Irish Lexicography in Borrowed Time: The Recording of Anglo-Irish Borrowings in Early Twentieth-Century Irish Dictionaries (1904-1927)

Irish Lexicography in Borrowed Time: The Recording of Anglo-Irish Borrowings in Early... Abstract A borrowing, in its most basic linguistic sense, involves the transfer of a lexical item from one language to another. Due to an ever-increasing global interaction, borrowings are becoming a regular linguistic effect, but are potentially problematic for the preservation of the lexical structure of languages. This impact is particularly felt in the case of minority languages, such as Irish, which has been subject to borrowings from English for several centuries. Despite it being a familiar pattern, the introduction of English borrowings has significantly influenced the Irish language and played a contributory role in shaping its current format. A benchmark for measuring the true status of borrowings in a language is the accreditation afforded to them in lexicography. The listedness of a borrowing in a dictionary is a formal acceptance of its existence and recognition of its permanency in a new linguistic environment. Dictionaries also act as gatekeepers in maintaining the lexical originality of the language and reflect inherent opinions towards the acceptance of foreign terms. This paper looks at the treatment of English borrowings in the three foremost Irish dictionaries of the early twentieth-century: An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary] (1904) and (1927) by Patrick S. Dinneen and Lane's English-Irish Dictionary (1904) by Thomas O’Neill Lane. Both dictionaries offer a contrastive insight into the problem of recording English language items during a period synonymous with national renewal and a struggle for native linguistic identity. 1. Borrowings: Linguistic and Lexicographic Accreditation Language is a permeable object that is exposed to a variety of external influences that diachronically and synchronically alter its structure and content. This feature is advantageous in allowing a language to self-enrich and mature by expanding the lexical stock of the language through its interaction with non-indigenous phenomena. In the case of endangered or minority languages, such exposure is, to some degree, problematic, as it opens the channels of lexical influence that exert pressure on delicate linguistic structures. The permeability of language is closely aligned to its intolerance of lexical deficiencies, and a common mechanism to address an internal linguistic gap is to borrow a lexical item from another language, usually referred to as a borrowing or a loanword. A borrowing can be defined as the transition of a lexical item from one language to another through various stages of acceptance. This lexical transfer from a foreign to an indigenous language is, however, multifaceted and not constituted through immediate assimilation. Language is not an insular entity but an agreed social convention for a means of expression. Therefore, any lexical borrowing into a language requires both a linguistic and social acceptance within its community of use. Poplack and Sankoff (1984) delineate the procedural stages of one language importing a lexical item from another: (1) frequency of use, (2) native language synonym displacement, (3) morphophonemic and/or syntactic integration and (4) acceptability. An important factor in understanding the status of an imported lexical item in any language relates to its stability in the new linguistic environment. The process of lexical borrowing is not immediate, and this is a distinguishing feature between code-switching and borrowing. Code-switching results from an idiosyncratic choice by a speaker to use a lexical item from another language to address a lexical gap or an unknown concept for communication purposes. A borrowing, on the other hand, gains a more consolidated position in its new language framework, and over time passes through various stages of assimilation. As Poplack and Sankoff (1984) note, this process of integration is unclear, and does not appear to follow a defined systematic order. Initially, the rationale for any borrowing is to exist as a lexical filler but in some cases borrowings can co-exist alongside indigenous lexical items, and their long-term fossilisation leads to their replacement of the native synonym. However, language also displays characteristics of ageing, and so imported words, at some point, are no longer considered as transient terms, but as recognised borrowings. Haugen (1956) elaborates on how the conventionalisation of a borrowing can be delayed by the bilingual nature of the speaker, who being aware of the original term may subsequently delay its complete immersion into a language. Upon immersion into the language, the borrowed item starts to adjust itself to the syntactic, morphological and phonemic parameters of its new environment. This adaptation is a multi-factorial process due to the asymmetrical grammatical features of different languages. Irish is a particularly rich source of these transformations as the continual flow of anglicised terms into the language underwent various adjustments to fit into the lexical and grammatical parameters of the language. Doyle (2015) highlights the influence of English words in shaping the lexical and phonetic structure of borrowings into Irish. For example, he notes in the case of the Irish word séipéal (chapel), the absence of the [tʃ] phoneme in Irish led to the use of a hybrid lexico-phonemic unit [sé] to achieve the closest possible phonetic match to the English [tʃ] sound. The final stage in a borrowing achieving permanency in another language is validated by its universal acceptance by both the language community in which it is used, and its adherence to the linguistic structures governing that language. Its acceptance is determined by the degree of alignment between the sociological and linguistic factors that condition the acceptability of the borrowed item. Any imbalance in either category will delay or potentially prevent the borrowing from being fully integrated into its new lexicon. Alongside the internal factors of a language that combine to validate a borrowing, an external validation is also achieved through its lemmatisation in a dictionary. According to Filipovic (1988:342), lexicography was a catalyst for an increased interest in the presence of foreign language elements in another language; he adds: The study of foreign language elements in European languages began with the growth of interest in lexicography among European linguists. The compilation of dictionaries of various European languages and the determination of certain words marks the beginning of the study of languages in contact. The listedness of a lexical item by itself demonstrates its arrival at the terminal state of the process mentioned by Poplack and Sankoff (1984), but also confirms it as being an accepted cultural and linguistic component of a language. This level of recording officialises the borrowing; consolidating its status as having attained a frequency of attested use and socio-linguistic acceptance. Similar to entering their new lexicon, the speed of the lexicographical admission of a borrowing may vary depending on its degree of lexicogrammatical assimilation into the native language structure. For example, borrowings that require only phonetic adjustments are likely to be listed sooner than those that exist alongside an equivalent native term. This is a particularly acute decision for compilers of minority language dictionaries who seek to both preserve the original lexical elements of the language as well as demonstrate its maturity of interaction with other languages and unfamiliar phenomena. Thus, the dictionary compiler is presented with a dilemma in providing an authoritative account of their language: record the original, but decreasingly used, lexical features of the minority language or facilitate the continual flow of borrowings that endanger its long-term status and erode both its culture and identity. 2. Borrowings in Irish: An Overview The Irish language has been heavily characterised by its accession of borrowings over the last 800 years. Dating from its earliest existence in the sixth century, Irish passed through two phases in which it remained relatively untouched in terms of its influence by other languages: the first period of Old Irish (600-900 AD) and then the second of Middle Irish (900-1200 AD). It was not until between 1200 and 1500 that evidence of borrowings in Irish became apparent; a change which came about due to the Anglo-Norman invasion in 1169. In this period, Early Modern Irish (EMI) reflected the political and social dynamic of the country through the accession of hundreds of new lexical items from English and Norman French, many of which are part of the language today. At the outset, borrowings were predominantly names and terms belonging to administrative, domestic, legal and military domains, all of which sought to describe the new cultural influence shaping Irish society (Doyle 2015). Newly-acceded borrowings came in the area of foodstuff, such as plúr (flour), siúcra (sugar) and fínéagrea (vinegar); a category which also provided a borrowed verb form tástáil (to taste); the latter term being a good example of how Irish adapted its borrowings from English. The suffix -áil typically denotes the ending of an infinitive verb structure in Irish, and when added to the stem tást-, a hybrid form was created that satisfied the grammatical necessity of Irish, and incorporated the lexical and phonetic system of English. Anglo-Norman influence was also visible in lexis of administrative and legal structures through words such as méara (mayor); captaoin (captain), gúna (gown) and clóca (cloak). The linguistic momentum behind borrowings into the Irish language gathered further pace between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. This period in Irish history is synonymous with the spread of English, a dynamic driven by the legal necessity to speak English for land holding and tenancy. Doyle (2015) comments on the pervasion of English into Late Modern Irish (LMI) through his interpretation of the data provided by Smyth (2006) on Irish speakers and bilingual English-Irish speakers in the seventeenth century. At this point, one third of the population were English speakers with a knowledge of Irish, but over 80 percent were identified as Irish speakers. Thus, Ireland was a largely bilingual society with the Irish language conceding to the superiority of English as the spoken and written lingua franca of the rulers of the period. From the seventeenth-century, English was the single biggest influence on the linguistic status and composition of Irish (Stenson 1993), and around this date English had firmly established itself as the language of the law and education. Its spread to the rural heartlands of Ireland encompassing the predominantly Irish-speaking, land-holding lower classes further served to weaken the symbolic and lexical infrastructure of the Irish in the face of the more functional and increasingly domesticated English language. The necessity to communicate also informed the language choices of lower class Irish speakers portraying their changing attitudinal stance towards English; as Doyle (2015:101) points out, ‘if ordinary people needed a new word, they borrowed it from English.’ The growing acceptance of English as a day-to-day language in the eighteenth century extended to other authoritative structures within Irish society, such as the clergy. Religion had been an important preservation ground for the language up to this point, largely achieved through the Catholic priests espousing the use of Irish. Two particular factors contributed to the devaluation of Irish from a religious perspective; firstly, Irish-speaking Catholic priests often studied abroad and returned with a diminished view of the Irish language. Secondly, ecumenical language in Irish also began to reflect the increasing Anglican influence through the appearance of domain-specific borrowings, such as paróiste (parish). In nineteenth-century Ireland, English had been adopted as the language of instruction, a further acknowledgement of its growing importance, largely achieved through its permeation into the legal, administrative and domestic structures of daily life in Ireland. Doyle (2015) notes that borrowings from English into Irish in this period followed either one of two patterns: assimilated or unassimilated. The former describing the modification of a borrowed term to align to the grammatical conditions of the borrowing language, the latter refers to the direct placement of the word into the borrowing language without any change. For example, Mac Mathúna (2012) identifies the lexical field of housing and building as providing a number of unassimilated terms into Irish, such as foundation, drains and shutters, amongst others. At this point, Irish was coming under significant pressure from the expansion of English, and exposure to different concepts, professions, and practices provided a continuous stream of new branch of vocabulary that was integrated with varying assimilation into the language. The level of contact between Irish and English from the nineteenth-century intensified significantly, but by this time a large number of borrowings had already been assimilated into the language. In the face of developments such as the Gaelic League, founded in 1893, which sought to preserve and promote the use of a steadily declining Irish and the strive for national independence in the early part of the twentieth-century, the Irish language faced some of its most acute challenges in the education sector, a problem which also characterises the current predicament of the language. In the late nineteenth-century, the Irish language oscillated from positions of recognition to refusal within national legislative structures, with legislation passed in 1878 for Irish to be taught at primary level, and 22 years later for its provision at secondary level. Education, to some degree, has become the gatekeeper for the survival of the Irish language, which remains a compulsory subject for all primary and secondary students. At present, the closest interaction between English and Irish occurs in second-level education and this diglossic context incubates many of the current borrowing trends found in Irish. Two recent empirical studies on this subject show that some of the original patterns of borrowing dating back to the Anglo-Norman period are still active, but they also reveal the most porous area for the use of anglicised terms. In a 2007 study, O’Malley-Madec investigates two native Irish-speaking groups, one in a rural community and one in an urban area, to assess their choice of borrowings. Distinct patterns emerge from each group. In the case of the rural community, 3 percent of their language use contained a borrowed Anglicisation; equating to 560 words in a total of 20,400. Borrowings in this group occurred primarily in the categories of nouns (30 percent) and discourse markers (66 percent). By contrast, the urban group demonstrated a more fluid interaction between Irish and English lexis in their discourse patterns, making it more reflective of code-switching than borrowing. The permanent co-existence between Irish and English in the Irish educational sector contributes to a universally bilingual society, if in truth, English remains the linguistic modus operandi for the vast majority of the population. Except for a number of gaeltachtaí (Irish language speaking regions), the use of the language on a daily basis is almost exclusively confined to the classroom, which creates a productive space for a further integration of anglicised borrowings, as L1 English speakers often fill lexical gaps in their Irish knowledge through the direct insert of an English word into an Irish phrasal structure. This makes code-switching and borrowing almost indistinguishable, and in the context of a learner the decision to insert or switch cannot be clearly attributed to either a lexical deficiency or a linguistic choice. Thus, the classroom becomes an influential factor on the structure and lexical patterning of the language. A study by Hickey (2009) offers further evidence about code-switching and borrowings of native Irish-speaking pre-school teachers working in the West of Ireland. An outcome of this research suggests that a knowledge of sociolinguistic background of a speaker is potentially influential in the decision to employ code-switching techniques or use borrowed terms. For example, empirical data show that pre-school teachers interacting with children from uniquely Irish-speaking homes were significantly less likely to code-switch or borrow from English compared to similar teachers working with children from bilingual Irish-English households. This finding, as Hickey (2009) remarks, could be attributed to one of two factors. Firstly, children from diglossic homes or communities are more likely to practice code-switching and use borrowed terms than their Irish-speaking counterparts and this may be an inducive factor in the linguistic choices of their teachers in a classroom setting. Secondly, the predominance of bilingual children in the sample is indicative of a normalised diglossic environment which most likely results in the analysed pre-school teachers speaking English rather than Irish more routinely. 3. The Role of Irish Lexicography in Borrowings The beginning of the twentieth-century, a period associated with strident attempts to resurrect Irish as the native tongue of Ireland, witnessed the publication of an Irish-English dictionary and an English-Irish dictionary in 1904. Their objectives, however, were markedly different; the Irish-English dictionary sought to purify and preserve the language, whereas the English-Irish dictionary aimed to promote a greater understanding and use of the Irish language. Probably the most recognised of these lexicographical works is the first edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary] compiled by Patrick S. Dinneen, who was an active member of the Gaelic League that directed its efforts on promoting the use and spread of the Irish language. The motivation for Dinneen to undertake this culturally significant work of the period was to ‘help on the work of cultivating the rich and vigorous, but sadly neglected, language of the Gael’ (Dinneen 1904). In April of 1904, Thomas O’Neill Lane published his English-Irish dictionary with the raison d’être for his work contrasting sharply with that of his counterpart Dinneen. According to the preface of the O’Neill Lane dictionary, his work aimed to provide the rising generation in Ireland with a dictionary that provided them with the ‘right [Irish] word and, where necessary, with examples of its use as well as grammatical information (O’Neill Lane 1904).’ Such a contrasting lexicographical stance from the two flagship twentieth-century dictionaries of the Irish language served to illustrate the linguistic struggle that characterised Ireland during this era, with Dinneen, on one hand, using lexicography as a conduit for regenerating the Irish language, and O’Neill Lane, on the other hand, postulating his compilation on the basis of it being an Irish learning aid for English speakers. O’Neill Lane’s outlook on the Irish language was underwritten by an ostensibly pejorative tone. His assessment of the evolution of Irish as being stagnant and a language less sophisticated and erudite compared to other languages is quite pronounced in the preface of his dictionary. He remarks: But the growth of our language having been checked centuries ago; it is deficient in the terminology of science, pure and applied, in the new terms and conceptions in the world of literature, art and industry, as well as in the precise expressions evolved in other idioms owing to the constantly increasing importance assumed by sociological and political problems. (Lane's English-Irish Dictionary 1904:vii) The purpose of O’Neill Lane’s dictionary was, a priori, to supply Irish words to English speakers, consequently the mono-directional purpose of the dictionary was not best positioned to adopt either a philosophical or linguistic stance on the extent of borrowings into Irish from English. O’Neill Lane’s articulated view on the Irish language in the preface presents a rather jaundiced picture of its predicament – one that is lexically inferior, from a developmental perspective, compared to other languages. Furthermore, he makes the point in 1904 about the failure of the Irish language to keep pace with developments in art, literature and science. Doyle (2015:148) adds that the absence of ‘institutional support’ placed the Irish language in a particularly disadvantageous position to deal with the increasing influx of new terminology. The remarks on Irish’s linguistic lag is interesting in the context of permeability to borrowings, as the other ready-made solution to this problem was to import the foreign term into Irish so that its spoken community could describe the changes in its surrounding world. At this point, Irish lexicographers acceded to the flow of English borrowings into Irish, and for practical reasons, at least in O’Neill Lane’s case, chose to record them to increase the relevance of their dictionary. Dinneen’s outlook on the subject of borrowings