AbstractOBJECTIVEThe current prognosis for patients with malignant brain tumors remains poor, and new therapeutic options are urgently needed. We previously have shown that prolongation of survival can be achieved in C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) with a syngeneic intracerebral or subcutaneous glioma when treated with allogeneic mouse fibroblasts (H-2k) genetically engineered to secrete interleukin-2 (IL-2). Like other antigens, tumor-associated antigens are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the context of determinants specified by the major histocompatibility complex class I locus. Because the rejection of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex determinants has the property of an immune adjuvant, immunotherapy of glioma with a cellular immunogen that combines the expression of both syngeneic class I determinants and allogeneic antigens could have advantages over an immunogen that expresses syngeneic or allogeneic determinants alone.METHODSTo investigate this question in a mouse glioma model, we further modified allogeneic mouse fibroblasts (H-2k), not only for IL-2 secretion, but also for the expression of H-2Kb class I determinants. We tested the immunotherapeutic properties of these semiallogeneic cells (LM-IL-2/H-2Kb) in C57BL/6 mice with GI261 glioma in both subcutaneous and intracerebral glioma modelsRESULTSC57BL/6 mice with either a subcutaneous or intracerebral glioma treated solely by injection of these IL-2-secreting semiallogeneic cells had significantly prolonged survival rates compared with untreated mice or mice treated with cells secreting only IL-2 or cells lacking the H-2Kb determinants. In some instances, the mice treated with the semiallogeneic cells survived indefinitely, suggesting total eradication of the glioma. When a 51Cr release assay was used, the specific immunocytotoxicity measured by release of isotopes from labeled GI261 glioma cells coincubated with spleen cells from mice immunized with the semiallogeneic IL-2-secreting cells was significantly higher than that of spleen cells from nonimmunized mice or mice immunized with allogeneic cells lacking syngeneic major histocompatibility complex determinants. In addition, antibody depletion studies using monoclonal antibodies against CD8+ and natural killer/lymphokine-activated killer cells demonstrated a specific CD8+ immunocytotoxic response in animals immunized with the semiallogeneic IL-2-secreting cells compared Withh only a natural killer/lymphokine-activated killer response in mice immunized with the allogeneic IL-2-secreting cells.CONCLUSIONThe augmented immune response against glioma in mice treated with the semiallogeneic IL-2- secreting cells points toward a new form of immunotherapy, “immuno-gene therapy,” for patients with malignant intracerebral glioma.
Neurosurgery – Oxford University Press
Published: Oct 1, 1999
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