Information Dropout Patterns in Restriction Site Associated DNA Phylogenomics and a Comparison with Multilocus Sanger Data in a Species-Rich Moth Genus

Information Dropout Patterns in Restriction Site Associated DNA Phylogenomics and a Comparison... Abstract A rapid shift from traditional Sanger sequencing-based molecular methods to the phylogenomic approach with large numbers of loci is underway. Among phylogenomic methods, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approaches have gained much attention as they enable rapid generation of up to thousands of loci randomly scattered across the genome and are suitable for nonmodel species. RAD data sets however suffer from large amounts of missing data and rapid locus dropout along with decreasing relatedness among taxa. The relationship between locus dropout and the amount of phylogenetic information retained in the data has remained largely uninvestigated. Similarly, phylogenetic hypotheses based on RAD have rarely been compared with phylogenetic hypotheses based on multilocus Sanger sequencing, even less so using exactly the same species and specimens. We compared the Sanger-based phylogenetic hypothesis (8 loci; 6172 bp) of 32 species of the diverse moth genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) to that based on double-digest RAD sequencing (3256 loci; 726,658 bp). We observed that topologies were largely congruent, with some notable exceptions that we discuss. The locus dropout effect was strong. We demonstrate that number of loci is not a precise measure of phylogenetic information since the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may remain low at very shallow phylogenetic levels despite large numbers of loci. As we hypothesize, the number of SNPs and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) is low at shallow phylogenetic levels, peaks at intermediate levels and, thereafter, declines again at the deepest levels as a result of decay of available loci. Similarly, we demonstrate with empirical data that the locus dropout affects the type of loci retained, the loci found in many species tending to show lower interspecific distances than those shared among fewer species. We also examine the effects of the numbers of loci, SNPs, and PIS on nodal bootstrap support, but could not demonstrate with our data our expectation of a positive correlation between them. We conclude that RAD methods provide a powerful tool for phylogenomics at an intermediate phylogenetic level as indicated by its broad congruence with an eight-gene Sanger data set in a genus of moths. When assessing the quality of the data for phylogenetic inference, the focus should be on the distribution and number of SNPs and PIS rather than on loci. Allelic dropout, ddRAD sequencing, Eupithecia, Lepidoptera, locus dropout, molecular systematics, parsimony informative SNPs, RAD sequencing, SNP dropout High-throughput DNA sequencing methods have enabled rapid generation of genome-wide DNA sequence data simultaneously from many specimens with reasonable costs. Several Next-generation sequencing platforms have become available (Mardis 2013) and a number of different methods have been developed to accumulate data to address specific scientific questions, including various areas of systematic research (Lemmon and Lemmon 2013). Recent approaches include anchored hybrid enrichment (Lemmon et al. 2012; Brandley et al. 2015; Hamilton et al. 2016; Breinholt et al. 2018) and several varieties of restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD) (Miller et al. 2007; Baird et al. 2008). RAD methods, based on the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes and subsequent sequencing of short regions adjacent to the restriction sites, enable efficient single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and are receiving growing attention among systematists. Several RAD-based studies have focused on young species groups and taxonomically complex groups with horizontal gene transfer and incomplete lineage sorting potentially complicating the inference of phylogenies or species trees (Eaton and Ree 2013; Rheindt et al. 2014; Streicher et al. 2014). Other studies have been carried out with well-defined and even arguably relatively old (ten to tens of millions years) species (Rubin et al. 2012; Cruaud et al. 2014; Hipp et al. 2014; Viricel et al. 2014; Herrera et al. 2015; McCluskey and Postlethwait 2015; Herrera and Shank 2016; Eaton et al. 2017). Of the RAD methods, double-digest RAD sequencing (ddRADseq) has a benefit of high repeatability because it avoids the random shearing characteristic of traditional RAD methods, which makes combining independent data sets straightforward as long as the same restriction enzyme pair has been used (Peterson et al. 2012; Kai et al. 2014; Puritz et al. 2014). So far, only a few explorations of ddRADseq have been conducted in a phylogenetic context (Kai et al. 2014; Leaché et al. 2015a; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). RAD-based approaches have several benefits (Davey and Blaxter 2010; Rowe et al. 2011; Puritz et al. 2014). Restriction sites are scattered all over the genome and therefore RAD tags provide an overview of the entire genome. Typically, the analysis yields thousands of loci (ca. 100–150 bp fragments) and SNPs per specimen. Alcohol preserved specimens are suitable and since reads are relatively short (usually 50–150 bp), dry collection specimens have been used successfully as well (Tin et al. 2014; Suchan et al. 2016). Furthermore, the efficient use of RAD tags does not require a reference genome. Therefore, the method is suitable for nonmodel organisms (Andrews et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2016). In spite of these benefits, RAD sequencing has certain limitations. RAD tags typically consist of substantial amounts of missing data, potentially complicating the inference of phylogenetic relationships (Rubin et al. 2012; Lemmon and Lemmon 2013; Wagner et al. 2013; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). Attention has been directed to recognizing orthologous loci and distinguishing them from nonhomologies and thus misleading paralogous loci (Rubin et al. 2012; Cariou et al. 2013; Gonen et al. 2015). Another major practical issue is that the likelihood of recovering an orthologous locus is negatively correlated with time since lineage divergence, because mutations gradually accumulate on restriction sites as time elapses. Thus, only a fraction of shared loci are recovered between genetically distant individuals, arguably reducing the efficacy of the method at deeper phylogenetic levels (Arnold et al. 2013; Ree and Hipp 2015). Indeed, several studies have indicated that rapid locus dropout (also called locus decay or allelic dropout) is an inherent feature of RAD data and the effect can be drastic (Gonen et al. 2015; Leaché et al. 2015b; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). If the mutation rate remains constant over time, a linear dropout of loci is expected with decreasing relatedness between two lineages (Fig. 1). Loci recovered between distant relatives are expected to be slowly evolving (e.g., protein coding genes), which translates into a disproportionately low number of SNPs and consequently a weak phylogenetic signal, further exaggerating the data decay at deep phylogenetic levels (Leaché et al. 2015a). Huang and Knowles (2016) demonstrated with simulated data that low tolerance to missing data leads to a disproportionately high exclusion rate of loci with high mutation rate. Locus dropout and decreased mutation rate of retained loci are complementary and predict a constant steep loss of information towards deeper phylogenetic levels. Eaton et al. (2017) recently demonstrated that, somewhat counter-intuitively, the influence of locus dropout on the phylogenetic information content at deeper phylogenetic levels is less significant than previously expected because the decay of phylogenetic information resulting from locus dropout is compensated for by the increase of taxa towards the deeper nodes. Consequently, Eaton et al. (2017) concluded that the negative effects of locus dropout can be mitigated by increasing taxon sampling. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Schematic representation of actual numbers of shared loci, SNPs, and PIS, and those expected to be observed in RAD data sets between two lineages along their coalescence time (starting from a coalescence time of zero). The actual number of homologous loci is constantly but slowly decreasing with increasing coalescence time. The actual number of SNPs and PIS is increasing first fast because most mutations represent new SNPs and PIS, but then at a steadily decreasing pace because of saturation of mutations at any given site. The number of loci observed in RAD data is expected to decrease at constant rate as a result of mutations accumulating to the restriction sites, finally reaching zero. This effect is called locus dropout or locus decay. The number of observed SNPs and PIS in the data are affected by their actual number and recovered number of loci, resulting in a peaked curve with an optimum at intermediate phylogenetic levels. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Schematic representation of actual numbers of shared loci, SNPs, and PIS, and those expected to be observed in RAD data sets between two lineages along their coalescence time (starting from a coalescence time of zero). The actual number of homologous loci is constantly but slowly decreasing with increasing coalescence time. The actual number of SNPs and PIS is increasing first fast because most mutations represent new SNPs and PIS, but then at a steadily decreasing pace because of saturation of mutations at any given site. The number of loci observed in RAD data is expected to decrease at constant rate as a result of mutations accumulating to the restriction sites, finally reaching zero. This effect is called locus dropout or locus decay. The number of observed SNPs and PIS in the data are affected by their actual number and recovered number of loci, resulting in a peaked curve with an optimum at intermediate phylogenetic levels. We recognize an additional effect inherent to RAD data sets, which differs from the previously recognized effects in a remarkable way. Previous studies have largely concentrated on the amount of sequence data per se, but such measures do not provide a reliable picture of the amount of phylogenetic information content in the data. This is because phylogenetic relatedness is highly correlated with genetic similarity. Consequently, at very shallow phylogenetic levels, the number of retrieved loci can be very high, while at the same time they may be poor in phylogenetic information due to the limited time for mutations to have accumulated (Fig. 1). We therefore predict that the number of SNPs and PIS decrease towards very shallow phylogenetic levels and peaks at intermediate phylogenetic levels. As a result, the phylogenetic information content is not expected to be linearly related with the number of loci. In Figure 1, the expected relationship between the loci and SNPs/PIS along with increasing coalescence time between two lineages is demonstrated in a schematic way (Fig. 1). To our best knowledge, the relationship between locus and SNP/PIS dropouts across phylogenetic time has not been investigated. Here, we aim to assess the potential of ddRADseq in resolving phylogenetic affinities in the looper moth genus Eupithecia Curtis (vernacular name “pugs”) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) and conduct a detailed examination of patterns and effects of loci, SNPs, and PIS on ddRAD phylogeny. Eupithecia is one of the most diverse metazoan genera and includes 1362 described valid species world-wide (Scoble and Hausmann 2007). Species of Eupithecia show high levels of morphological similarity and niche specialization (McDunnough 1949; Mironov 2003), both features characterizing many megadiverse insect groups. Due to the high number of species and close morphological similarity, attempts to resolve their relationships with rigorous methodology are virtually lacking. We