was somewhat more judicious than that of his counterpart O’Neill Lane. While it appeared that he applied a more discernible judgement to the inclusion of borrowings, by virtue of them being attested in published works by authors of recognisable standing, the reticence to introduce them into a dictionary was, similar to O’Neill Lane, overwritten by the linguistic practicalities of an evolving language. Dinneen’s somewhat reluctant acceptance of the existences of anglicised borrowings in Irish is articulated in the preface of the first edition; [Loan words] that are established in the written language being used by good authors, or words in everyday conversational use, should find a place in a dictionary, from whatever source they may be derived. The lexicographer may deplore the introduction of loan words, but he is bound to recognise their existence. (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1904:x–xi) In the intervening 23 years between the first and second editions of his dictionary, Dinneen’s opinion on the relevance and inclusion of borrowings in Irish had modified to some degree. Keeping in mind that Dinneen’s position as one of the active members of the Gaelic League revival and his objective of achieving a standardised spelling across the multiplicitous orthographical character of Irish was firmly set in promoting a purified native tongue; for him borrowings represented a new linguistic problem and a further threat to the growth of the language at this time. His efforts to simultaneously protect and strengthen the language are noted in the preface of the second edition; Loan words have been inserted when they have a footing in the language; such words frequently acquire a new shade of meaning. It is not desirable, however, to encourage the use of words only recently borrowed and for which there are good Irish equivalents, even if these latter have gone largely out of use. The borrowing of words is a recognised process in the growth and development of a language and can become a source of strength rather than weakness if kept in judicious check, and especially if the borrowed element be assimilated by the aid of the syntax and inflexional system of the borrowing language. (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1927:viii) The second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla seems to communicate, on the part of Dinneen, a subtle rejection of the unchecked integration of English words into Irish. Firstly, he advocates a scrupulous selection of recently borrowed terms, instead favouring the use of archaic Irish terms in their place. This purist approach of preserving the language at the expense of reflecting its development contrasts sharply with the statement of O’Neill Lane at the earlier part of the twentieth century that comments on the lexical weakness of the language in increasingly-important areas of socio-cultural development. Secondly, Dinneen recognises the inherent importance of admitting borrowings for the overall strength of a language, but particularly those that adapt to the grammatical conditions. His concessionary attitude in this regard aligned with a practice that had been occurring in Irish for a significant time before the beginning of the twentieth-century. In many cases, Anglo-Irish borrowings underwent morphological changes prior to their full integration in the language and Dinneen recorded a number of these in his dictionary, such as words containing a bh, for example, sábháil (act of saving), sabhálach (saving), sábhálaim (I save) and sabhsa (sauce), all carry the label (A.) denoting their borrowed status from English. Dinneen’s lexicographical practice reflected his statement in the preface to use the Irish equivalent where a borrowed term existed, but some examples show he adhered to this approach more in the first edition rather than in his later work. A number of English borrowings in Irish were verbs that add the suffix -áil to lexically adapt them to Irish morphology. In some cases, an Irish verb already existed, for example, ag blas (to taste), despite a modified borrowed term also entering the language, for example, ag tástáil. In the case of these two verbs, Dinneen may have chosen to omit the translation to taste in the entry tástáil as an acknowledgement of this particular semantic sense of the verb being recorded under the more indigenous Irish term elsewhere in his dictionary. Entries for tástáil in the first edition and second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla are illustrated in (1) and (2): (1) Tástálaim, vl. Tástáil, v. tr., try, make trial of (Ker.), (A.). (2) Tástálaim, vl. Tástáil, v. tr., I try, make trial of, taste, sample, get a foretaste of; tástáil do dhuine muinnteardha sara dteastóchaidh sé uait, test your friend before you need him. Dinneen started preparation on a second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla in 1917 and in the ten years up to its publication, the Anglican influence on the Irish language had further strengthened its hold. This is evident through a comparison of the listed anglicisms in each edition with 198 recorded in 1904 dictionary and 245 recorded in the 1927 dictionary. Most of this increase could be seen in the recording of nouns with 221 showing the label (A.) in the second edition compared with 162 in the first edition. His approach, however, to dealing with this category of entries was not entirely systematic; a comparison of certain borrowings in both editions reveal inconsistencies. Firstly, Dinneen’s use of the label (A.) was not always methodical across both of his compilations; for example, the verb entry plástráil (to plaster) is listed as being of Anglo-Irish origin in the first edition only, as presented in (3) [first edition] and (4) [second edition]: (3) plástráilim, vl. plástráil, v. tr., I plaster, daub (A.). (4) plástrálaim, vl. plástráil, v. tr. I plaster, daub. Dinneen was not always rigourous in his labelling of borrowings and a comparison of both dictionaries shows certain inconsistencies. For example, approximately 80 entries share a common status as being listed, some with slightly varied spelling forms, and labelled as an Anglicism in both the 1904 and 1927 editions. The incongruity in both sets of Anglicisms, as shown in Table 1 and Table 2, poses some difficulty in understanding the timeline of entry for some anglicised borrowings into Irish, as it appears certain words identified as being of Anglo-Irish origin in the first edition are not classified in the same way in the later edition. It is unclear whether this shortcoming in his work occurred due to Dinneen acknowledging these terms as being fully immersed and conventionalised into Irish by 1927 or was due to a lack of rigour on his behalf in the labelling of these lexical items between the different editions. Another problematic aspect of Dinneen’s treatment of Anglo-Irish borrowings arises in their orthographical variation across both editions. One of the most salient features of Dinneen’s first edition was its success in adopting a standardised orthographical form in Irish that became a generally accepted benchmark in the language and he used his work as a means to create this new standard: Table 1 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1904) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop Table 1 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1904) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop Table 2 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1927) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching Table 2 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1927) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching It is obvious that in an unsettled language like Irish, which has not been cultivated to any extent since the use of print became general, many orthographical difficulties present themselves to the lexicographer. Complete uniformity of spelling is certainly a great desideratum.          (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1904:vi) Dinneen’s focus on standardising the orthographical system of the Irish language was not always applied in the domain of words of Anglo-Irish terms. The lack of uniformity in their recording can be seen in spelling variations of words between both editions; ranging from minor in some cases to more substantive in others, as shown in Table 3. For example, entries for geimléad and ginidh in the 1904 show varied forms of gimléad and giní in the 1927 edition. Other examples reveal more significant changes, while additionally exemplifying Dinneen’s lack of lexicographical rigour in the recording of some Anglo-Irish words. Taking, for example, the entries píntéar (1904) and paintéar (1927), some inconsistency is evident in their descriptions. In the 1927 edition, Dinneen lists píntéar, but without the label (A.), thus identifying it as a non-borrowed word which contrasts with its listing in the 1904 dictionary. The entry for paintéar in 1927 includes the label (A.), as does its preceding lemma paintear, which Dinneen translates the former as a painter or panter, snare, noose, gin, trap, binding cable, plot, patch or enclosure, and also identifies this word as being borrowed from English. Table 3 Orthographical Differences in Anglo-Irish Borrowings in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil Table 3 Orthographical Differences in Anglo-Irish Borrowings in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil Although Dinneen’s editions were not always systematic in certain aspects of their content, they offered a more robust linguistic scope than the content of the dictionary compiled by O’Neill Lane in 1904. The mono-directional organisation of O’Neill Lane’s dictionary reflected the status of the Irish language in its own country as being of secondary importance to English. One of the objectives of Lane’s work was to assist the English- speaking masses of early twentieth-century Ireland through providing Irish equivalents for English words and phrases. Thus, the dictionary is, in effect, a translation dictionary aimed at English speakers rather than a language compilation that seeks to promote or protect the language in an era synonymous with the struggle of native linguistic identity. In this regard, Lane’s compilation did not seek to inform its usership about the provenance or status of an Irish word but listed them as an accompaniment to an English headword. Entries for taste and trial are illustrated in (5) and (6): (5) Taste, s., blas, gen. & pl. -ais, m.  