Lifespan Socioeconomic Context: Associations with Cognitive Functioning in Later Life

Lifespan Socioeconomic Context: Associations with Cognitive Functioning in Later Life Abstract Objectives Early socioeconomic status (SES) correlates with later-life cognition. However, the effect of socioeconomic context (SEC), which reflects influences from broader ecological contexts, has not been examined. The present study developed a measure of SEC using lifetime residential addresses and examined SEC and residential mobility effects on later-life cognition. Method Older adults (N=117, Mage=75) reported addresses since birth. Latent SEC was constructed from census income, employment, and education (1920-2010) for each county and census year, extrapolated between census years. Controlling for current SES, SEC in childhood (ages 0-18) and adulthood (ages 19-60), with finer granulations in young adulthood (ages 19-39) and midlife (ages 40-60), predicted later-life cognition. Effects of residential mobility on later-life cognition were also examined. Results Higher childhood and adulthood SEC were associated with better Auditory Verbal Learning Test recognition (β=.24, p=.012) and immediate recall (β=.26, p=.008). Higher midlife SEC was associated with faster task switching (β=.26, p=.025) and better task switching efficiency (β=.27, p=.022). Higher residential mobility in childhood was associated with higher crystallized intelligence (β=.194, p=.040). Discussion Independent of current SES, childhood and adulthood SEC predicted later-life cognition, which may be sensitive to effects of social institutions and environmental health. SEC assessed across the lifespan, and related residential mobility information, may be important complements to SES in predicting later-life cognitive health. socioeconomic, early life, memory, IQ, executive functions, development © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Oxford University Press

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
ISSN
1079-5014
eISSN
1758-5368
D.O.I.
10.1093/geronb/gby071
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objectives Early socioeconomic status (SES) correlates with later-life cognition. However, the effect of socioeconomic context (SEC), which reflects influences from broader ecological contexts, has not been examined. The present study developed a measure of SEC using lifetime residential addresses and examined SEC and residential mobility effects on later-life cognition. Method Older adults (N=117, Mage=75) reported addresses since birth. Latent SEC was constructed from census income, employment, and education (1920-2010) for each county and census year, extrapolated between census years. Controlling for current SES, SEC in childhood (ages 0-18) and adulthood (ages 19-60), with finer granulations in young adulthood (ages 19-39) and midlife (ages 40-60), predicted later-life cognition. Effects of residential mobility on later-life cognition were also examined. Results Higher childhood and adulthood SEC were associated with better Auditory Verbal Learning Test recognition (β=.24, p=.012) and immediate recall (β=.26, p=.008). Higher midlife SEC was associated with faster task switching (β=.26, p=.025) and better task switching efficiency (β=.27, p=.022). Higher residential mobility in childhood was associated with higher crystallized intelligence (β=.194, p=.040). Discussion Independent of current SES, childhood and adulthood SEC predicted later-life cognition, which may be sensitive to effects of social institutions and environmental health. SEC assessed across the lifespan, and related residential mobility information, may be important complements to SES in predicting later-life cognitive health. socioeconomic, early life, memory, IQ, executive functions, development © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Journal

The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social SciencesOxford University Press

Published: Jun 6, 2018

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