start by examining effects of ddRAD locus parameters (clustering threshold and minimum number of individuals per locus) on ddRAD tree topology and confidence. We continue by examining the congruence between the eight-gene Sanger data set and the ddRAD phylogenies. Few similar comparisons have previously been carried out (but see Cruaud et al. 2014; Ruane et al. 2015). The Sanger phylogeny of Eupithecia is constructed based on a set of one mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes that combined have repeatedly shown to have high information value at intermediate and deep phylogenetic levels in Lepidoptera (e.g., Mutanen et al. 2010; Sihvonen et al. 2011; Zahiri et al. 2012; Heikkilä et al. 2015). We investigate if the number of SNPs/locus decreases as the number of individuals/locus increases. We expect conserved loci to be shared more widely among individuals as the mutation rate of these loci is presumably slower. We next examine how the level of locus conservation is related to SNP/PIS abundance and investigate if locus and SNP/PIS distributions at different phylogenetic depths follow the predicted patterns as presented in Figure 1. Finally, we statistically examine locus and SNP/PIS effects on nodal support values. Material and Methods Taxon Sampling We sampled a total of 42 specimens from 35 species of Eupithecia that were collected during 2006–2014 from Finland, Germany, and Italy. Pasiphila rectangulata was also included to serve as the outgroup, both genera belonging to the tribe Eupitheciini (Larentiinae). Multiple specimens of four species (Eupithecia satyrata, Eupithecia plumbeolata, Eupithecia gelidata, and Eupithecia nanata) were included, because based on their mtDNA, they potentially reflect either cryptic diversity or mitonuclear discordance. Detailed information on the label data of the specimens is provided in SupplementaryTable S1 available on Dryad at http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.474nd. Molecular Methods Sanger sequencing was performed for one mitochondrial and seven nuclear markers. This set of markers has become a standard in Lepidoptera phylogenetics and have been used in over a hundred studies since they were proposed for this purpose (Wahlberg and Wheat 2008). The sequencing for the mt COI gene was carried out at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding (CCDB) following laboratory protocols used routinely in CCDB as explained in detail in DeWaard et al. (2008). In order to proceed with the sequencing for nuclear genes and the ddRAD library preparation, genomic DNA (gDNA) was separately extracted from two legs using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen) in the molecular laboratory at the University of Oulu, Finland. All Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing protocols followed Wahlberg and Wheat (2008), except for PCR clean-up that was carried out with ExoSAP-IT (Affymetrix) and Sephadex columns (Sigma-Aldrich) and sequencing that was done using an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). We acquired sequence data from the following nuclear regions comprising a total of 6172 base pairs (bp): carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein (CAD), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1$$\alpha )$$, glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH), ribosomal protein S5 (RpS5), and wingless (see SupplementaryTable S2 available on Dryad). All sequences for each taxon were manually aligned and edited using BioEdit (Hall 1999). Primers are available at http://www.nymphalidae.net/Molecular.htm. All DNA sequences are available at the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank (Accessions numbers MH030607–MH030876). Double-digested RAD-Seq libraries were prepared following Peterson et al. (2012). All samples were whole-genome amplified prior to experimentation using a REPLI-g Mini kit (Qiagen) due to low concentrations of gDNA in the original isolates. Concentration of the amplified gDNA was estimated with the PicoGreen kit (Molecular Probes) according to the kit instructions. A 200 ng of gDNA was digested with PstI and MseI restriction enzymes (New England Biolabs). Following digestion, ligation of double-stranded sequencing adapters was completed in the same tube. The P1 adapter included the Illumina sequencing primer sequences, 1 of 43 unique, 5 bp barcodes, and a TGCA overhang on the top strand to match the sticky end left by PstI. The P2 adapter included the Illumina sequencing primer sequences, and an AT overhangs on the top strand to match the sticky end left by MseI. It also incorporated a “divergent-Y” to prevent amplification of fragments with MseI cut sites on both ends. Following ligation, size selection was performed by the automated size-selection technology, BluePippin (Sage Science; 2% agarose cartridge). We produced two pooled libraries in four lanes of the machine using automated size selection set to “tight” with a mean of 300 bp. Size selected libraries were eluted in 40 μL volumes and enriched by PCR using library-specific indexed primers complementary to the Illumina paired-end adapters. Amplified DNA fragments were purified with AMPure XP magnetic beads (Agencourt). The quality, size, and concentration of the pooled libraries were finally determined using the MultiNA® (Shimadzu). Individual fragment libraries were then combined in equimolar amounts and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 PE 100. DNA reads from ddRAD sequencing are available at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) [BioProject ID: PRJNA345300]. To rule out contamination by the bacterial parasite Wolbachia, the ddRAD reads were mapped to Wolbachia pipientis (GenBank: NZ_JQAM01000001) using Geneious 10.0.9 (Biomatters). ddRADseq Data Processing, Examination of Effects of Locus Parameters and Assessing Comprehensiveness of Data We processed raw Illumina reads using the pyRAD v.3.0.5 (Eaton 2014) pipeline. This program is designed to assemble data for phylogenetic studies that contain divergent species using global alignment clustering which may include indel variation. We demultiplexed samples using their unique barcode and adapter sequences, and sites with Phred quality scores below 20 were converted to “N” characters, and reads with $$\geqslant $$10% N’s were discarded. The filtered reads for each sample were clustered using the program VSEARCH v.1.1.3 (VSEARCH GitHub repository, https://github.com/torognes/vsearch), and then aligned with MUSCLE v.3.8.31 (Edgar 2004). This clustering step establishes homology among reads within a species. As an additional filtering step, such consensus sequences were discarded that had low coverage ($$<$$3 reads), excessive undetermined, or heterozygous sites ($$>$$10) potential resulting from paralogs or highly repetitive genomic regions, or too many haplotypes (>2 for diploids). In addition, we excluded all loci with excessive (>3) shared polymorphic sites as likely representing clustering of paralogs. The consensus sequences were clustered across samples at 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95% similarity. This step establishes locus homology among species. The justification for this filtering method is that shared heterozygous SNPs across species are more likely to represent a fixed difference among paralogs than shared heterozygosity within orthologs among species. We applied a strict filter that allowed a maximum of three species to share heterozygosity at a given site (paralog $$=$$ 3). The final ddRADseq loci were assembled by adjusting a minimum number of individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value, which specifies the minimum number of individuals that are required to have data present at a locus for that locus to be included in the final matrix. Our ddRADseq data set contained 43 individuals from 36 species (35 Eupithecia species and Pasiphila rectangulata as the outgroup), and setting $$m = 6$$ retains loci with data present for three or more species. In contrast, setting $$m = 43$$ retains zero loci with data present for all individuals ($$=100$$% complete matrix). We compiled data matrices with $$m$$ values of each 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 to determine the potential impact of number of loci, SNPs, parsimony informative SNPs (PIS), and missing data on phylogenetic analysis. We generated a pairwise similarity matrix for individuals based on locus-sharing patterns using RADami v. 1.0-3 (Hipp et al. 2014) in R 3.1.3 (R Core Team 2015). This analysis returned a pairwise similarity matrix based on how many loci or the proportion of loci shared between individuals. We assessed the comprehensiveness of our data set by comparing the number and proportion of observed loci retained at the sequencing depth used in the final data sets ($$d \geqslant 3$$; $$d$$ denotes the sequencing depth) with those of observed showing depth less than 3 (observed 1–3 times). Construction of Reference Assembly Data Set We also constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis based only on the reads that we could map on available lepidopteran genomes. For the reference assembly, we used the following 26 genomes as reference: Amyelois transitella [GCF_001186105], Bombyx mori [GCF_000151625], Calycopis cecrops [GCA_001625245], Chilo suppressalis [GCA_000636095], Danaus plexippus [GCA_000235995], Heliconius cydno, [GCA_001485745] Heliconius elevatus [GCA_900068365], Heliconius ethilla, [GCA_001485985] Heliconius hecale [GCA_001486065], Heliconius ismenius [GCA_001485965], Heliconius melpomene [GCA_000313835], Heliconius numata [GCA_900068715], Heliconius pardalinus [GCA_001486225], Heliconius timareta [GCA_001486185], Lerema accius [GCA_001278395], Manduca sexta [GCA_000262585], Melitaea cinxia [GCA_000716385], Operophtera brumata [GCA_001266575], Papilio glaucus [GCA_000931545], Papilio machaon [GCF_001298355], Papilio polytes [GCF_000836215], Papilio xuthus [GCF_000836235], Phoebis sennae [GCA_001586405], Pieris rapae [GCA_001856805], Plutella xylostella [GCF_000330985], and Spodoptera frugiperda [GCA_002213285]. We concatenated these genomes to a single reference file. Sequences were assembled using ipyrad v.0.7.11 (Eaton and Overcast 2016). Reads were trimmed of barcodes and adapters and quality filtered using a q-score threshold of 33, with bases below this score converted to Ns and any reads with more than 5 Ns removed. Reads were mapped to the concatenated reference genomes with BWA based on sequence similarity using the default bwa mem setting. With the collected reads, similar clusters of reads were identified using a threshold of 85% of similarity and were aligned. Next, we performed joint estimation of heterozygosity and error rate based on a diploid model assuming a maximum of two consensus alleles per individual. We then used the parameters from the previous step, heterozygosity, and error rate, to determine consensus base calls for each allele, and removed consensus sequences with greater than 5 Ns per end of paired-end reads. Reads of each sample were then clustered and aligned to consensus sequences. Finally, we filtered the data set according to maximum number of indels allowed per read end (8), maximum number of SNPs per locus (20), maximum proportion of shared heterozygous sites per locus (0.5), and minimum number of samples per locus (3). Construction of Phylogenetic Trees To infer phylogenetic hypotheses, we used concatenated sequences from all recovered RAD loci. We used the maximum likelihood (ML) method implemented in the RAxML 8.2.0 (Stamatakis 2006) program with a GTR$$+$$GAMMA model [as the best fit model by jModelTest v.2.1.7 (Posada 2008)]. Two hundred independent trees were inferred, applying options of automatically optimized subtree pruning regrafting rearrangement and 25 distinct rate categories in the program to identify the best tree. Statistical support for each branch was obtained using the rapid algorithm from 500 bootstrap replicates under the same substitution model. For reference assembly data, the ML tree was built using the unpartitioned GTR$$+$$CAT model and branch support was assessed by a 500 replicates