Taste, v., blaisim. (6) Trial, s., fromhadh: tástáil; teasta; to make a trial  of a thing, nídh do fromhadh; trial at law, breitheamhnas  i ndlighe. These illustrations, from a lexicographical viewpoint, reveal how dictionaries reflected the linguistic problem of early twentieth-century Ireland. The publication of two dictionaries in the same year reflected the national need for the language to be recorded in a formal, but standardised manner to address the internal conflicts of varying orthographical forms, and the influence of the number of regional dialects on the stability of the language. However, their publication also brought to light the indeterminate linguistic status of the island at that time, which saw Irish becoming the peripheral means of expression of many Irish people. Dinneen and Lane provide an interesting backdrop, from an Irish perspective, to this issue with the implicit purpose of their respective dictionaries: Dinneen’s to cleanse, standardise and promote the living Irish language; Lane’s to position it in a subordinate role to English in its native land. 4. Conclusion The lexicon is a porous structure that continually changes to modernise its content to keep pace with societal evolution. Some languages, however, are more privileged by the accepted superiority in the linguistic hierarchy that places them at the forefront of language evolution, thus simultaneously reinforcing their position as a dominant language and communicator of new ideas and concepts. At the receptor end of this continuum are minority languages, which by their nature are peripheralized entities that protect the originality and identity of a culture through linguistic fact. Change and evolution are challenging concepts for minority languages, as many of these developments are largely driven through the English-speaking world, and immediately transposed, without any linguistic adjustment, into any language open to the concept being described, or with a lexical deficiency that presents a description of the concept. This process is the catalyst for one language to borrow from another – a process long-established in language convention but posing an ever-increasing threat to the long-term survival of minority languages. Irish falls neatly into this category. Its vulnerability to borrowings from English, dating back to the thirteenth century, means that external influence has been an integral part of its make-up for the last 800 years. The influx of many lexical items of English origin provided a functional stability to the language, as it allowed native speakers to understand changes in social and cultural patterns in the island during the mid-to-late twentieth-century. Dictionaries, historically often a gatekeeper of language purity, produced in Ireland during this time did not seek to address this change in view of its potentially corrosive effect on the language given their focus to record the history. It was not until the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century that a renewed effort to reverse the anglicised influence on Irish gathered some momentum, driven by the establishment of Irish language protection groups, the strive for national independence and the compilation of what was considered as the first truly modern Irish-English dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen in 1904. Collectively, these efforts did not reverse the inherent effects that continual borrowings over a significant period had on the Irish language that contributed to a weakening of its lexical structure and a diminishing of its importance as the lingua franca of the Irish people. The necessity for a language to borrow reflects its position in that time as either being too peripheral to the centre or being too outdated to be modern. This does not negatively judge the value and position of minority languages but rather underlines their weakness and delicacy in the face of the global popularity of languages, such as English. At this point, lexicography of minority languages, both historical and modern, has an important role to play in preserving the indigenous language artefacts that contribute to linguistic difference and cultural identity, and at the same time bring the linguistic periphery to the core of society. References Dinneen P. S. 1904 . An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary]. First Edition . Dublin : Irish Text Society . Dinneen P. S. 1927 . An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla . Second Edition . Dublin : Irish Texts Society . O’Neill Lane T. 1904 . Lane's English-Irish Dictionary Foclóir Béarla-Gaedhilge . Dublin : Sealy, Bryers and Walker . Chudak M. 2010 . ‘Recent English Loanwords in Irish and the Interchange of Initial Segments.’ Bucharest Working Papers in Linguistics 2 : 61 – 71 . Doyle A. 2015 . A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Filipovic R. 1988 . ‘Contact Languages: Retrospect-Prospect’ In Klegraf J. , Nehls D. (eds), Essays on the English Language and Applied Linguistics on the Occasion of Gerhard Nickel’s 60th birthday . Heidelberg : Julius Groos : 342 – 356 . Haugen E. 1956 . Bilingualism in the Americas: A Bibliography and Research Guide . (American Dialect Society Monograph 26.). University: University of Alabama Press . Hickey T. 2009 . ‘Code-switching and Borrowing in Irish.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 13 . 5 : 670 – 688 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Mac Mathúna L. 2012 . ‘English and Irish in Selected Warrants and Macaronic Verse’ In Kelly J. , MacMurchaidh C. (eds), Irish and English: Essays on the Linguistic and Cultural Frontier, 1600-1900 . Dublin : Four Courts : 116 – 140 . Mac Mathúna S. 2006 . ‘Remarks on Standardisation in Irish English, Irish and Welsh. ‘In Tristam H. (ed) The Celtic Englishes IV: the interface between English and the Celtic languages. Proceedings from the fourth International Colloquium on the Celtic Englishes . Potsdams : Potsdam University Press : 114 – 129 . O’Malley Madec M. 2007 . ‘How One Word Borrows Another: The Process of Language Contact in Two Irish-Speaking Communities.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10 : 494 – 509 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Poplack S. , Sankoff D. . 1984 . ‘Borrowing: The Synchrony of Integration.’ Linguistics 22 : 99 – 135 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Smyth W. J. 2006 . Map-making, Landscapes and Memory . Cork : Cork University Press . Stenson N. 1993 . ‘English Influence on Irish: The Last 100 Years.’ Journal of Celtic Linguistics 2 : 107 – 129 . © 2018 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Lexicography Oxford University Press

Irish Lexicography in Borrowed Time: The Recording of Anglo-Irish Borrowings in Early Twentieth-Century Irish Dictionaries (1904-1927)

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Abstract

Abstract A borrowing, in its most basic linguistic sense, involves the transfer of a lexical item from one language to another. Due to an ever-increasing global interaction, borrowings are becoming a regular linguistic effect, but are potentially problematic for the preservation of the lexical structure of languages. This impact is particularly felt in the case of minority languages, such as Irish, which has been subject to borrowings from English for several centuries. Despite it being a familiar pattern, the introduction of English borrowings has significantly influenced the Irish language and played a contributory role in shaping its current format. A benchmark for measuring the true status of borrowings in a language is the accreditation afforded to them in lexicography. The listedness of a borrowing in a dictionary is a formal acceptance of its existence and recognition of its permanency in a new linguistic environment. Dictionaries also act as gatekeepers in maintaining the lexical originality of the language and reflect inherent opinions towards the acceptance of foreign terms. This paper looks at the treatment of English borrowings in the three foremost Irish dictionaries of the early twentieth-century: An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary] (1904) and (1927) by Patrick S. Dinneen and Lane's English-Irish Dictionary (1904) by Thomas O’Neill Lane. Both dictionaries offer a contrastive insight into the problem of recording English language items during a period synonymous with national renewal and a struggle for native linguistic identity. 1. Borrowings: Linguistic and Lexicographic Accreditation Language is a permeable object that is exposed to a variety of external influences that diachronically and synchronically alter its structure and content. This feature is advantageous in allowing a language to self-enrich and mature by expanding the lexical stock of the language through its interaction with non-indigenous phenomena. In the case of endangered or minority languages, such exposure is, to some degree, problematic, as it opens the channels of lexical influence that exert pressure on delicate linguistic structures. The permeability of language is closely aligned to its intolerance of lexical deficiencies, and a common mechanism to address an internal linguistic gap is to borrow a lexical item from another language, usually referred to as a borrowing or a loanword. A borrowing can be defined as the transition of a lexical item from one language to another through various stages of acceptance. This lexical transfer from a foreign to an indigenous language is, however, multifaceted and not constituted through immediate assimilation. Language is not an insular entity but an agreed social convention for a means of expression. Therefore, any lexical borrowing into a language requires both a linguistic and social acceptance within its community of use. Poplack and Sankoff (1984) delineate the procedural stages of one language importing a lexical item from another: (1) frequency of use, (2) native language synonym displacement, (3) morphophonemic and/or syntactic integration and (4) acceptability. An important factor in understanding the status of an imported lexical item in any language relates to its stability in the new linguistic environment. The process of lexical borrowing is not immediate, and this is a distinguishing feature between code-switching and borrowing. Code-switching results from an idiosyncratic choice by a speaker to use a lexical item from another language to address a lexical gap or an unknown concept for communication purposes. A borrowing, on the other hand, gains a more consolidated position in its new language framework, and over time passes through various stages of assimilation. As Poplack and Sankoff (1984) note, this process of integration is unclear, and does not appear to follow a defined systematic order. Initially, the rationale for any borrowing is to exist as a lexical filler but in some cases borrowings can