Mach wave properties in the presence of source and medium heterogeneity

Mach wave properties in the presence of source and medium heterogeneity Summary We investigate Mach wave coherence for kinematic supershear ruptures with spatially heterogeneous source parameters, embedded in 3D scattering media. We assess Mach wave coherence considering: 1) source heterogeneities in terms of variations in slip, rise time and rupture speed; 2) small-scale heterogeneities in Earth structure, parameterized from combinations of three correlation lengths and two standard deviations (assuming von Karman power spectral density with fixed Hurst exponent); and 3) joint effects of source and medium heterogeneities. Ground-motion simulations are conducted using a generalized finite-difference method, choosing a parameterization such that the highest resolved frequency is ∼5 Hz. We discover that Mach wave coherence is slightly diminished at near fault distances (< 10 km) due to spatially variable slip and rise time; beyond this distance the Mach wave coherence is more strongly reduced by wavefield scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in Earth structure. Based on our numerical simulations and theoretical considerations we demonstrate that the standard deviation of medium heterogeneities controls the wavefield scattering, rather than the correlation length. In addition, we find that peak ground accelerations in the case of combined source and medium heterogeneities are consistent with empirical ground motion prediction equations for all distances, suggesting that in nature ground shaking amplitudes for supershear ruptures may not be elevated due to complexities in the rupture process and seismic wave-scattering. Mach wave, Kinematic rupture, 3D scattering media, Ground motion prediction equations © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geophysical Journal International Oxford University Press

Mach wave properties in the presence of source and medium heterogeneity

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.
ISSN
0956-540X
eISSN
1365-246X
D.O.I.
10.1093/gji/ggy219
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary We investigate Mach wave coherence for kinematic supershear ruptures with spatially heterogeneous source parameters, embedded in 3D scattering media. We assess Mach wave coherence considering: 1) source heterogeneities in terms of variations in slip, rise time and rupture speed; 2) small-scale heterogeneities in Earth structure, parameterized from combinations of three correlation lengths and two standard deviations (assuming von Karman power spectral density with fixed Hurst exponent); and 3) joint effects of source and medium heterogeneities. Ground-motion simulations are conducted using a generalized finite-difference method, choosing a parameterization such that the highest resolved frequency is ∼5 Hz. We discover that Mach wave coherence is slightly diminished at near fault distances (< 10 km) due to spatially variable slip and rise time; beyond this distance the Mach wave coherence is more strongly reduced by wavefield scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in Earth structure. Based on our numerical simulations and theoretical considerations we demonstrate that the standard deviation of medium heterogeneities controls the wavefield scattering, rather than the correlation length. In addition, we find that peak ground accelerations in the case of combined source and medium heterogeneities are consistent with empirical ground motion prediction equations for all distances, suggesting that in nature ground shaking amplitudes for supershear ruptures may not be elevated due to complexities in the rupture process and seismic wave-scattering. Mach wave, Kinematic rupture, 3D scattering media, Ground motion prediction equations © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Journal

Geophysical Journal InternationalOxford University Press

Published: Jun 8, 2018

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