rapid-bootstrap analysis. The following species were not included in the reference assembly due to the low number of recovered loci: Eupithecia tantillaria, Eupithecia tenuiata, Eupithecia linariata, Eupithecia intricata, E. nanata, Eupithecia centaureata, Eupithecia vulgata and Eupithecia abietaria. Effects of Locus Conservation on SNP Frequency As the data were severely overdispersed for a Poisson distribution, to study whether locus conservativeness is correlated with SNPs in our data we fitted generalized linear models with a negative binomial error distribution and logarithmic link function [R function “glm.nb” from the package MASS (Venables and Ripley 2002)] to the data derived with $$m \geqslant $$ 6, lower values of $$m$$ being excluded due to the risk of contaminant loci (e.g., of bacterial origin) being included in the data. To assess potential nonlinearity of the relationship between the number of SNPs/locus and the number of individuals/locus, we compared models where the linear predictor included only a linear term for the number of individuals/locus and a model with both the linear and quadratic terms. Models were compared based on their Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values. Because the normal distribution assumption of residuals was violated in both models, we further derived 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals for the mean number of SNPs/locus with each value of $$m$$ (individuals/locus), excluding the cases where less than seven observations were available ($$m \geqslant $$ 21). Bootstrap analyses (10,000 resamples, Davison and Hinkley 1997) were conducted with the R functions “boot” and “boot.ci” (Canty and Ripley 2015). Patterns of Locus, SNP, and PIS Dropout and Their Effects on Nodal Confidence We used node depth as a proxy for node age (in relative terms) and used nodes as observation units. In order to quantify the depth values for each node, we converted the ML tree into an ultrametric tree (SupplementaryFig. S1 available on Dryad) based on rate smoothing as implemented in the R package ape (Paradis et al. 2004). A correlation analysis between node depth and bootstrap values was executed with R 3.1.3 and graphically represented by using the packages corrplot (Wei 2013) and ggplot2 (Wickham 2009). To quantify and measure locus dropout, we calculated the numbers of loci shared between at least one individual of both sister lineages originating from each node, and divided this value by the number of taxa originating from the node in question. The latter standardization was done because the number of taxa varied widely between the lineages and the probability of recovering a locus increases with increased hierarchical redundancy. We considered this the best measure (in a phylogenetic sense) of locus dropout, because loci found only in one of the sister lineages do not contain phylogenetically useful information and therefore fall into the locus dropout zone. To test if the data are consistent with the predicted linear locus decay (Fig. 1), we fitted a linear regression model (function “lm” in R 3.2.2) to the data on number of loci and the corresponding node depth values. Confidence intervals were derived for the regression slope (function “confint”) and fitted regression line (function “predict.lm”). Potential deviation from the linear locus decay was investigated by comparing the linear regression model to a quadratic regression fitted with the same function. Linear and quadratic regression models were compared on the grounds of AIC and BIC, but we also used the coefficient of determination ($$R^{\mathrm{2}}$$; given by the R function “lm”) in assessing model explanatory power. To examine SNP and PIS dropouts, only SNPs/PIS of loci recovered in both sister lineages of each node at least once were considered. To eliminate the effects of hierarchical redundancy, the numbers of SNPs/PIS were divided by the number of taxa found at lineages originating from each node. To test if the number of SNPs peak at intermediate node depth values (Fig. 1), we fitted a quadratic regression model (R function “lm”) to the data on numbers of SNPs and corresponding node depth values. Confidence intervals for the coefficient for squared node depth and the fitted regression curve were derived as above. The presence of a peak in the number of SNPs along node depth axis was further assessed by comparing the quadratic regression model to a linear one on the grounds of AIC and BIC, and by examining the $$R^{\mathrm{2}}$$ values of the two models. The analysis for PIS was conducted otherwise in a similar manner to SNP dropout, except that the number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed to ln([number of PIS) $$+$$ 1]) (one added because the data include zeros) to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The effect of branch length was controlled for when assessing the contribution of SNPs, PIS, and loci to node support. We first modeled the dependence of bootstrap values on branch length with an asymptotic nonlinear regression through the origin (self-starting regression function “SSasympOrig” in the R function “nls” supplementaryFig. S2.). Observations were weighted with the number of SNPs for the analysis of SNP and PIS contribution to node support (PIS include zeros, precluding its use as weights, but the number of PIS is strongly and positively correlated with number of SNPs; see below), and with the number of loci for the assessment of the contribution of loci to node support. The contribution of SNPs, PIS, and loci to node support was analyzed separately because the numbers of SNPs, PIS, and loci are strongly and positively correlated [Pearson’s correlations ($$r)$$: $$r_{\mathrm{SNP-PIS}} = 0.957$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 20.5$$, $$P < 0.0001; r_{\mathrm{SNP-loci}} = 0.898$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 12.7$$, $$P < 0.0001$$; $$r_{\mathrm{PIS-loci}} = 0.781$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 7.80$$, $$P < 0.0001$$]. We took residuals from the above non-linear asymptotic regression models and used them as response variables (i.e., the component of node support not explained by branch length; hereafter called as bootstrap residuals) in subsequent analyses. Variation in the bootstrap residuals was analyzed with linear models (R function “lm”) where node depth and either the number of SNPs, the number of PIS, or number of loci were the explanatory variables. Interaction between the explanatory variables was included in both models. Results Optimization of ddRAD Loci Parameters On average, approximately five million reads per individual were obtained, of which 82.3% were retained after stringent quality filtering steps (Table 1). After filtering and clustering, the ddRADseq data matrix yielded approximately 15,000 loci per specimen, with a minimum coverage of $$3\times$$ after filtering for paralogs (Table 1; SupplementaryTable S3 available on Dryad). Only two loci (90 and 98 nucleotides) originated from Wolbachia pipientis. Table 1 Species included in the study and a summary of the ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Note: Values shown below are median. $$^{{a}}$$Clusters that passed filtering for $$3\times$$ minimum coverage. $$^{{b}}$$Loci retained after passing coverage and paralog filters. $$^{{c}}$$Median depth of loci. $$^{{d}}$$Frequency of polymorphic sites. View Large Table 1 Species included in the study and a summary of the ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Note: Values shown below are median. $$^{{a}}$$Clusters that passed filtering for $$3\times$$ minimum coverage. $$^{{b}}$$Loci retained after passing coverage and paralog filters. $$^{{c}}$$Median depth of loci. $$^{{d}}$$Frequency of polymorphic sites. View Large The total number of loci ranged from 10 to 8737 between the nine data matrices, demonstrating the dramatic effect of parameter selection on the amount of data (Table 2). No shared loci were recovered across all 43 individuals in any of the data matrices, and only one locus was retained across 24 individuals (SupplementaryTable S4 available on Dryad). Data assemblages that maximized the number of individuals per locus contained relatively few loci and SNPs, but at the same time reduced the amount of missing data. Those matrices produced discordant phylogenies compared to those with lower value of $$m$$. The different clustering thresholds had a significant effect on the total number of loci (range 794–3833 loci), variable sites (range 18,001–224,916) as well as the PIS (range 5122–69,029) (Table 2). The pairwise p-distance between specimens ranged from 0.1% and 14.7% across all specimens and data matrices and showed that both $$m$$ and clustering thresholds ($$c)$$ have a significant effect on mean distances between the specimens (SupplementaryFig. S4 available on Dryad). Resulting data matrices analyzed in RAxML produced overall similar tree topologies for most trials, but ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 produced a poorly resolved and very deviant tree probably as a result of scarcity of retained loci (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). The tree based on the strictest clustering threshold (ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6) also differed considerably from the other trees. In that tree, the number of SNPs was higher than in ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 and comparable to ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9, but the proportion of missing data was clearly higher (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). Table 2 Sequence information in the ddRAD and Sanger sequencing data matrices Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Note: The ddRADseq data matrices were generated with different parameters of clustering threshold ($$c)$$ and minimum individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value. VAR $$=$$ number of variable sites; PIS $$=$$ number of parsimony informative SNPs. View Large Table 2 Sequence information in the ddRAD and Sanger sequencing data matrices Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Note: The ddRADseq data matrices were generated with different parameters of clustering threshold ($$c)$$ and minimum individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value. VAR $$=$$ number of variable sites; PIS $$=$$ number of parsimony informative SNPs. View Large Phylogeny of Eupithecia Of ddRAD topologies, the one based on ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data (726,658 bp) was selected for further comparisons because of its general congruence with several other data sets and high number of retained loci (3256) and SNPs (3164). Phylogenetic trees based on other data matrices of ddRAD are provided in the Supplementary Figure S3 available on Dryad and basic statistics in Table 2. The concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data included 6172 bp and 8 loci (Table 2 and Fig. 2). Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Phylogenetic trees of Eupithecia based on a) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 and b) combined nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data. The combined nuclear and mitochondrial tree was constructed based on the nuclear CAD, EF1$$\alpha $$, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, RpS5, wingless, and mitochondrial COI genes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred with RAxML with 500 bootstrap replicates. Bootstrap values are indicated near branches. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Phylogenetic trees of Eupithecia based on a) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 and b) combined nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data. The combined nuclear and mitochondrial tree was constructed based on the nuclear CAD, EF1$$\alpha $$, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, RpS5, wingless, and mitochondrial COI genes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred with RAxML with 500 bootstrap replicates. Bootstrap values are indicated near branches. The ddRAD and Sanger topologies were similar but not identical, the ddRAD data providing better support than Sanger data from intermediate to shallow nodes (bootstrap mostly 100% at <0.45 depth; see Fig. 3a), whereas both ddRAD and Sanger data showed moderate to poor resolution at deeper-level nodes (at >0.45 depth). The mt COI phylogeny produced a poorly resolved tree with low bootstrap values at most of the nodes, and the bootstrap values dropped especially fast between 0.2 and 0.4 depth (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. S3i available on Dryad). Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Bootstrap values in relation to node depth in a) ddRAD-$$c$$80, ddRAD-$$c$$85, ddRAD-$$c$$90 and b) combined NR$$+$$MT, mt COI. Shaded regions represent 95% confidence intervals around average coherence. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Bootstrap values in relation to node depth in a) ddRAD-$$c$$80, ddRAD-$$c$$85, ddRAD-$$c$$90 and b) combined NR$$+$$MT, mt COI. Shaded regions represent 95% confidence intervals around average coherence. The ddRAD topology suggests that E. abietaria is the sister taxon to all other sampled Eupithecia, while the Sanger topology places Eupithecia actaeata in that position, indicating a clear conflict between the data sets (Fig. 2). The positions of E. centaureata, Eupithecia immundata, and Eupithecia irriguata remain largely unclear. Eupithecia simpliciata clustered with Eupithecia semigraphata in the ddRAD topology (bootstrap 100%; Fig. 2a), while it grouped (although poorly supported) with E. satyrata, Eupithecia indigata, Eupithecia conterminata, and E. intricata in the Sanger topology (bootstrap 36%; Fig. 2b). Eupithecia simpliciata and E. semigraphata shared 97 ddRAD loci, whereas E. simpliciata shared only two ddRAD loci with E. satyrata, E. indigata, E. conterminata, and E. intricata (Supplementary Fig. S5 available on Dryad). Eupithecia vulgata also showed a conflict between ddRAD and Sanger data sets. The number of recovered loci of E. vulgata was 107, being the lowest of all species in the ddRAD data set (Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. S6 available on Dryad). In a trial with E. tantillaria and E. vulgata removed, these having the highest levels of missing data, the phylogenetic placement and relationships of the species showing conflict between ddRAD and Sanger data (e.g., E. semigraphata, E. simpliciata) remained the same (see Supplementary Fig. S7b available on Dryad). The exclusion of the six poorest-quality samples did not significantly affect the phylogenetic results. For the reference assembly, an average of 271,114 reads per sample were mapped to the 26 reference genomes of Lepidoptera, while an average of 286,552 reads per sample remained unmapped (Supplementary Table S3 available on Dryad). After filtering, an average of 31,748 clusters per sample were obtained, with an average of 32.4 per sample for cluster depth. The final data set from the reference assembly consisted of 822 recovered loci per sample across more than three individuals. The phylogenetic hypothesis based on the reference assembly produced a remarkably incongruent tree with both the de novo ddRAD assembly tree and the Sanger tree (Supplementary Fig. S8 available on Dryad). Effects of Locus Conservation on SNP Frequency The number of SNPs per locus showed considerable variation at each value of individuals per locus ($$m$$, range 6–24), demonstrating pronounced variation in locus conservation regardless of its likelihood to be recovered. The average number of SNPs/locus, however, tended to decrease with increasing number of individuals/locus across loci shared by a minimum of 10 individuals (Fig. 4), demonstrating the connection between the locus dropout and the type of retained loci. The quadratic model (Supplementary Table S5 available on Dryad) explained the data much better than the linear model ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$1 8.3, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 12.3 in favor of the quadratic model). The 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals encompassed the fitted regression curve derived from the generalized linear model, lending support to inferences based on the regression model even though the normality assumption of the residuals was violated in the regression model. The number of recovered loci decreased dramatically when an increasing number of individuals were required to share a locus (Supplementary Fig. S9 available on Dryad). Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Number of SNPs per locus in relation to the number of individuals per locus. Open circles indicate the observations, and the thick and thin lines depict the fitted regression (a quadratic generalized linear model with negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function) and its 95% confidence intervals, respectively. The red crosses indicate the mean numbers of SNPs per locus in each category, and the red whiskers depict the 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals of the means. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Number of SNPs per locus in relation to the number of individuals per locus. Open circles indicate the observations, and the thick and thin lines depict the fitted regression (a quadratic generalized linear model with negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function) and its 95% confidence intervals, respectively. The red crosses indicate the mean numbers of SNPs per locus in each category, and the red whiskers depict the 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals of the means. Patterns of Locus, SNP, and PIS Dropouts and Their Effects on Node Confidence Locus dropout towards deeper nodes was linear, as expected (Table 3 and Fig. 5a), the 95% confidence interval of the regression slope ($$-$$315, $$-$$46.7) and the support for the linear regression over the quadratic one ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 1.98, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 3.70 in favor of the linear model) supporting the prediction presented in Figure 1. The coefficients of determination were the same for both the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$) and quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$) regression models for locus dropout, further supporting the choice of the simpler linear regression model. The number of SNPs was highest at intermediate node depth and decreased towards shallow and deep nodes (Table 3 and Fig. 5b), which is also consistent with the prediction (cf. Fig. 1). Consistency with the prediction is further supported by the 95% confidence interval of the coefficient for squared node depth ($$-$$14,697, $$-$$1781), the support for the quadratic regression over the linear regression model ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 4.63, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 2.92 in favor of the quadratic model), and the higher coefficient of determination for the quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$) than the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.17$$) regression model. The ln-transformed number of PIS linearly increased towards deep nodes (Fig. 5c; 95% confidence interval of the slope: 5.29, 13.0), and the linear model was supported over the quadratic one ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 1.87, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 3.20 in favor of the linear model), the coefficients of determination being similar for both the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$) and quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$) models. Variation in bootstrap residuals was only explained by node depth, and not by the number of loci, SNPs or PIS in ddRAD data (Supplementary Table S6 available on Dryad and Fig. 6). Table 3 Regression coefficients for locus dropout, SNP dropout, PIS dropout, and the number of SNPs per locus (each handled as separate response variables) Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 $$^{{a}}$$The number of PIS per taxon was ln([number of PIS per taxon] $$+$$ 1)-transformed. $$^{{b}}$$Observations were weighted with the number of loci. View Large Table 3 Regression coefficients for locus dropout, SNP dropout, PIS dropout, and the number of SNPs per locus (each handled as separate response variables) Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 $$^{{a}}$$The number of PIS per taxon was ln([number of PIS per taxon] $$+$$ 1)-transformed. $$^{{b}}$$Observations were weighted with the number of loci. View Large Figure 5. View largeDownload slide The number of loci (a), SNPs (b), and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) (c) in relation to node depth. Observations are indicated with points. The number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed as ln([number of PIS] $$+$$ 1), one added because data include zeros, to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The fitted regression curves (thick lines) and their 95% confidence limits (thin lines) are depicted, the regression equations being a) $$Y = 148 - 180X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$), b) $$Y = -101 + 7116X - 8239X^{\mathrm{2}} (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$), and c) $$Y = -0.513 + 9.12X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$); $$Y$$ refers to the response variable and $$X$$ to node depth. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide The number of loci (a), SNPs (b), and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) (c) in relation to node depth. Observations are indicated with points. The number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed as ln([number of PIS] $$+$$ 1), one added because data include zeros, to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The fitted regression curves (thick lines) and their 95% confidence limits (thin lines) are depicted, the regression equations being a) $$Y = 148 - 180X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$), b) $$Y = -101 + 7116X - 8239X^{\mathrm{2}} (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$), and c) $$Y = -0.513 + 9.12X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$); $$Y$$ refers to the response variable and $$X$$ to node depth. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Contour plots of the fitted regression surfaces explaining variation in bootstrap residuals in relation to node depth and either the number of loci (a), SNPs (b), or parsimony informative SNPs (c). The color gradient illustrates the shape of the regression surface, predicted negative and positive bootstrap residuals being indicated by blue and red colors, respectively. Observations are indicated with points, the color of the point being the darker the higher the bootstrap residual. Note that the absolute values of the contours extend beyond 100 in the upper corners in (b) and (c) because the estimated regression surface extends beyond the data range there, rendering the predictions meaningless. The regression surfaces should be interpreted only within the space filled by observations (points). Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Contour plots of the fitted regression surfaces explaining variation in bootstrap residuals in relation to node depth and either the number of loci (a), SNPs (b), or parsimony informative SNPs (c). The color gradient illustrates the shape of the regression surface, predicted negative and positive bootstrap residuals being indicated by blue and red colors, respectively. Observations are indicated with points, the color of the point being the darker the higher the bootstrap residual. Note that the absolute values of the contours extend beyond 100 in the upper corners in (b) and (c) because the estimated regression surface extends beyond the data range there, rendering the predictions meaningless. The regression surfaces should be interpreted only within the space filled by observations (points). Discussion Previous studies have demonstrated that RAD methods are generally efficient in inferring shallow-level phylogenies (e.g., Tiffin and Ross-Ibarra 2014; Hou et al. 2015; Leaché et al. 2015b; Ree and Hipp 2015; Andrews et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2016). Counterintuitively, RAD phylogenies have often yielded unexpectedly well-resolved relationships also at relatively deep phylogenetic levels, and even tens of millions of years old divergences have been resolvable (Rubin et al. 2012; Cariou et al. 2013; Leaché et al. 2015a; Herrera and Shank 2016). Eaton et al. (2017) recently recognized that growing hierarchical redundancy towards the deeper splits constitutes a major reason for the high power of RAD methods at relatively deep phylogenetic levels. As far as we know, our study is the first to investigate how locus dropout affects the amount of phylogenetic information at different phylogenetic depths. We demonstrate that the number of retained loci is not an accurate measure of phylogenetic information content in RAD data sets, and that they tend to become more information-rich towards the deeper phylogenetic levels. Our comparison with an eight-gene Sanger data indicates that ddRAD sequencing yields overall congruent tree topologies despite a lack of retained loci that are shared among all studied taxa. While we base our conclusions on an empirical data set of 35 species of moths, the observed patterns are likely to occur in the RAD data sets from other taxa as well. Effects of Sample Quality and the adopted Protocol A relatively low number (median 578) of consensus loci was retained in the ddRAD data set with a minimum number of individuals per locus being 6. We observed a very strong locus dropout effect as demonstrated by the observation that while on average 15k loci were recovered per specimen, none of them was recovered across all specimens. While an age estimate for the genus is not available, it is likely that it is less than 10–20 million years old, given that a deep split within the subfamily to which Eupithecia belongs to is estimated at 33 Ma (Wahlberg et al. 2013). The power of the analysis could likely be substantially increased by improving sample quality, repeating the ddRAD library preparation, using different (or additional) restriction enzymes, using a different RAD method, and increasing sampling intensity. Optimally, samples to be used should be stored in a way that minimizes the degradation of DNA as the level of DNA degradation is directly correlated with the probability of finding a given locus supplementary Fig. S10. To increase the density of taxon sampling, samples of suboptimal quality may be included as the availability of alcohol or freezer-preserved samples is usually limited. In some cases, the final number of retained loci remained much lower than in others. This could have been partly avoided by increasing the amount of tissue used for DNA extraction, but for very small species (the majority of extant species are small) even this is not an option. A substantial increase in the amount of loci could have been obtained by analyzing the library to a greater depth by reducing the number of individuals included in a single run or duplication of the RAD library preparation. This is supported by the observation that, on average, only 20.6% of all loci showed a depth value of at least 3 and could be retained (Supplementary Table S7 available on Dryad). Furthermore, since a majority of loci were recovered less than four times, many loci not falling within the locus dropout zone due to mutation–disruption were likely not recovered even a single time. The power of RAD analysis could additionally be increased by repeating the analysis with another set of restriction enzymes, although this nearly duplicates the costs, which is why such trials are rare. Additionally, single digest RAD methods may yield more phylogenetic information than double-digest methods such as the one used here (Andrews et al. 2016). Finally, the tree resolution could be improved by a denser and more balanced taxon sampling (Eaton et al. 2017), and especially by the inclusion of “critical” taxa, namely those cutting the long branches of the tree and hence increasing the hierarchical redundancy of the data. Due to the low DNA quantity of the original DNA extracts, we conducted a whole-genome amplification (WGA) for each sample. WGA may amplify different parts of the genome in a biased way and introduce errors in the amplified regions (Pinard et al. 2006; Blair et al. 2015; Burford Reiskind et al. 2016), although it has been shown that WGA produced accurate reduced representations of human, mouse, and bird genomes (Barker et al. 2004; Han et al. 2012; Rheindt et al. 2014). Tin et al. (2014) conducted WGA for RAD tags with ant museum material with degraded DNA, and similarly observed no significant genomic bias due to the genomic enrichment. If WGA underamplifies the genome, a lower number of unique loci and a greater coverage of the amplified regions is expected. Alternatively, if WGA introduces errors to amplified regions, an exaggerated degree of SNPs is expected. We attempted to validate our data through careful bioinformatics scrutiny and applied a strict $$m$$ (minimum number of individuals per locus) value, albeit at the expense of the number of loci included in the final data set. Effects of Clustering Threshold and Minimum Individual Parameters on RAD Data Matrix Although on average approximately 15,000 loci for each sample were recovered for Eupithecia, an average of only 610 loci per individual were retained in the final data set. This represents a well-demonstrated drawback of RAD methods. For example, Rheindt et al. (2014) could save only 2.9–3.9% of all recovered SNPs in their between-population analyses. The breadth of the RAD data is greatly affected by the stringency of clustering and minimum individual thresholds. Failure to pay careful attention to these issues may easily lead to the inclusion of paralogs, contaminant reads and otherwise misleading data, reducing the overall reliability of data. RAD methods have a benefit of being feasible for nonmodel taxa lacking a reference genome, but the reverse side of this is that filtering out alien reads and paralogs is complicated and must be done informatically (Ree and Hipp 2015). We assessed the effects of both the clustering threshold and the minimum individual threshold on the tree topology of each data matrix. Most of our analyses based on ddRADseq matrices produced congruent trees with high support values for most nodes. In particular, the minimum individual parameter controls the amount of missing data as it has a direct relation with the number of loci (or SNPs) in the final matrix (Ree and Hipp 2015). The variation in the degree of missing data did not strongly affect the tree topologies, but the largest, and thus most informative, data matrices resulted in the highest phylogenetic support for nodes (see Table 2 and Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). This result is consistent with previous observations that large amounts of missing data in RADseq data sets do not adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference (Rubin et al. 2012; Keller et al. 2013; Hipp et al. 2014; Takahashi et al. 2014; Hou et al. 2015; Herrera and Shank 2016). However, Leaché et al. (2015a) demonstrated that, although this generally holds true, data sets with high levels of missing data are error-prone. They emphasized that the statistical node support value is not equal to its true confidence (see also Rubin et al. 2012), but may artificially result from biases of the data. In our case, broad congruence between the two phylogenies based on independent data sets suggest that missing data did not have significant adverse effects on recovering a robust tree topology. Comparison of RAD and Sanger Tree Topologies Previous comparisons between Sanger and RAD data sets have shown that RAD data generally outperform Sanger data sets (Eaton and Ree 2013; Keller et al. 2013; Cruaud et al. 2014; Escudero et al. 2014; Hipp et al. 2014; Herrera et al. 2015; Ruane et al. 2015). In our case, the ddRAD and Sanger data provided overall similar tree topologies. This would be an unlikely result if one or both of the data sets were poor in phylogenetic information and hence misleading. However, a few remarkable cases of incongruence were detected. In both trees, some of the deeper nodes were statistically poorly supported likely due to very short internodal branches. Nodes at intermediate phylogenetic depth were better supported by ddRAD data compared to Sanger data, but at the deepest levels bootstrap values in ddRAD data sets dropped steeply (Fig. 3). A likely explanation for this is the decay of phylogenetic information due to the dropout of data (Fig. 5). Based on ddRAD data, the sister species to the rest of the sampled Eupithecia is E. abietaria. Although no prior rigorous analysis of phylogenetic relationships in Eupithecia exists to support this finding, we find it a likely scenario based on the morphological distinctiveness of this taxon within Eupithecia but shared with Pasiphila, our outgroup taxon. Using Sanger data, the sister lineage to all other Eupithecia was inferred to be E. actaeata, a species that shows close overall morphological similarity with many other species of Eupithecia. However, in the Sanger data the monophyly of the sampled Eupithecia with E. actaeata excluded is very strongly supported, whereas in ddRAD data the monophyly of all except for E. abietaria remains supported by a bootstrap support (BS) of only 68%. This incongruence is difficult to explain, since E. actaeata is firmly (100% BS) associated with two other species (E. exiguata and E. assimilata) in all ddRAD trials and is never placed even close to the root. Another remarkable case of incongruence between the data sets is the position of E. simpliciata, which appears as a highly unstable taxon whose position is poorly supported in the Sanger data, and separated by a very short internodal branch. In the ddRAD data, it associates with E. semigraphata with 100% BS, and together with three other species (E. millefoliata, E. icterata, and E. denotata), forms a strongly supported entity, which, with the exclusion of E. simpliciata, is also strongly supported by Sanger data as well. Interestingly, all these five species share an ecological trait, their flight period being late summer. We conclude that the pattern displayed by E. simpliciata in Sanger data is likely to be caused by a shortage of phylogenetic information in this data set, which, unlike ddRAD data, performs poorly at intermediate phylogenetic levels (Fig. 3). The position of E. vulgata represents another remarkable case of incongruence between the data sets. On the basis of morphology, this species appears to be a close relative of E. assimilata, with which it associates in Sanger data with strong support (together with E. exiguata). In contrast, E. vulgata associates with E. selinata in the ddRAD tree. The position of E. vulgata is, however, significantly unstable in the various ddRAD trials (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). The reason lies in the poor success of E. vulgata for loci recovery. With a low number of loci recovered (107) and a mean locus coverage of as high as 854, E. vulgata represents a likely case of poor quality in the original DNA template. The multimarker Sanger gene set we used has proven to be efficient for Lepidoptera higher-level phylogenetics (Mutanen et al. 2010; Sihvonen et al. 2011; Zahiri et al. 2012). This and the overall congruence of Sanger and ddRAD phylogenies call into question the use of RAD approaches, why change if Sanger sequencing works? RAD protocols have the benefit of having a very broad phylogenetic scalability, whereas Sanger protocols tend to have limited scalability across different groups especially due to primer issues. At optimal, relatively shallow phylogenetic scales, RAD approaches yield significantly higher amounts of phylogenetic information in terms of loci, SNPs, and PIS. Furthermore, building a RAD library for a large number of specimens is actually faster and cheaper than building a Sanger data set of ten gene fragments as done in this study, especially when labor costs are considered. Patterns of Loci, SNPs, and PIS in RAD Data Sets Huang and Knowles (2016) demonstrated with simulations that the proportion of missing data is associated with the type of loci retained in the data. This is intuitively plausible as it can be expected that slowly evolving loci are less likely to drop out than rapidly evolving loci. Our study is the first to demonstrate with empirical data that the more often a locus is found among species, the poorer they are in phylogenetic information (measured in this analysis by SNPs). Likely for the same reason, the minimum number of individuals per locus value ($$m)$$ is negatively correlated with the pairwise genetic distance between specimens. While the negative correlation between the locus recovery rate and their SNP content was statistically highly significant, there is overall much variation in SNP frequency, and the observed decline of SNPs is not steep. We presume that this effect is mitigated by opposite effects: conserved loci are more “long-living” (less sensitive to mutation–disruption), thus have had a longer time to accumulate mutations. These opposite effects might even compensate each other. The observed trend may therefore actually be explained by the higher proportion of ultraconserved loci retained with higher values of individuals/locus (see Fig. 4). Locus dropout is caused by the disruption of restriction site recognition as a result of mutation at the restriction region, resulting in a pattern of decline in locus sharing with phylogenetic distance. Accordingly, in our data, the number of loci shows a constant decline along with increased coalescence time (node depth), and nearly reaches zero at the deepest nodes. As we hypothesized, the number of loci is not a good proxy for phylogenetic information (number of SNPs and PIS) retained in the data (Fig. 5b, c). The shallow nodes with large numbers of shared loci between the sister lineages were constantly poor in SNPs and PIS in relation to the sister lineages at the intermediate phylogenetic levels. The number of SNPs was also low in the deepest phylogenetic nodes, reflecting the decay of recovered loci. While the loci retained at the deepest levels tend to be conserved, they are not necessarily particularly poor in phylogenetic information because they have had the longest time to accumulate mutations, as suggested by the relatively high number of PIS in the deepest phylogenetic nodes. Interestingly, neither the number of loci or SNPs, nor PIS explained node support when the confounding effect of the length of the branch leading to the node was eliminated. Only node depth explained node support. The lack of contribution to node support should, however, be considered with caution, because our data do not contain much information about these effects. Our observations are strongly biased towards low numbers of loci, SNPs, and PIS (see Fig. 6). Secondly, the observed BSs are strongly dominated by very high values, which also makes it difficult to estimate the dependency of node support on any explanatory variables. Furthermore, bootstrap values do not provide an accurate estimate of the true phylogeny under all conditions (Hillis and Bull 1993). Owing to these reasons, we cannot exclude the possibility that the number of loci, and the number of SNPs or PIS in particular, are positively correlated with the node confidence, as would be expected. Yet, given the clear-cut results concerning locus and SNP/PIS dropouts, any data are predicted to be unevenly spread in the node depth-phylogenetic information (numbers of loci/SNPs/PIS) space, which remains a potential challenge for future analyses. Conclusions RAD methods are characterized by large numbers of recovered loci combined with a strong locus dropout effect and large proportions of missing data, arguably compromising their use at deep phylogenetic levels. The plain number of retained loci, however, does not provide a good proxy for the amount of phylogenetic information in the data, because (i) retained loci tend to become more informative towards deeper phylogenetic levels (Huang and Knowles 2016, this study), (ii) hierarchical redundancy is increased towards deeper phylogenetic levels (Eaton et al. 2017), and (iii) the number of loci does not equal the number of SNPs and PIS (this study). Thus, attention should be paid to available phylogeny-informative SNPs retained at different phylogenetic depths. Comprehensive and balanced taxon sampling helps to resolve phylogenetic affinities also at relatively deep phylogenetic levels. We demonstrated this with a comparison of ddRAD and multigene Sanger-sequencing-based phylogenetic analyses of 35 species of a diverse moth genus. The number of available loci could be further increased by repeating the library preparation and applying different restriction enzymes. Since ddRAD library preparation is straightforward and a large number of specimens can be analyzed simultaneously and cost-effectively in a short time (100 specimens in less than 2 weeks), the method has high potential to provide an efficient tool to resolve phylogenetic relationships especially of species-rich genera and lower-level taxonomic groups. Funding This study was financially supported by the Academy of Finland through a research grant #277984 to MM. NW acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council and SMK thanks Emil Aaltonen Foundation and the Estonian Research Council (grant PUT1474) for research grants. Acknowledgments We are grateful to Laura Törmälä and Soile Alatalo for their efficient work in lab and for continuously developing laboratory protocols and practices. We are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers and Vlad Dinca for providing numerous useful comments on the manuscript. The authors also wish to acknowledge CSC – IT Center for Science, Finland for providing computational resources. We also would like to thank people at the CCDB for sequencing the DNA barcode regions and continuous support with BOLD data management. Supplementary material Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.474nd. References Andrews K.R. , Good J.M. , Miller M.R. , Luikart G. , Hohenlohe P.A. 2016 . Harnessing the power of RADseq for ecological and evolutionary genomics . Nat. Rev. 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Information Dropout Patterns in Restriction Site Associated DNA Phylogenomics and a Comparison with Multilocus Sanger Data in a Species-Rich Moth Genus

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© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
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Abstract

Abstract A rapid shift from traditional Sanger sequencing-based molecular methods to the phylogenomic approach with large numbers of loci is underway. Among phylogenomic methods, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approaches have gained much attention as they enable rapid generation of up to thousands of loci randomly scattered across the genome and are suitable for nonmodel species. RAD data sets however suffer from large amounts of missing data and rapid locus dropout along with decreasing relatedness among taxa. The relationship between locus dropout and the amount of phylogenetic information retained in the data has remained largely uninvestigated. Similarly, phylogenetic hypotheses based on RAD have rarely been compared with phylogenetic hypotheses based on multilocus Sanger sequencing, even less so using exactly the same species and specimens. We compared the Sanger-based phylogenetic hypothesis (8 loci; 6172 bp) of 32 species of the diverse moth genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) to that based on double-digest RAD sequencing (3256 loci; 726,658 bp). We observed that topologies were largely congruent, with some notable exceptions that we discuss. The locus dropout effect was strong. We demonstrate that number of loci is not a precise measure of phylogenetic information since the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may remain low at very shallow phylogenetic levels despite large numbers of loci. As we hypothesize, the number of SNPs and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) is low at shallow phylogenetic levels, peaks at intermediate levels and, thereafter, declines again at the deepest levels as a result of decay of available loci. Similarly, we demonstrate with empirical data that the locus dropout affects the type of loci retained, the loci found in many species tending to show lower interspecific distances than those shared among fewer species. We also examine the effects of the numbers of loci, SNPs, and PIS on nodal bootstrap support, but could not demonstrate with our data our expectation of a positive correlation between them. We conclude that RAD methods provide a powerful tool for phylogenomics at an intermediate phylogenetic level as indicated by its broad congruence with an eight-gene Sanger data set in a genus of moths. When assessing the quality of the data for phylogenetic inference, the focus should be on the distribution and number of SNPs and PIS rather than on loci. Allelic dropout, ddRAD sequencing, Eupithecia, Lepidoptera, locus dropout, molecular systematics, parsimony informative SNPs, RAD sequencing, SNP dropout High-throughput DNA sequencing methods have enabled rapid generation of genome-wide DNA sequence data simultaneously from many specimens with reasonable costs. Several Next-generation sequencing platforms have become available (Mardis 2013) and a number of different methods have been developed to accumulate data to address specific scientific questions, including various areas of systematic research (Lemmon and Lemmon 2013). Recent approaches include anchored hybrid enrichment (Lemmon et al. 2012; Brandley et al. 2015; Hamilton et al. 2016; Breinholt et al. 2018) and several varieties of restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD) (Miller et al. 2007; Baird et al. 2008). RAD methods, based on the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes and subsequent sequencing of short regions adjacent to the restriction sites, enable efficient single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and are receiving growing attention among systematists. Several RAD-based studies have focused on young species groups and taxonomically complex groups with horizontal gene transfer and incomplete lineage sorting potentially complicating the inference of phylogenies or species trees (Eaton and Ree 2013; Rheindt et al. 2014; Streicher et al. 2014). Other studies have been carried out with well-defined and even arguably relatively old (ten to tens of millions years) species (Rubin et al. 2012; Cruaud et al. 2014; Hipp et al. 2014; Viricel et al. 2014; Herrera et al. 2015; McCluskey and Postlethwait 2015; Herrera and Shank 2016; Eaton et al. 2017). Of the RAD methods, double-digest RAD sequencing (ddRADseq) has a benefit of high repeatability because it avoids the random shearing characteristic of traditional RAD methods, which makes combining independent data sets straightforward as long as the same restriction enzyme pair has been used (Peterson et al. 2012; Kai et al. 2014; Puritz et al. 2014). So far, only a few explorations of ddRADseq have been conducted in a phylogenetic context (Kai et al. 2014; Leaché et al. 2015a; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). RAD-based approaches have several benefits (Davey and Blaxter 2010; Rowe et al. 2011; Puritz et al. 2014). Restriction sites are scattered all over the genome and therefore RAD tags provide an overview of the entire genome. Typically, the analysis yields thousands of loci (ca. 100–150 bp fragments) and SNPs per specimen. Alcohol preserved specimens are suitable and since reads are relatively short (usually 50–150 bp), dry collection specimens have been used successfully as well (Tin et al. 2014; Suchan et al. 2016). Furthermore, the efficient use of RAD tags does not require a reference genome. Therefore, the method is suitable for nonmodel organisms (Andrews et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2016). In spite of these benefits, RAD sequencing has certain limitations. RAD tags typically consist of substantial amounts of missing data, potentially complicating