NEWS & v IEWS Neutron star merger: the gift that keeps on giving of the radio signal, astronomers out some of the third group of c ocoon may explain Merger tests at Caltech and Tel Aviv Univer- theories, those using a scalar e fi ld brightening cosmological theories sity suggested that the jets gather coupled to gravity. The simplest up the expanding shell of debris ideas t fi the data best, although ASTROPhy SIcS The neutron star into a broad region they called a c OSMOLOGy The detection of others remain possible: massive merger observed in gravita- cocoon. This would absorb some gravitational and electromag- gravity, for example, works only tional waves on 17 August 2017 radiation, but both the radio and netic waves from GW170817 has if the graviton mass is very low. (GW170817) was also picked up the X-ray signal would brighten already ruled out some types of “I’m really excited for the in electromagnetic radiation. after the event. By December 2017, cosmological theory. coming years,” said Miguel The evolution of the EM signal is data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray The accelerating expansion Zumalacárregui of the Lawrence already uncovering processes in Observatory showed a matching of the universe is a challenge Berkeley National Laboratory the aftermath of the merger. brightening. “It was very exciting for general relativity. Theories and UC Berkeley. “Maybe we The radio signal brightened in to see our prediction confirmed,” account for it with a simple cos- have under estimated some the months after its detection on said Gregg Hallinan of Caltech. mological constant (dark energy), events, or something is unac- 2 September at the Karl G Jansky “An important implication is that a dynamical cosmological con- counted for that we’ll need to Very Large Array. If the neutron we should be able to see many stant or a change in the behaviour revise the standard cosmology star merger was the sort of event more of these collisions by detect- of gravity at large scales. A paper of the universe.” These data thought to form gamma-ray ing their electromagnetic, not just in Physical Review Letters sug- were published by Ezquiaga bursts, the high energy part of their gravitational, waves.” Kunal gests that the near-simultaneous and Zumalacárregui in PRL in the signal would be expected to Mooley et al. reported in Nature. arrival of the gravitational and December 2017. fade. But it did not. On the basis http://go.nature.com/2EBwxpO electromagnetic signals rules http://bit.ly/2qbQQad v IEWS received many emails raising various year of Merneptah was in the range were preparing for roost. The appear- Moon village: show questions and we welcome this 1210–1207 BC. The date we give in ance was that of early morning; but us the money opportunity to respond to the main our paper is 1210/1209 ± 1 year. Hence the general hue to the naked eye, at questions asked and also to provide our date is consistent with results the greatest observation, was that of LETTER From David Nixon some important new information. from radio carbon dating, enabling us a pale, sickly green” (Clarke 1851). Jan Wörner has been proposing his ● The “new chronology” of ancient to ren fi e this date range signic fi antly. ● After our paper was published in idea for a Moon village (Crawford I Egypt given by David Rohl and col- ● The account in the book of Joshua A&G, we were contacted by Dr Dan- 2017 Astron. & Geophys. 58 6.18) ever leagues is very plausible and have we suggests that the hours of daylight iel Vainstub of Ben Gurion University since he took the helm as director not ruled this out without giving it were prolonged until his forces had to say that he and his colleagues had general at ESA. It has been falling proper consideration? As stated in our completed their victory; would not a published an article in Hebrew, with on deaf ears. Until he backs up his paper, this new chronology (Rohl solar eclipse have lessened these hours? an English abstract, on the same vision with some hard cash to kick- 1995) gives the date of the fifth year The text of Joshua states: “The Sun annular solar eclipse interpretation of start some mission studies, his idea of the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh did not hurry to set for about a whole the Joshua text. This was published will sink into the pile of plans, reports, Merneptah as 867 BC. This is in stark day.” The Hebrew text can also mean in the Hebrew language journal Beit studies and assorted visions on contrast to the results of radio carbon “as on a whole day” (Prof. Alan Mil- Mikra (Yizhaq et al. 2016). Our work human space exploration that began dating which indicate, with 95% lard, private communication). As we was performed independently of with the US National Commission on probability, that year 1 of the reign noted in our paper, at the maximum theirs; our lead author sent an email Space’s Pioneering the Space Frontier of Merneptah lies somewhere in the of the annular eclipse the light level to an expert in ancient Hebrew, report in 1986 and is probably now range 1231–1207 BC (Bronk Ramsey et on the ground would have fallen to Prof. Millard, dated 19 January 2016, large enough to fill the Albert Hall. al. 2010). Thus it is extremely unlikely that normally experienced around which, with regard to Joshua and the If, as a result of the recent amend- that his fifth year was in 867 BC. dusk. The Israelite forces must have Sun apparently standing still, stated: ment to US National Space Policy, ● Could we explain more clearly how thought that the day was ending and “I think I have a solution to this well- the Moon is in vogue again as the we can date precisely the reigns of their victory was not yet complete. known puzzle, which fits amazingly next big destination, then I urge Mr pharaohs Ramesses II and his son But as the eclipse maximum passed, well and gives a sensible date.” It is Wörner to get on with it. Meanwhile, Merneptah using the solar eclipse of the illumination on the ground good to have these two independ- ISS carries on quietly in orbit doing 1207 BC? The Merneptah Stele, which recovered before dusk returned ent analyses of the Joshua text really good research with the clock states that it was erected in his year and the Sun set. This double-dusk which both deduce that Joshua and ticking towards the end of its mission 5, says that he conquered the people event would have seemed like a the Israelites in Canaan witnessed in 2024. It’s a question of priorities. Mr of Israel in Canaan; Kitchen (2006) lengthening of the day. We may well a major celestial event: the annular Wörner needs to get a grip on what convincingly argues that this has to expect this circumstance to have solar eclipse of 30 October 1207 BC. these are. be in his year 2–4. The postulated been ree fl cted in the behaviour of Colin Humphreys, Univ. of Cambridge; David Nixon, Ville-sur-Jarnioux, France link with the solar eclipse of 1207 BC birds and animals. Such ee ff cts are Graeme Waddington, North Oxford. indicates that Joshua probably led commonly noticed at total eclipses, Illuminating theory the Israelites into Canaan earlier that but have also been noted at annular REFERENc ES same year (Humphreys & Wadding- eclipses having less obscuration than Bronk Ramsay C et al. 2010 Science 328 1994 on early solar eclipse ton 2017). If Israel entered Canaan that of 1207 BC. For instance, the Clarke Revd W B 1851 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. LETTER From Colin Humphreys and in 1207 BC then this is the earlier annular eclipse of 1 February 1851 11 223 Humphreys C J & Waddington W G 2017 Astron. Graeme Waddington possible date for Merneptah to have seen from Parramata had a maxi- & Geophys. 58 5.1 Our paper “Solar eclipse of 1207 BC defeated them. If this was in his year mum surface obscuration of 82% and Kitchen K A 2006 On the Reliability of the Old helps to date pharaohs” (Hum- 4, the earliest possible date for his it was noted that “Mr Clarke fancied Testament (Eerdmans) phreys & Waddington 2017) has had year 1 was 1210 BC. The latest possible that the cattle seemed ae ff cted by Rohl D 1995 A Test of Time (Century), Pharaohs and considerable global news cover- date for his year 1, from radio carbon the diminution of light, and he was Kings (Crown) age. A&G and ourselves have also dating, was 1207 BC. Hence the first informed that fowls in some places Yizhaq H et al. 2016 Beit Mikra 61.2 196 1.8 A&G • February 2018 • Vol. 59 • aandg.org Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article-abstract/59/1/1.8/4804283 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 March 2018
Astronomy & Geophysics – Oxford University Press
Published: Feb 1, 2018
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