1048 The Journal of American History March 2018 61). Neiberg pushes the evidence beyond what and Mexican War veteran whose character was it can possibly reveal. The story of American hardly formed by then eight months of Civil intervention in 1917 lies in the purposes of War. More prewar generation than not, Casey numerous, discrete actors who chose war and nonetheless updated Hardee’s manual in part helped remake a nation. to answer regulars’, volunteers’, and militias’ demands for clarity in brigade-level drill ex - Richard Gamble ecution. Casey exemplifies a prewar genera - Hillsdale College tion officer responding to the Civil War gen - Hillsdale, Michigan eration’s concern; they were not “talking past doi: 10.1093/jahist/jax498 each other.” Clark argues that generational friction was Preparing for War: The Emergence of the Mod - specifically evident during the service upheav - ern U.S. Army, 1815–1917. By J. P. Clark. als of 1861 and 1898. He suggests that the (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2017. two years represent identifiable markers where xiv, 336 pp. $39.95.) generationally dissimilar officers collided over the trajectory of War Department policy Preparing for War, by J. P. Clark, employs a and pace of change. But Clark’s generational “generational lens” to explain complex U.S. groupings are problematic. While he claims Army transformation initiatives from th -e Civ that each had a “distinct character,” the core il War to World War I (p. x). Clark contends beliefs that distinguish one from another are that a generationally disparate officer corps not defined (p. 5). That his generations less quarreled for years over how to progress. To the Progressives lacked a “single set of views” the author, three “natural generations -” of of acknowledges the dubiousness of classifying ficers dominated the era—people ending their people by war participation alone (pp. 5–6). service before the Civil War, persons shaped Remarkably, the author fails to identify how by the war itself, and individuals who entered many officers comprised each generation, the the service afterward (p. 6). These generations number who advocated army transformation, not only were characterized by wartim - e ex and what this means empirically. We are left to perience but were also affected by America’s ponder selected period-specific personal vie - w transformation from agriculture dominance points without adequate justification as to why to industrialization. A fourth “progressive an author exemplified a particular generation’s generation,” which Clark approximates to stance. 1889, carried forward into World W ibi ar I ( d.). Clark unsurprisingly finds that certain Because each group was unique in outlook, “forces” pulled the army’s leadership along the contesting factions often clashed over how to road to reform (p. 276). Indeed, top- driv en prepare the service for war. When generations pressure changed the War Department far overlapped, disagreeing officers were prone to more than a few officers opining within the “talk past each other, not realizing th-eir dif chain of command. Clark’s contribution is r - e ferent views,” while provoking “confusion, stating the conventional narrative in a clever discord, and mistrust” (p. xi). way, albeit with overreached analysis. Harvard Clark’s generational methodology echoes University Press’s failure to allow for a bibliog - Judith Hicks StiehmThe G ’s enerations of U.S. raphy is disappointing. Enlisted Women (1985). Although his topic is as much military sociology as history, her Walter Kretchik work is uncited. This oversight raises questions Western Illinois University about Clark’s research fastidiousness while fur - Macomb, Illinois ther accentuating his glaring omission of the doi: 10.1093/jahist/jax499 War Department’s replacement of the 1855 William Hardee infantry drill manual with Silas Casey’s version in January 1862. At the Pershing’s Crusaders: The American Soldier in time, Casey was a fifty-four-year-old Seminole World War I. By Richard S. Faulkne (rL . aw- Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jah/article-abstract/104/4/1048/4932676 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 March 2018
The Journal of American History – Oxford University Press
Published: Mar 1, 2018
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