co-exist alongside indigenous lexical items, and their long-term fossilisation leads to their replacement of the native synonym. However, language also displays characteristics of ageing, and so imported words, at some point, are no longer considered as transient terms, but as recognised borrowings. Haugen (1956) elaborates on how the conventionalisation of a borrowing can be delayed by the bilingual nature of the speaker, who being aware of the original term may subsequently delay its complete immersion into a language. Upon immersion into the language, the borrowed item starts to adjust itself to the syntactic, morphological and phonemic parameters of its new environment. This adaptation is a multi-factorial process due to the asymmetrical grammatical features of different languages. Irish is a particularly rich source of these transformations as the continual flow of anglicised terms into the language underwent various adjustments to fit into the lexical and grammatical parameters of the language. Doyle (2015) highlights the influence of English words in shaping the lexical and phonetic structure of borrowings into Irish. For example, he notes in the case of the Irish word séipéal (chapel), the absence of the [tʃ] phoneme in Irish led to the use of a hybrid lexico-phonemic unit [sé] to achieve the closest possible phonetic match to the English [tʃ] sound. The final stage in a borrowing achieving permanency in another language is validated by its universal acceptance by both the language community in which it is used, and its adherence to the linguistic structures governing that language. Its acceptance is determined by the degree of alignment between the sociological and linguistic factors that condition the acceptability of the borrowed item. Any imbalance in either category will delay or potentially prevent the borrowing from being fully integrated into its new lexicon. Alongside the internal factors of a language that combine to validate a borrowing, an external validation is also achieved through its lemmatisation in a dictionary. According to Filipovic (1988:342), lexicography was a catalyst for an increased interest in the presence of foreign language elements in another language; he adds: The study of foreign language elements in European languages began with the growth of interest in lexicography among European linguists. The compilation of dictionaries of various European languages and the determination of certain words marks the beginning of the study of languages in contact. The listedness of a lexical item by itself demonstrates its arrival at the terminal state of the process mentioned by Poplack and Sankoff (1984), but also confirms it as being an accepted cultural and linguistic component of a language. This level of recording officialises the borrowing; consolidating its status as having attained a frequency of attested use and socio-linguistic acceptance. Similar to entering their new lexicon, the speed of the lexicographical admission of a borrowing may vary depending on its degree of lexicogrammatical assimilation into the native language structure. For example, borrowings that require only phonetic adjustments are likely to be listed sooner than those that exist alongside an equivalent native term. This is a particularly acute decision for compilers of minority language dictionaries who seek to both preserve the original lexical elements of the language as well as demonstrate its maturity of interaction with other languages and unfamiliar phenomena. Thus, the dictionary compiler is presented with a dilemma in providing an authoritative account of their language: record the original, but decreasingly used, lexical features of the minority language or facilitate the continual flow of borrowings that endanger its long-term status and erode both its culture and identity. 2. Borrowings in Irish: An Overview The Irish language has been heavily characterised by its accession of borrowings over the last 800 years. Dating from its earliest existence in the sixth century, Irish passed through two phases in which it remained relatively untouched in terms of its influence by other languages: the first period of Old Irish (600-900 AD) and then the second of Middle Irish (900-1200 AD). It was not until between 1200 and 1500 that evidence of borrowings in Irish became apparent; a change which came about due to the Anglo-Norman invasion in 1169. In this period, Early Modern Irish (EMI) reflected the political and social dynamic of the country through the accession of hundreds of new lexical items from English and Norman French, many of which are part of the language today. At the outset, borrowings were predominantly names and terms belonging to administrative, domestic, legal and military domains, all of which sought to describe the new cultural influence shaping Irish society (Doyle 2015). Newly-acceded borrowings came in the area of foodstuff, such as plúr (flour), siúcra (sugar) and fínéagrea (vinegar); a category which also provided a borrowed verb form tástáil (to taste); the latter term being a good example of how Irish adapted its borrowings from English. The suffix -áil typically denotes the ending of an infinitive verb structure in Irish, and when added to the stem tást-, a hybrid form was created that satisfied the grammatical necessity of Irish, and incorporated the lexical and phonetic system of English. Anglo-Norman influence was also visible in lexis of administrative and legal structures through words such as méara (mayor); captaoin (captain), gúna (gown) and clóca (cloak). The linguistic momentum behind borrowings into the Irish language gathered further pace between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. This period in Irish history is synonymous with the spread of English, a dynamic driven by the legal necessity to speak English for land holding and tenancy. Doyle (2015) comments on the pervasion of English into Late Modern Irish (LMI) through his interpretation of the data provided by Smyth (2006) on Irish speakers and bilingual English-Irish speakers in the seventeenth century. At this point, one third of the population were English speakers with a knowledge of Irish, but over 80 percent were identified as Irish speakers. Thus, Ireland was a largely bilingual society with the Irish language conceding to the superiority of English as the spoken and written lingua franca of the rulers of the period. From the seventeenth-century, English was the single biggest influence on the linguistic status and composition of Irish (Stenson 1993), and around this date English had firmly established itself as the language of the law and education. Its spread to the rural heartlands of Ireland encompassing the predominantly Irish-speaking, land-holding lower classes further served to weaken the symbolic and lexical infrastructure of the Irish in the face of the more functional and increasingly domesticated English language. The necessity to communicate also informed the language choices of lower class Irish speakers portraying their changing attitudinal stance towards English; as Doyle (2015:101) points out, ‘if ordinary people needed a new word, they borrowed it from English.’ The growing acceptance of English as a day-to-day language in the eighteenth century extended to other authoritative structures within Irish society, such as the clergy. Religion had been an important preservation ground for the language up to this point, largely achieved through the Catholic priests espousing the use of Irish. Two particular factors contributed to the devaluation of Irish from a religious perspective; firstly, Irish-speaking Catholic priests often studied abroad and returned with a diminished view of the Irish language. Secondly, ecumenical language in Irish also began to reflect the increasing Anglican influence through the appearance of domain-specific borrowings, such as paróiste (parish). In nineteenth-century Ireland, English had been adopted as the language of instruction, a further acknowledgement of its growing importance, largely achieved through its permeation into the legal, administrative and domestic structures of daily life in Ireland. Doyle (2015) notes that borrowings from English into Irish in this period followed either one of two patterns: assimilated or unassimilated. The former describing the modification of a borrowed term to align to the grammatical conditions of the borrowing language, the latter refers to the direct placement of the word into the borrowing language without any change. For example, Mac Mathúna (2012) identifies the lexical field of housing and building as providing a number of unassimilated terms into Irish, such as foundation, drains and shutters, amongst others. At this point, Irish was coming under significant pressure from the expansion of English, and exposure to different concepts, professions, and practices provided a continuous stream of new branch of vocabulary that was integrated with varying assimilation into the language. The level of contact between Irish and English from the nineteenth-century intensified significantly, but by this time a large number of borrowings had already been assimilated into the language. In the face of developments such as the Gaelic League, founded in 1893, which sought to preserve and promote the use of a steadily declining Irish and the strive for national independence in the early part of the twentieth-century, the Irish language faced some of its most acute challenges in the education sector, a problem which also characterises the current predicament of the language. In the late nineteenth-century, the Irish language oscillated from positions of recognition to refusal within national legislative structures, with legislation passed in 1878 for Irish to be taught at primary level, and 22 years later for its provision at secondary level. Education, to some degree, has become the gatekeeper for the survival of the Irish language, which remains a compulsory subject for all primary and secondary students. At present, the closest interaction between English and Irish occurs in second-level education and this diglossic context incubates many of the current borrowing trends found in Irish. Two recent empirical studies on this subject show that some of the original patterns of borrowing dating back to the Anglo-Norman period are still active, but they also reveal the most porous area for the use of anglicised terms. In a 2007 study, O’Malley-Madec investigates two native Irish-speaking groups, one in a rural community and one in an urban area, to assess their choice of borrowings. Distinct patterns emerge from each group. In the case of the rural community, 3 percent of their language use contained a