of radical democracy based on the dynamics of popular education, press freedom, universal manhood suffrage, and an egalitarian and industrious political economy). With the support of the SSFH grant I spent a month in Paris, devoting most of my time to the Archives nationales at Pierrefitte and the Bibliothèque nationale de France (François-Mitterrand). Here I consulted the administrative documents of the Directory and the debates of the two legislative Councils, as well as the correspondence, pamphlets, newspapers and treatises of journalists, politicians, activists, priests and philosophers of the period. I was able to confirm or reject the various hypotheses in my thesis, and equally to make forays into the early nineteenth century—on which I plan to conduct later projects. I am very grateful to the SSFH for enabling my consultation of these additional sources, which both enriched and completed my thesis and have also inspired my future research. Militarized Cities? Housing and Garrisoning the French Empire’s Troops in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy Vittoria Princi (University of Oxford) The majority of primary sources for my thesis—a study of barracks and military housing issues in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy—are located in Italian archives. Yet, given the close and lengthy relationship between France and this satellite state, integrating these sources with the material in Parisian archives is essential to the development of a more complete picture. I am extremely grateful for the SSFH grant that made such a research trip possible. During my time in Paris I chose to focus on the Service historique de la Défense at the Archives de Vincennes. Here I accessed documents regarding the Armée d’Italie, of special relevance to the chapter of my thesis that examines matters of logistics and troop transits. Indeed, these archives include detailed itineraries for the marches of French military units across Italy, as well as to and from France, Austria, Germany and the Illyrian Provinces. They also cover the main campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars in this area of Europe. Studying the administrative correspondence of the French authorities allowed a better reconstruction of the chain of command running from the Armée d’Italie’s headquarters to the Italian authorities (the latter received notifications of the troops’ itineraries and were tasked with providing for their temporary housing). Furthermore, the documents gave useful data on administrative personnel such as commissaries of war, and clarified their roles in documents I had previously viewed in Italy. In addition to archival work, my Parisian trip also enabled me to attend the conference ‘“Je suis Charlemagne”: Napoléon et les archives du “Grand Empire”’. This offered a detailed perspective on current French historiography of the Napoleonic era, and I found interesting food for thought in talks by Jean-François Brun on army logistics and Gildas Lepetit on the Gendarmerie in Spain. Overall, this was a positive first experience of the Napoleonic archives in Paris, and one that has stimulated valuable reflection on my current thesis chapter and also given me greater confidence and expertise in dealing with my other source material. CONFERENCE BURSARY ‘Classics and the Other in Nineteenth-Century Travels to the Orient’ Association des Études Françaises et Francophones d’Irlande Annual Conference, Orléans, 26–28 October 2017 Sarah Budasz (University of Durham) My paper at the conference of the Association des Études Françaises et Francophones d'Irlande (ADEFFI) explored how Classics framed the ways in which French travellers apprehended their encounters with the oriental Other. It also demonstrated how Classics could be used to reinforce Western imperialism while at the same time representing a heterogeneous voice within colonial travel writings. The international conference focused on the theme of ‘writing mobility’ and was attended by researchers from a wide range of disciplines (history, literature, cinema, anthropology, linguistics, philosophy and politics). One particularly strong panel entitled ‘famille, parenté et exil’ investigated the impact of mobility on the representation of filiations and identity by contemporary francophone writers such as Leila Sebbar, Amin Maalouf and Doan Bui. There was in addition an exciting selection of invited speakers and artists. The sculptress Christine Deville presented her work, focusing particularly on steles from a series dedicated to homeless people in Orléans. Author Marcos Eymar presented his novel Hendaye (2015), and discussed some of the challenges of translating the dialect fragnol (a code-switching practice of blending French and Spanish, usually by Spanish migrants in France), featured in the novel. There was also a public viewing of the documentary film La Mécanique des Flux (2016), a reflection on the Mediterranean migration crisis. Discussion with the filmmaker Nathalie Loubèyre the following day was particularly engaging, and highlighted the topicality of the conference theme. This nineteenth ADEFFI conference was a valuable experience, showcasing a rich variety of approaches to the theme of mobility. Despite a focus on contemporary subjects, I found the discussions with scholars working on other periods and disciplines extremely