Changes in the intracellular thiol–disulfide balance are considered major determinants in the redox status/signaling of the cell. Cellular signaling is very sensitive to both exogenous and intracellular redox status and respond to many exogenous pro-oxidative or oxidative stresses. Redox status has dual effects on upstream signaling systems and downstream transcription factors. Redox signaling pathways use reactive oxygen species (ROS) to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate such functions as growth, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated by numerous cellular stresses and ligand-receptor bindings. An imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system, either resulting from excessive ROS/reactive nitrogen species production and/or antioxidant system impairment, leads to oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is known to play a critical role in the cellular defense against unregulated oxidative stress in mammalian cells and involvement of large molecular antioxidants include classical antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). Cadmium (Cd), a potent toxic heavy metal, is a widespread environmental contaminant. It is known to cause renal dysfunction, hepatic toxicity, genotoxicity, and apoptotic effects depending on the dose, route, and duration of exposure. This review examines the signaling pathways and mechanisms of activation of transcription factors by Cd-induced oxidative stress thus representing an important basis for understanding the mechanisms of Cd effect on the cells.
Toxicological Sciences – Oxford University Press
Published: Mar 1, 2017
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