the inference of phylogenetic relationships (Rubin et al. 2012; Lemmon and Lemmon 2013; Wagner et al. 2013; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). Attention has been directed to recognizing orthologous loci and distinguishing them from nonhomologies and thus misleading paralogous loci (Rubin et al. 2012; Cariou et al. 2013; Gonen et al. 2015). Another major practical issue is that the likelihood of recovering an orthologous locus is negatively correlated with time since lineage divergence, because mutations gradually accumulate on restriction sites as time elapses. Thus, only a fraction of shared loci are recovered between genetically distant individuals, arguably reducing the efficacy of the method at deeper phylogenetic levels (Arnold et al. 2013; Ree and Hipp 2015). Indeed, several studies have indicated that rapid locus dropout (also called locus decay or allelic dropout) is an inherent feature of RAD data and the effect can be drastic (Gonen et al. 2015; Leaché et al. 2015b; DaCosta and Sorenson 2016). If the mutation rate remains constant over time, a linear dropout of loci is expected with decreasing relatedness between two lineages (Fig. 1). Loci recovered between distant relatives are expected to be slowly evolving (e.g., protein coding genes), which translates into a disproportionately low number of SNPs and consequently a weak phylogenetic signal, further exaggerating the data decay at deep phylogenetic levels (Leaché et al. 2015a). Huang and Knowles (2016) demonstrated with simulated data that low tolerance to missing data leads to a disproportionately high exclusion rate of loci with high mutation rate. Locus dropout and decreased mutation rate of retained loci are complementary and predict a constant steep loss of information towards deeper phylogenetic levels. Eaton et al. (2017) recently demonstrated that, somewhat counter-intuitively, the influence of locus dropout on the phylogenetic information content at deeper phylogenetic levels is less significant than previously expected because the decay of phylogenetic information resulting from locus dropout is compensated for by the increase of taxa towards the deeper nodes. Consequently, Eaton et al. (2017) concluded that the negative effects of locus dropout can be mitigated by increasing taxon sampling. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Schematic representation of actual numbers of shared loci, SNPs, and PIS, and those expected to be observed in RAD data sets between two lineages along their coalescence time (starting from a coalescence time of zero). The actual number of homologous loci is constantly but slowly decreasing with increasing coalescence time. The actual number of SNPs and PIS is increasing first fast because most mutations represent new SNPs and PIS, but then at a steadily decreasing pace because of saturation of mutations at any given site. The number of loci observed in RAD data is expected to decrease at constant rate as a result of mutations accumulating to the restriction sites, finally reaching zero. This effect is called locus dropout or locus decay. The number of observed SNPs and PIS in the data are affected by their actual number and recovered number of loci, resulting in a peaked curve with an optimum at intermediate phylogenetic levels. Figure 1. View largeDownload slide Schematic representation of actual numbers of shared loci, SNPs, and PIS, and those expected to be observed in RAD data sets between two lineages along their coalescence time (starting from a coalescence time of zero). The actual number of homologous loci is constantly but slowly decreasing with increasing coalescence time. The actual number of SNPs and PIS is increasing first fast because most mutations represent new SNPs and PIS, but then at a steadily decreasing pace because of saturation of mutations at any given site. The number of loci observed in RAD data is expected to decrease at constant rate as a result of mutations accumulating to the restriction sites, finally reaching zero. This effect is called locus dropout or locus decay. The number of observed SNPs and PIS in the data are affected by their actual number and recovered number of loci, resulting in a peaked curve with an optimum at intermediate phylogenetic levels. We recognize an additional effect inherent to RAD data sets, which differs from the previously recognized effects in a remarkable way. Previous studies have largely concentrated on the amount of sequence data per se, but such measures do not provide a reliable picture of the amount of phylogenetic information content in the data. This is because phylogenetic relatedness is highly correlated with genetic similarity. Consequently, at very shallow phylogenetic levels, the number of retrieved loci can be very high, while at the same time they may be poor in phylogenetic information due to the limited time for mutations to have accumulated (Fig. 1). We therefore predict that the number of SNPs and PIS decrease towards very shallow phylogenetic levels and peaks at intermediate phylogenetic levels. As a result, the phylogenetic information content is not expected to be linearly related with the number of loci. In Figure 1, the expected relationship between the loci and SNPs/PIS along with increasing coalescence time between two lineages is demonstrated in a schematic way (Fig. 1). To our best knowledge, the relationship between locus and SNP/PIS dropouts across phylogenetic time has not been investigated. Here, we aim to assess the potential of ddRADseq in resolving phylogenetic affinities in the looper moth genus Eupithecia Curtis (vernacular name “pugs”) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) and conduct a detailed examination of patterns and effects of loci, SNPs, and PIS on ddRAD phylogeny. Eupithecia is one of the most diverse metazoan genera and includes 1362 described valid species world-wide (Scoble and Hausmann 2007). Species of Eupithecia show high levels of morphological similarity and niche specialization (McDunnough 1949; Mironov 2003), both features characterizing many megadiverse insect groups. Due to the high number of species and close morphological similarity, attempts to resolve their relationships with rigorous methodology are virtually lacking. We start by examining effects of ddRAD locus parameters (clustering threshold and minimum number of individuals per locus) on ddRAD tree topology and confidence. We continue by examining the congruence between the eight-gene Sanger data set and the ddRAD phylogenies. Few similar comparisons have previously been carried out (but see Cruaud et al. 2014; Ruane et al. 2015). The Sanger phylogeny of Eupithecia is constructed based on a set of one mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes that combined have repeatedly shown to have high information value at intermediate and deep phylogenetic levels in Lepidoptera (e.g., Mutanen et al. 2010; Sihvonen et al. 2011; Zahiri et al. 2012; Heikkilä et al. 2015). We investigate if the number of SNPs/locus decreases as the number of individuals/locus increases. We expect conserved loci to be shared more widely among individuals as the mutation rate of these loci is presumably slower. We next examine how the level of locus conservation is related to SNP/PIS abundance and investigate if locus and SNP/PIS distributions at different phylogenetic depths follow the predicted patterns as presented in Figure 1. Finally, we statistically examine locus and SNP/PIS effects on nodal support values. Material and Methods Taxon Sampling We sampled a total of 42 specimens from 35 species of Eupithecia that were collected during 2006–2014 from Finland, Germany, and Italy. Pasiphila rectangulata was also included to serve as the outgroup, both genera belonging to the tribe Eupitheciini (Larentiinae). Multiple specimens of four species (Eupithecia satyrata, Eupithecia plumbeolata, Eupithecia gelidata, and Eupithecia nanata) were included, because based on their mtDNA, they potentially reflect either cryptic diversity or mitonuclear discordance. Detailed information on the label data of the specimens is provided in SupplementaryTable S1 available on Dryad at http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.474nd. Molecular Methods Sanger sequencing was performed for one mitochondrial and seven nuclear markers. This set of markers has become a standard in Lepidoptera phylogenetics and have been used in over a hundred studies since they were proposed for this purpose (Wahlberg and Wheat 2008). The sequencing for the mt COI gene was carried out at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding (CCDB) following laboratory protocols used routinely in CCDB as explained in detail in DeWaard et al. (2008). In order to proceed with the sequencing for nuclear genes and the ddRAD library preparation, genomic DNA (gDNA) was separately extracted from two legs using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen) in the molecular laboratory at the University of Oulu, Finland. All Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing protocols followed Wahlberg and Wheat (2008), except for PCR clean-up that was carried out with ExoSAP-IT (Affymetrix) and Sephadex columns (Sigma-Aldrich) and sequencing that was done using an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). We acquired sequence data from the following nuclear regions comprising a total of 6172 base pairs (bp): carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein (CAD), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1$$\alpha )$$, glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH), ribosomal protein S5 (RpS5), and wingless (see SupplementaryTable S2 available on Dryad). All sequences for each taxon were manually aligned and edited using BioEdit (Hall 1999). Primers are available at http://www.nymphalidae.net/Molecular.htm. All DNA sequences are available at the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank (Accessions numbers MH030607–MH030876). Double-digested RAD-Seq libraries were prepared following Peterson et al. (2012). All samples were whole-genome amplified prior to experimentation using a REPLI-g Mini kit (Qiagen) due to low concentrations of gDNA in the original isolates. Concentration of the amplified gDNA was estimated with the PicoGreen kit (Molecular Probes) according to the kit instructions. A 200 ng of gDNA was digested with PstI and MseI restriction enzymes (New England Biolabs). Following digestion, ligation of double-stranded sequencing adapters was completed in the same tube. The P1 adapter included the Illumina sequencing primer sequences, 1 of 43 unique, 5 bp barcodes, and a TGCA overhang on the top strand to match the sticky end left by PstI. The P2 adapter included the Illumina sequencing primer sequences, and an AT overhangs on the top strand to match the sticky end left by MseI. It also incorporated a “divergent-Y” to prevent amplification of fragments with MseI cut sites on both ends. Following ligation, size selection was performed by the automated size-selection technology, BluePippin (Sage Science; 2% agarose cartridge). We produced two pooled libraries in four lanes of the machine using automated size selection set to “tight” with a mean of 300 bp. Size selected libraries were eluted in 40 μL volumes and enriched by PCR using library-specific indexed primers complementary to the Illumina paired-end adapters. Amplified DNA fragments were purified with AMPure XP magnetic beads (Agencourt). The quality, size, and concentration of the pooled libraries were finally determined using the MultiNA® (Shimadzu). Individual fragment libraries were then combined in equimolar amounts and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 PE 100. DNA reads from ddRAD sequencing are available at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) [BioProject ID: PRJNA345300]. To rule out contamination by the bacterial parasite Wolbachia, the ddRAD reads were mapped to Wolbachia pipientis (GenBank: NZ_JQAM01000001) using Geneious 10.0.9 (Biomatters). ddRADseq Data Processing, Examination of Effects of Locus Parameters and Assessing Comprehensiveness of Data We processed raw Illumina reads using