borrowed Anglicisation; equating to 560 words in a total of 20,400. Borrowings in this group occurred primarily in the categories of nouns (30 percent) and discourse markers (66 percent). By contrast, the urban group demonstrated a more fluid interaction between Irish and English lexis in their discourse patterns, making it more reflective of code-switching than borrowing. The permanent co-existence between Irish and English in the Irish educational sector contributes to a universally bilingual society, if in truth, English remains the linguistic modus operandi for the vast majority of the population. Except for a number of gaeltachtaí (Irish language speaking regions), the use of the language on a daily basis is almost exclusively confined to the classroom, which creates a productive space for a further integration of anglicised borrowings, as L1 English speakers often fill lexical gaps in their Irish knowledge through the direct insert of an English word into an Irish phrasal structure. This makes code-switching and borrowing almost indistinguishable, and in the context of a learner the decision to insert or switch cannot be clearly attributed to either a lexical deficiency or a linguistic choice. Thus, the classroom becomes an influential factor on the structure and lexical patterning of the language. A study by Hickey (2009) offers further evidence about code-switching and borrowings of native Irish-speaking pre-school teachers working in the West of Ireland. An outcome of this research suggests that a knowledge of sociolinguistic background of a speaker is potentially influential in the decision to employ code-switching techniques or use borrowed terms. For example, empirical data show that pre-school teachers interacting with children from uniquely Irish-speaking homes were significantly less likely to code-switch or borrow from English compared to similar teachers working with children from bilingual Irish-English households. This finding, as Hickey (2009) remarks, could be attributed to one of two factors. Firstly, children from diglossic homes or communities are more likely to practice code-switching and use borrowed terms than their Irish-speaking counterparts and this may be an inducive factor in the linguistic choices of their teachers in a classroom setting. Secondly, the predominance of bilingual children in the sample is indicative of a normalised diglossic environment which most likely results in the analysed pre-school teachers speaking English rather than Irish more routinely. 3. The Role of Irish Lexicography in Borrowings The beginning of the twentieth-century, a period associated with strident attempts to resurrect Irish as the native tongue of Ireland, witnessed the publication of an Irish-English dictionary and an English-Irish dictionary in 1904. Their objectives, however, were markedly different; the Irish-English dictionary sought to purify and preserve the language, whereas the English-Irish dictionary aimed to promote a greater understanding and use of the Irish language. Probably the most recognised of these lexicographical works is the first edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary] compiled by Patrick S. Dinneen, who was an active member of the Gaelic League that directed its efforts on promoting the use and spread of the Irish language. The motivation for Dinneen to undertake this culturally significant work of the period was to ‘help on the work of cultivating the rich and vigorous, but sadly neglected, language of the Gael’ (Dinneen 1904). In April of 1904, Thomas O’Neill Lane published his English-Irish dictionary with the raison d’être for his work contrasting sharply with that of his counterpart Dinneen. According to the preface of the O’Neill Lane dictionary, his work aimed to provide the rising generation in Ireland with a dictionary that provided them with the ‘right [Irish] word and, where necessary, with examples of its use as well as grammatical information (O’Neill Lane 1904).’ Such a contrasting lexicographical stance from the two flagship twentieth-century dictionaries of the Irish language served to illustrate the linguistic struggle that characterised Ireland during this era, with Dinneen, on one hand, using lexicography as a conduit for regenerating the Irish language, and O’Neill Lane, on the other hand, postulating his compilation on the basis of it being an Irish learning aid for English speakers. O’Neill Lane’s outlook on the Irish language was underwritten by an ostensibly pejorative tone. His assessment of the evolution of Irish as being stagnant and a language less sophisticated and erudite compared to other languages is quite pronounced in the preface of his dictionary. He remarks: But the growth of our language having been checked centuries ago; it is deficient in the terminology of science, pure and applied, in the new terms and conceptions in the world of literature, art and industry, as well as in the precise expressions evolved in other idioms owing to the constantly increasing importance assumed by sociological and political problems. (Lane's English-Irish Dictionary 1904:vii) The purpose of O’Neill Lane’s dictionary was, a priori, to supply Irish words to English speakers, consequently the mono-directional purpose of the dictionary was not best positioned to adopt either a philosophical or linguistic stance on the extent of borrowings into Irish from English. O’Neill Lane’s articulated view on the Irish language in the preface presents a rather jaundiced picture of its predicament – one that is lexically inferior, from a developmental perspective, compared to other languages. Furthermore, he makes the point in 1904 about the failure of the Irish language to keep pace with developments in art, literature and science. Doyle (2015:148) adds that the absence of ‘institutional support’ placed the Irish language in a particularly disadvantageous position to deal with the increasing influx of new terminology. The remarks on Irish’s linguistic lag is interesting in the context of permeability to borrowings, as the other ready-made solution to this problem was to import the foreign term into Irish so that its spoken community could describe the changes in its surrounding world. At this point, Irish lexicographers acceded to the flow of English borrowings into Irish, and for practical reasons, at least in O’Neill Lane’s case, chose to record them to increase the relevance of their dictionary. Dinneen’s outlook on the subject of borrowings was somewhat more judicious than that of his counterpart O’Neill Lane. While it appeared that he applied a more discernible judgement to the inclusion of borrowings, by virtue of them being attested in published works by authors of recognisable standing, the reticence to introduce them into a dictionary was, similar to O’Neill Lane, overwritten by the linguistic practicalities of an evolving language. Dinneen’s somewhat reluctant acceptance of the existences of anglicised borrowings in Irish is articulated in the preface of the first edition; [Loan words] that are established in the written language being used by good authors, or words in everyday conversational use, should find a place in a dictionary, from whatever source they may be derived. The lexicographer may deplore the introduction of loan words, but he is bound to recognise their existence. (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1904:x–xi) In the intervening 23 years between the first and second editions of his dictionary, Dinneen’s opinion on the relevance and inclusion of borrowings in Irish had modified to some degree. Keeping in mind that Dinneen’s position as one of the active members of the Gaelic League revival and his objective of achieving a standardised spelling across the multiplicitous orthographical character of Irish was firmly set in promoting a purified native tongue; for him borrowings represented a new linguistic problem and a further threat to the growth of the language at this time. His efforts to simultaneously protect and strengthen the language are noted in the preface of the second edition; Loan words have been inserted when they have a footing in the language; such words frequently acquire a new shade of meaning. It is not desirable, however, to encourage the use of words only recently borrowed and for which there are good Irish equivalents, even if these latter have gone largely out of use. The borrowing of words is a recognised process in the growth and development of a language and can become a source of strength rather than weakness if kept in judicious check, and especially if the borrowed element be assimilated by the aid of the syntax and inflexional system of the borrowing language. (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1927:viii) The second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla seems to communicate, on the part of Dinneen, a subtle rejection of the unchecked integration of English words into Irish. Firstly, he advocates a scrupulous selection of recently borrowed terms, instead favouring the use of archaic Irish terms in their place. This purist approach of preserving the language at the expense of reflecting its development contrasts sharply with the statement of O’Neill Lane at the earlier part of the twentieth century that comments on the lexical weakness of the language in increasingly-important areas of socio-cultural development. Secondly, Dinneen recognises the inherent importance of admitting borrowings for the overall strength of a language, but particularly those that adapt to the grammatical conditions. His concessionary attitude in this regard aligned with a practice that had been occurring in Irish for a significant time before the beginning of the twentieth-century. In many cases, Anglo-Irish borrowings underwent morphological changes prior to their full integration in the language and Dinneen recorded a number of these in his dictionary, such as words containing a bh, for example, sábháil (act of saving), sabhálach (saving), sábhálaim (I save) and sabhsa (sauce), all carry the label (A.) denoting their borrowed status from English. Dinneen’s lexicographical practice reflected his statement in the preface to use the Irish equivalent where a borrowed term existed, but some examples show he adhered to this approach more in the first edition rather than in his later work. A number of English borrowings in Irish were verbs that add the suffix -áil to lexically adapt them to Irish morphology. In some cases, an Irish verb already existed, for example, ag blas (to taste), despite a modified borrowed term also entering the language, for example, ag tástáil. In the case of these two verbs, Dinneen may have chosen to omit the translation to taste