valuable, not only for my paper but also for my thesis as a whole. VISITING SCHOLARSHIP Alison M. Moore at Birkbeck, University of London, September–December 2017 I am most grateful to the SSFH for supporting my research in the UK on a new project, ‘A History of Ageing Libido’. The grant enabled archival research at the Wellcome Library, as well as a number of public seminars based on the project. These included ‘French Medical Thought on Menopause in the Nineteenth Century’ at the Birkbeck School of History, Classics and Archaeology; ‘Morbid Love: A Transient Mental Illness that Became Defunct’ at the Birkbeck Institute for Gender and Sexuality Studies; ‘Menopause Myths’ at the Critical Sexology Inter-Institutional seminar at Queen Mary, University of London, and ‘Rethinking Homology and Analogy of the Sexes in the History of Sexuality’ at the Institute for Historical Research. As a result of this research activity I have now published ‘L’Amour morbide: how a transient mental illness became defunct’ in the Intellectual History Review, and I have a second journal article under consideration. I am very grateful for this Visiting Scholarship, which proved stimulating for the development of my research and provided many opportunities for collegial exchange. SSFH CONFERENCE 32nd Annual Conference: ‘Political Economy and Cultures of Inequality’ University of Warwick 9–10 July 2018 Organizers: Pierre Purseigle, Penny Roberts and Charles Walton Public concerns about inequality have grown in recent years. They do so at a time when historians are turning their attention increasingly to political economy. Thomas Piketty’s Le Capital au XXI siècle (2013) has been especially influential in sparking debates on the history of inequality and political economy, and it is to these debates that this conference seeks to contribute. How have political and economic cultures come together to create, reinforce or contest inequality? How has inequality been conceptualized in France and the francophone world? And what impact have wealth inequalities had on politics and culture? In addition to papers on these themes, there will also be papers and panels on a wide range of topics in French history from the early medieval to the contemporary periods. Invited speakers include: Marie-Emmanuelle Chessel (Sciences Po), Jackie Clarke (University of Glasgow) and Michael Kwass (Johns Hopkins University). There will also be a round table on the conference theme, a special panel in honour of seiziémiste Mack Holt and another in memory of Richard Bonney, one of the founding members of the Society and its journal. Further details are available from the SSFH website: http://frenchhistorysociety.co.uk/conference.htm STUDIES IN MODERN FRENCH HISTORY This series, published by MUP in collaboration with the Society for the Study of French History, aims to showcase innovative monographs relating to the history of the French, in France and in the world since c.1750. Each volume speaks to a theme in the history of France with broader resonances to other discourses about the past. Authors demonstrate how the sources and interpretations of modern French history are being opened to historical investigation in new and interesting ways, and how unfamiliar subjects have the capacity to tell us more about the role of France within the European continent. The series is particularly open to interdisciplinary studies that break down traditional boundaries and conventional disciplinary divisions. Members of the Society for the Study of French History are entitled to a 35% discount on orders for personal use on all Studies in Modern French History series titles. Recent and forthcoming titles include: Catholicism and Children’s Literature in France: The Comtesse de Ségur (1799–1874) Sophie Heywood ISBN 9780719084669 Aristocratic Families in Republican France, 1870–1940 Elizabeth C. MacKnight ISBN 9780719085017 The Routes to Exile: France and the Spanish Civil War Refugees, 1939–2009 Scott Soo ISBN 9780719086915 Émile and Isaac Pereire: Bankers, Socialists and Sephardic Jews in Nineteenth-Century France Helen M. Davies ISBN 9780719089237 The Republican Line: Caricature and French Republican Identity, 1830–52 Laura O’Brien ISBN 9780719089350 From Empire to Exile: History and Memory within the Pied-Noir and Harki Communities, 1962–2012(Winner of the 2017 RHS Gladstone Prize) Claire Eldridge ISBN 9780719087233 Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being: The Search for a Republican Morality Jonathan Smyth ISBN 9781526103789 Terror and Terroir: The Winegrowers of the Languedoc and Modern France Andrew W. M. Smith ISBN 9781784994358 The Stadium Century: Sport, Spectatorship and Mass Society in Modern France Robert W. Lewis ISBN 9781526106261 In Pursuit of Politics: Education and Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France Adrian O’Connor ISBN 9781526120564 Nobility and Patrimony in Modern France Elizabeth C. Macknight ISBN 9781526120519 Series editors: Professor Máire Cross (University of Newcastle): m.f.cross@newcastle.ac.uk Dr David Hopkin (University of Oxford): david.hopkin@history.ac.uk © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of French History. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Journal

French HistoryOxford University Press

Published: Mar 1, 2018

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