in the entry tástáil as an acknowledgement of this particular semantic sense of the verb being recorded under the more indigenous Irish term elsewhere in his dictionary. Entries for tástáil in the first edition and second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla are illustrated in (1) and (2): (1) Tástálaim, vl. Tástáil, v. tr., try, make trial of (Ker.), (A.). (2) Tástálaim, vl. Tástáil, v. tr., I try, make trial of, taste, sample, get a foretaste of; tástáil do dhuine muinnteardha sara dteastóchaidh sé uait, test your friend before you need him. Dinneen started preparation on a second edition of An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla in 1917 and in the ten years up to its publication, the Anglican influence on the Irish language had further strengthened its hold. This is evident through a comparison of the listed anglicisms in each edition with 198 recorded in 1904 dictionary and 245 recorded in the 1927 dictionary. Most of this increase could be seen in the recording of nouns with 221 showing the label (A.) in the second edition compared with 162 in the first edition. His approach, however, to dealing with this category of entries was not entirely systematic; a comparison of certain borrowings in both editions reveal inconsistencies. Firstly, Dinneen’s use of the label (A.) was not always methodical across both of his compilations; for example, the verb entry plástráil (to plaster) is listed as being of Anglo-Irish origin in the first edition only, as presented in (3) [first edition] and (4) [second edition]: (3) plástráilim, vl. plástráil, v. tr., I plaster, daub (A.). (4) plástrálaim, vl. plástráil, v. tr. I plaster, daub. Dinneen was not always rigourous in his labelling of borrowings and a comparison of both dictionaries shows certain inconsistencies. For example, approximately 80 entries share a common status as being listed, some with slightly varied spelling forms, and labelled as an Anglicism in both the 1904 and 1927 editions. The incongruity in both sets of Anglicisms, as shown in Table 1 and Table 2, poses some difficulty in understanding the timeline of entry for some anglicised borrowings into Irish, as it appears certain words identified as being of Anglo-Irish origin in the first edition are not classified in the same way in the later edition. It is unclear whether this shortcoming in his work occurred due to Dinneen acknowledging these terms as being fully immersed and conventionalised into Irish by 1927 or was due to a lack of rigour on his behalf in the labelling of these lexical items between the different editions. Another problematic aspect of Dinneen’s treatment of Anglo-Irish borrowings arises in their orthographical variation across both editions. One of the most salient features of Dinneen’s first edition was its success in adopting a standardised orthographical form in Irish that became a generally accepted benchmark in the language and he used his work as a means to create this new standard: Table 1 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1904) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop Table 1 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1904) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability abhantur, n. success action, n. action agard, n. haggard atúrnae, n. attorney bácáil, n. baking báicéir, n. baker ballasta, n. ballast bálmadh, v. to embalm béabhar, n. beaver béama, n. beam bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bheist, n. vest binnse, n. bench bligeárd, n. blackguard bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism brainnse, n. branch brannda, n. brandy breacfast, n. breakfast cainnéal, n. channel calar, n. cholera cantáil, n. selling by auction cic, n. kick cing, n. king claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver clóca, n. cloak cniteáil, v. to knit coibléir, n. cobbler cómáil, n. combing compáis, n. compassion consailéaraidhe, n. counsellor constábla, n. constable croca, n. crock cruipéir, n. crupper cruthfás, n. canvas dabht, n. doubt dainnséar n. danger deart, n. dart dreisiúr, n. dresser drug, n. drug faisean, n. fashion feilm, n. helm feiréad, n. ferret fíf , n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneáil, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out flaigín, n. flagon fortún, n. fortune fráma, n. frame froc, n. frock gábla, n. gable geimléad, n. gimlet ginidh, n. guinea giorta, n. waist gliú, n. glue gotáil, n. gutting of fish grábháil, n. engraving grád, n. grade gráda, n. grade grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gunna, n. gun gúta, n. gout halla, n. hall huintéir, n. hunter iuga, n. jug ládáil, n. lading ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver laitís, n. lattice liost, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army lód, n. load lódáil, v. to load lódáil, n. loading lóduighthe, adj. laden macrael, n. mackerel mársáil, n. a marching of troops mí-réasún, n. unreasonableness mórálta, adj. moral móráltacht, n. morality muifléad, n. muffler muisiall, n. curb murdal, n. murder náisiún, n. nation néata, adj. neat néatacht, n. nicety nóta, n. note ocstaeir, n. huxter ofráil, v. to offer ofrálughadh, v. to offer ofráil, n. offering pábhadh, v. to pave pábháil, n. pavement paca, n. pack páighe, n. payment pána, n. pane pínteáil, v. to paint pínteáil, n. painting píntéar, n. painter píosa, n. piece piostal, n. pistol pláistéaracht, n. plastering pláistéire, n. plasterer plástar, n. plaster plástráil, v. to plaster plástrughadh, v. to plaster pléadáil, v. to plead póirse, n. porch póirtéaruidhe, n. porter próiseas, n. process propa, n. prop raspa, n. file robáil, v. to rob robáil, n. robbery robálta, adj. robbed rógaire, n. rogue rollóir, n. roller rópa, n. rope rópadóir, n. ropemaker rósta, n. roast meat rúm, n. room sábh, n. saw sábháil, v. to save sábháil, n. saving sabhálach, adj. saving sabhsa, n. sauce sadhailléaraidhe, n. saddler saesúr, n. season sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop sailéad, n. salad sceamh, adj. skew sciorta, n. skirt scór, n. scar scrobadh, v. to scratch scrobadh, n. scrubbing scuitseáil, n. scutching seibhte, n. shift seic, n. cheque seiséal, n. chisel sicín, n. chicken sioróip, n. syrup siuinéir, n. joiner siuinéireacht, n. carpentry snap, n. snatching snapadh, v. to snap soicéad, n. socket sóinseáil, v. to change sóinseáil, n. change (of money) sórt, n. sort spád, n. spade spáráil, v. to spare spáráil, n. sparing speisialta, adj. special spíce, n. spike spota, n. spot spút, n. particle stalla, n. stall stálughad, v. to make stale stálughadh, n. making stale stáluighthe, adj. stale stampa, n. stamp stampáil, n. stamping stápal, n. staple stát, n. state stéad, n. steed stioróip, n. stirrup stoc, n. stock stócáilte, adj. ready stóinsithe, adj. sound stóinsiughadh, v. to make sound stopadh, v. to stop strae, n. wandering stráinín, n. cullander or strainer strapa, n. strap striopáil, n. act of taking off one's coat striopálta, adj. stripped substainnt, n. substance suipéar, n. supper tasc, n. task tástáil, v. to try tástáil, n. trial trál, n. fishing net treabhsar, n. trousers treinsiúr, n. wooden plate triail, n. design trial, v. to plot trosadh, n. trussing trosáil, v. to truss trosáil, n. trussing trúp, n. troop Table 2 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1927) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching Table 2 Listed Anglicisms in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla (1927) ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug ábalta, adj. able ábaltacht, n. ability action, n. action áirseoir, n. archer aprún, n. apron atúrnae, n. attorney babhta, n. boot babhtáil, v. to exchange bácaeir, n. baker bácáil, n. baking baicéir, n. baker bainisteoir, n. manager bannda, n. band baoi, n. buoy bearbóir, n. barber bhálcaereacht, n. walking bhárta, n. waist bheist, n. vest bhuitse, n. witch bligeárdaidheacht, n. blackguardism boghtain, n. vaulting bóta, n. vote braighdéal, n. bridle bricfeasta, n. breakfast bruis, n. brush buimbiol, n. gimlet busta, n. bust cairbín, n. little ship cairpéad, n. carpet cáll, n. claim cantáil, n. selling by auction ceaig, n. keg cic, n. kick claspa, n. clasp cléabhar, n. cleaver cloca, n. a clock or ornamental pattern on a stocking cnafás, n. canvas coca, n. cock (as of hay) cocáil, v. to take aim coibléir, n. cobbler collárd, n. collation comónta, adj. common constábla, n. constable criú, n. crew cró, n. iron bar cruipéir, n. crupper dabht, n. doubt dainnséar, n. danger dam, n. dam déas, n. fish dace deic, n. deck of a vessel deighleail, v. to deal deighleail, n. dealing doinsiún, n. dungeon doipior, n. scoop-shaped reticule dosaen, n. dozen driosúr, n. dresser drog, n. drug droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching droinnse, n. drench duga, n. dock duibléid, n. doublet dunsa, n. dunce faisean, n. fashion fallsaor, n. palsy faoileail, n. tricks fásáil, n. facings of a garment feanndúr, n. fender feircín, n. firkin feiréad, n. ferret féirín, n. reward fí, n. fee fíf, n. fife filléad, n. kerchief fíneail, n. fine fíneálta, adj. fine fíneáltacht, n. condition of being finely drawn out fís, n. fees flís, n. The Golden Fleece flít, n. fleet fráma, n. frame friseálta, adj. fresh froc, n. frock gabháil, v. to take gábla, n. gable gada, n. gad gamarall, n. gomerel geabaire, n. prattler gealas, n. suspender géim, n. game gibiris, n. gibberish gimléad, n. gimlet giní, n. guinea giofta, n. gift giortáil, v. to patch giortáil, n. mending goibhearnóir, n. governor gotáil, n. act of cutting and gutting fish grábháil, n. engraving grápa, n. prong gráta, n. grate gróbh, n. grove grósa, n. gross gruid, n. malt grúla, n. growl grúmaer, n. groom grúnta, n. grounding guaisín, n. gosling guiséad, n. gusset gúta, n. gout haibil, n. fix or difficulty hainciorsoir, n. handkerchief hiar! hiar! interj. hear! hear! iuga, n. jug iúmar, n. disposition ládáil, n. act of lading or loading (as a gun) ladar, n. lather láibhéir, n. laver léigear, n. siege liosta, n. list liostálaim, v. intr., I enlist (in the army) liostáil, n. enlisting in the army liút, n. lute lód, n. load lódaireacht, n. lading lóduighthe, adj. laden lóistéir, n. lodger lóistéireacht, n. lodging lug, n. lug-worm mainnear, n. manner mál, n. mail mapa, n. mop masc, n. mask miodh, n. mead meadar, n. metre midilín, n. middle-band connecting the swingle and handstaff of a flail muisiall, n. curb muislinn, n. muslin néata, adj. neat neirbhis, n. nervousness nótálta, adj. noted ocstaer, n. huxter oigiséad, n. hogshead oipineon, n. opinion paba, n. fob pábhadh v. to pave pábháil, v. to pave paintear, n. panther paintéar, n. painter or panter paipínseoighe, n. popinjays pastae, n. pasty pé, n. pay peidléir, n. pedlar peilteail, n. act of beating heavily with feet or fists pincín, n. gilly-flower pinnse, n. pinch pléaraisí, n. pleurisy póirse, n. porch porainséir, n. porringer pórtar, n. porter (drink) praghas, n. price preasanta, n. present pritil, n. a blacksmith's punch in horse-shoeing puifín, n. puffin raidis, n. radish root rapar, n. cloak or wrap raspa, n. file ráta, n. rate reaca, n. wreckage réadaire, n. reader reanagád, n. renegade ribhéar, n. river ringear, n. ringer riodail, n. riddle riogáil, n. act of rigging robáil v. to rob robáil, n. act of robbing or plundering robálta, adj. robbed roc, n. ruck rópa, n. rope rósta, n. roast meat rúibín, n. ruby ruifín, n. ruffian rum, n. rum rútáil, n. act of rooting as a pig sacraifís, n. sacrifice scairf, n. scarf scéim, n. scheme scibhéir, n. skewer scil, n. skill scinnceail, n. act of skinking scrobha, n. screw scróbadh, v. to scrape scrobadh, n. scratching It is obvious that in an unsettled language like Irish, which has not been cultivated to any extent since the use of print became general, many orthographical difficulties present themselves to the lexicographer. Complete uniformity of spelling is certainly a great desideratum.          (An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla 1904:vi) Dinneen’s focus on standardising the orthographical system of the Irish language was not always applied in the domain of words of Anglo-Irish terms. The lack of uniformity in their recording can be seen in spelling variations of words between both editions; ranging from minor in some cases to more substantive in others, as shown in Table 3. For example, entries for geimléad and ginidh in the 1904 show varied forms of gimléad and giní in the 1927 edition. Other examples reveal more significant changes, while additionally exemplifying Dinneen’s lack of lexicographical rigour in the recording of some Anglo-Irish words. Taking, for example, the entries píntéar (1904) and paintéar (1927), some inconsistency is evident in their descriptions. In the 1927 edition, Dinneen lists píntéar, but without the label (A.), thus identifying it as a non-borrowed word which contrasts with its listing in the 1904 dictionary. The entry for paintéar in 1927 includes the label (A.), as does its preceding lemma paintear, which Dinneen translates the former as a painter or panter, snare, noose, gin, trap, binding cable, plot, patch or enclosure, and also identifies this word as being borrowed from English. Table 3 Orthographical Differences in Anglo-Irish Borrowings in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil Table 3 Orthographical Differences in Anglo-Irish Borrowings in An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil English Equivalent 1904 Lemma 1927 Lemma(s) Breakfast breacfast bricfeasta Gimlet geimléad gimléad Guinea ginidh giní Painter píntéar paintéar To pave pábhadh pábhadh/pábháil Although Dinneen’s editions were not always systematic in certain aspects of their content, they offered a more robust linguistic scope than the content of the dictionary compiled by O’Neill Lane in 1904. The mono-directional organisation of O’Neill Lane’s dictionary reflected the status of the Irish language in its own country as being of secondary importance to English. One of the objectives of Lane’s work was to assist the English- speaking masses of early twentieth-century Ireland through providing Irish equivalents for English words and phrases. Thus, the dictionary is, in effect, a translation dictionary aimed at English speakers rather than a language compilation that seeks to promote or protect the language in an era synonymous with the struggle of native linguistic identity. In this regard, Lane’s compilation did not seek to inform its usership about the provenance or status of an Irish word but listed them as an accompaniment to an English headword. Entries for taste and trial are illustrated in (5) and (6): (5) Taste, s., blas, gen. & pl. -ais, m.  Taste, v., blaisim. (6) Trial, s., fromhadh: tástáil; teasta; to make a trial  of a thing, nídh do fromhadh; trial at law, breitheamhnas  i ndlighe. These illustrations, from a lexicographical viewpoint, reveal how dictionaries reflected the linguistic problem of early twentieth-century Ireland. The publication of two dictionaries in the same year reflected the national need for the language to be recorded in a formal, but standardised manner to address the internal conflicts of varying orthographical forms, and the influence of the number of regional dialects on the stability of the language. However, their publication also brought to light the indeterminate linguistic status of the island at that time, which saw Irish becoming the peripheral means of expression of many Irish people. Dinneen and Lane provide an interesting backdrop, from an Irish perspective, to this issue with the implicit purpose of their respective dictionaries: Dinneen’s to cleanse, standardise and promote the living Irish language; Lane’s to position it in a subordinate role to English in its native land. 4. Conclusion The lexicon is a porous structure that continually changes to modernise its content to keep pace with societal evolution. Some languages, however, are more privileged by the accepted superiority in the linguistic hierarchy that places them at the forefront of language evolution, thus simultaneously reinforcing their position as a dominant language and communicator of new ideas and concepts. At the receptor end of this continuum are minority languages, which by their nature are peripheralized entities that protect the originality and identity of a culture through linguistic fact. Change and evolution are challenging concepts for minority languages, as many of these developments are largely driven through the English-speaking world, and immediately transposed, without any linguistic adjustment, into any language open to the concept being described, or with a lexical deficiency that presents a description of the concept. This process is the catalyst for one language to borrow from another – a process long-established in language convention but posing an ever-increasing threat to the long-term survival of minority languages. Irish falls neatly into this category. Its vulnerability to borrowings from English, dating back to the thirteenth century, means that external influence has been an integral part of its make-up for the last 800 years. The influx of many lexical items of English origin provided a functional stability to the language, as it allowed native speakers to understand changes in social and cultural patterns in the island during the mid-to-late twentieth-century. Dictionaries, historically often a gatekeeper of language purity, produced in Ireland during this time did not seek to address this change in view of its potentially corrosive effect on the language given their focus to record the history. It was not until the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century that a renewed effort to reverse the anglicised influence on Irish gathered some momentum, driven by the establishment of Irish language protection groups, the strive for national independence and the compilation of what was considered as the first truly modern Irish-English dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen in 1904. Collectively, these efforts did not reverse the inherent effects that continual borrowings over a significant period had on the Irish language that contributed to a weakening of its lexical structure and a diminishing of its importance as the lingua franca of the Irish people. The necessity for a language to borrow reflects its position in that time as either being too peripheral to the centre or being too outdated to be modern. This does not negatively judge the value and position of minority languages but rather underlines their weakness and delicacy in the face of the global popularity of languages, such as English. At this point, lexicography of minority languages, both historical and modern, has an important role to play in preserving the indigenous language artefacts that contribute to linguistic difference and cultural identity, and at the same time bring the linguistic periphery to the core of society. References Dinneen P. S. 1904 . An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla [An Irish-English Dictionary]. First Edition . Dublin : Irish Text Society . Dinneen P. S. 1927 . An Foclóir Gaedhilge agus Béarla . Second Edition . Dublin : Irish Texts Society . O’Neill Lane T. 1904 . Lane's English-Irish Dictionary Foclóir Béarla-Gaedhilge . Dublin : Sealy, Bryers and Walker . Chudak M. 2010 . ‘Recent English Loanwords in Irish and the Interchange of Initial Segments.’ Bucharest Working Papers in Linguistics 2 : 61 – 71 . Doyle A. 2015 . A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Filipovic R. 1988 . ‘Contact Languages: Retrospect-Prospect’ In Klegraf J. , Nehls D. (eds), Essays on the English Language and Applied Linguistics on the Occasion of Gerhard Nickel’s 60th birthday . Heidelberg : Julius Groos : 342 – 356 . Haugen E. 1956 . Bilingualism in the Americas: A Bibliography and Research Guide . (American Dialect Society Monograph 26.). University: University of Alabama Press . Hickey T. 2009 . ‘Code-switching and Borrowing in Irish.’ Journal of Sociolinguistics 13 . 5 : 670 – 688 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Mac Mathúna L. 2012 . ‘English and Irish in Selected Warrants and Macaronic Verse’ In Kelly J. , MacMurchaidh C. (eds), Irish and English: Essays on the Linguistic and Cultural Frontier, 1600-1900 . Dublin : Four Courts : 116 – 140 . Mac Mathúna S. 2006 . ‘Remarks on Standardisation in Irish English, Irish and Welsh. ‘In Tristam H. (ed) The Celtic Englishes IV: the interface between English and the Celtic languages. Proceedings from the fourth International Colloquium on the Celtic Englishes . Potsdams : Potsdam University Press : 114 – 129 . O’Malley Madec M. 2007 . ‘How One Word Borrows Another: The Process of Language Contact in Two Irish-Speaking Communities.’ International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10 : 494 – 509 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Poplack S. , Sankoff D. . 1984 . ‘Borrowing: The Synchrony of Integration.’ Linguistics 22 : 99 – 135 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS Smyth W. J. 2006 . Map-making, Landscapes and Memory . Cork : Cork University Press . Stenson N. 1993 . ‘English Influence on Irish: The Last 100 Years.’ Journal of Celtic Linguistics 2 : 107 – 129 . © 2018 Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

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Published: May 24, 2018

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