the pyRAD v.3.0.5 (Eaton 2014) pipeline. This program is designed to assemble data for phylogenetic studies that contain divergent species using global alignment clustering which may include indel variation. We demultiplexed samples using their unique barcode and adapter sequences, and sites with Phred quality scores below 20 were converted to “N” characters, and reads with $$\geqslant $$10% N’s were discarded. The filtered reads for each sample were clustered using the program VSEARCH v.1.1.3 (VSEARCH GitHub repository, https://github.com/torognes/vsearch), and then aligned with MUSCLE v.3.8.31 (Edgar 2004). This clustering step establishes homology among reads within a species. As an additional filtering step, such consensus sequences were discarded that had low coverage ($$<$$3 reads), excessive undetermined, or heterozygous sites ($$>$$10) potential resulting from paralogs or highly repetitive genomic regions, or too many haplotypes (>2 for diploids). In addition, we excluded all loci with excessive (>3) shared polymorphic sites as likely representing clustering of paralogs. The consensus sequences were clustered across samples at 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95% similarity. This step establishes locus homology among species. The justification for this filtering method is that shared heterozygous SNPs across species are more likely to represent a fixed difference among paralogs than shared heterozygosity within orthologs among species. We applied a strict filter that allowed a maximum of three species to share heterozygosity at a given site (paralog $$=$$ 3). The final ddRADseq loci were assembled by adjusting a minimum number of individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value, which specifies the minimum number of individuals that are required to have data present at a locus for that locus to be included in the final matrix. Our ddRADseq data set contained 43 individuals from 36 species (35 Eupithecia species and Pasiphila rectangulata as the outgroup), and setting $$m = 6$$ retains loci with data present for three or more species. In contrast, setting $$m = 43$$ retains zero loci with data present for all individuals ($$=100$$% complete matrix). We compiled data matrices with $$m$$ values of each 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 to determine the potential impact of number of loci, SNPs, parsimony informative SNPs (PIS), and missing data on phylogenetic analysis. We generated a pairwise similarity matrix for individuals based on locus-sharing patterns using RADami v. 1.0-3 (Hipp et al. 2014) in R 3.1.3 (R Core Team 2015). This analysis returned a pairwise similarity matrix based on how many loci or the proportion of loci shared between individuals. We assessed the comprehensiveness of our data set by comparing the number and proportion of observed loci retained at the sequencing depth used in the final data sets ($$d \geqslant 3$$; $$d$$ denotes the sequencing depth) with those of observed showing depth less than 3 (observed 1–3 times). Construction of Reference Assembly Data Set We also constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis based only on the reads that we could map on available lepidopteran genomes. For the reference assembly, we used the following 26 genomes as reference: Amyelois transitella [GCF_001186105], Bombyx mori [GCF_000151625], Calycopis cecrops [GCA_001625245], Chilo suppressalis [GCA_000636095], Danaus plexippus [GCA_000235995], Heliconius cydno, [GCA_001485745] Heliconius elevatus [GCA_900068365], Heliconius ethilla, [GCA_001485985] Heliconius hecale [GCA_001486065], Heliconius ismenius [GCA_001485965], Heliconius melpomene [GCA_000313835], Heliconius numata [GCA_900068715], Heliconius pardalinus [GCA_001486225], Heliconius timareta [GCA_001486185], Lerema accius [GCA_001278395], Manduca sexta [GCA_000262585], Melitaea cinxia [GCA_000716385], Operophtera brumata [GCA_001266575], Papilio glaucus [GCA_000931545], Papilio machaon [GCF_001298355], Papilio polytes [GCF_000836215], Papilio xuthus [GCF_000836235], Phoebis sennae [GCA_001586405], Pieris rapae [GCA_001856805], Plutella xylostella [GCF_000330985], and Spodoptera frugiperda [GCA_002213285]. We concatenated these genomes to a single reference file. Sequences were assembled using ipyrad v.0.7.11 (Eaton and Overcast 2016). Reads were trimmed of barcodes and adapters and quality filtered using a q-score threshold of 33, with bases below this score converted to Ns and any reads with more than 5 Ns removed. Reads were mapped to the concatenated reference genomes with BWA based on sequence similarity using the default bwa mem setting. With the collected reads, similar clusters of reads were identified using a threshold of 85% of similarity and were aligned. Next, we performed joint estimation of heterozygosity and error rate based on a diploid model assuming a maximum of two consensus alleles per individual. We then used the parameters from the previous step, heterozygosity, and error rate, to determine consensus base calls for each allele, and removed consensus sequences with greater than 5 Ns per end of paired-end reads. Reads of each sample were then clustered and aligned to consensus sequences. Finally, we filtered the data set according to maximum number of indels allowed per read end (8), maximum number of SNPs per locus (20), maximum proportion of shared heterozygous sites per locus (0.5), and minimum number of samples per locus (3). Construction of Phylogenetic Trees To infer phylogenetic hypotheses, we used concatenated sequences from all recovered RAD loci. We used the maximum likelihood (ML) method implemented in the RAxML 8.2.0 (Stamatakis 2006) program with a GTR$$+$$GAMMA model [as the best fit model by jModelTest v.2.1.7 (Posada 2008)]. Two hundred independent trees were inferred, applying options of automatically optimized subtree pruning regrafting rearrangement and 25 distinct rate categories in the program to identify the best tree. Statistical support for each branch was obtained using the rapid algorithm from 500 bootstrap replicates under the same substitution model. For reference assembly data, the ML tree was built using the unpartitioned GTR$$+$$CAT model and branch support was assessed by a 500 replicates rapid-bootstrap analysis. The following species were not included in the reference assembly due to the low number of recovered loci: Eupithecia tantillaria, Eupithecia tenuiata, Eupithecia linariata, Eupithecia intricata, E. nanata, Eupithecia centaureata, Eupithecia vulgata and Eupithecia abietaria. Effects of Locus Conservation on SNP Frequency As the data were severely overdispersed for a Poisson distribution, to study whether locus conservativeness is correlated with SNPs in our data we fitted generalized linear models with a negative binomial error distribution and logarithmic link function [R function “glm.nb” from the package MASS (Venables and Ripley 2002)] to the data derived with $$m \geqslant $$ 6, lower values of $$m$$ being excluded due to the risk of contaminant loci (e.g., of bacterial origin) being included in the data. To assess potential nonlinearity of the relationship between the number of SNPs/locus and the number of individuals/locus, we compared models where the linear predictor included only a linear term for the number of individuals/locus and a model with both the linear and quadratic terms. Models were compared based on their Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values. Because the normal distribution assumption of residuals was violated in both models, we further derived 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals for the mean number of SNPs/locus with each value of $$m$$ (individuals/locus), excluding the cases where less than seven observations were available ($$m \geqslant $$ 21). Bootstrap analyses (10,000 resamples, Davison and Hinkley 1997) were conducted with the R functions “boot” and “boot.ci” (Canty and Ripley 2015). Patterns of Locus, SNP, and PIS Dropout and Their Effects on Nodal Confidence We used node depth as a proxy for node age (in relative terms) and used nodes as observation units. In order to quantify the depth values for each node, we converted the ML tree into an ultrametric tree (SupplementaryFig. S1 available on Dryad) based on rate smoothing as implemented in the R package ape (Paradis et al. 2004). A correlation analysis between node depth and bootstrap values was executed with R 3.1.3 and graphically represented by using the packages corrplot (Wei 2013) and ggplot2 (Wickham 2009). To quantify and measure locus dropout, we calculated the numbers of loci shared between at least one individual of both sister lineages originating from each node, and divided this value by the number of taxa originating from the node in question. The latter standardization was done because the number of taxa varied widely between the lineages and the probability of recovering a locus increases with increased hierarchical redundancy. We considered this the best measure (in a phylogenetic sense) of locus dropout, because loci found only in one of the sister lineages do not contain phylogenetically useful information and therefore fall into the locus dropout zone. To test if the data are consistent with the predicted linear locus decay (Fig. 1), we fitted a linear regression model (function “lm” in R 3.2.2) to the data on number of loci and the corresponding node depth values. Confidence intervals were derived for the regression slope (function “confint”) and fitted regression line (function “predict.lm”). Potential deviation from the linear locus decay was investigated by comparing the linear regression model to a quadratic regression fitted with the same function. Linear and quadratic regression models were compared on the grounds of AIC and BIC, but we also used the coefficient of determination ($$R^{\mathrm{2}}$$; given by the R function “lm”) in assessing model explanatory power. To examine SNP and PIS dropouts, only SNPs/PIS of loci recovered in both sister lineages of each node at least once were considered. To eliminate the effects of hierarchical redundancy, the numbers of SNPs/PIS were divided by the number of taxa found at lineages originating from each node. To test if the number of SNPs peak at intermediate node depth values (Fig. 1), we fitted a quadratic regression model (R function “lm”) to the data on numbers of SNPs and corresponding node depth values. Confidence intervals for the coefficient for squared node depth and the fitted regression curve were derived as above. The presence of a peak in the number of SNPs along node depth axis was further assessed by comparing the quadratic regression model to a linear one on the grounds of AIC and BIC, and by examining the $$R^{\mathrm{2}}$$ values of the two models. The analysis for PIS was conducted otherwise in a similar manner to SNP dropout, except that the number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed to ln([number of PIS) $$+$$ 1]) (one added because the data include zeros) to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The effect of branch length was controlled for when assessing the contribution of SNPs, PIS, and loci to node support. We first modeled the dependence of bootstrap values on branch length with an asymptotic nonlinear regression through the origin (self-starting regression function “SSasympOrig” in the R function “nls” supplementaryFig. S2.). Observations were weighted with the number of SNPs for the analysis of SNP and PIS contribution to node support (PIS include zeros, precluding its use as weights, but the number of PIS is strongly and positively correlated with number of SNPs; see below), and with the number of loci for the assessment of the contribution of loci to node support. The contribution of SNPs, PIS, and loci to node support was analyzed separately because the numbers of SNPs, PIS, and loci are strongly and positively correlated [Pearson’s correlations ($$r)$$: $$r_{\mathrm{SNP-PIS}} = 0.957$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 20.5$$, $$P < 0.0001; r_{\mathrm{SNP-loci}} = 0.898$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 12.7$$, $$P < 0.0001$$; $$r_{\mathrm{PIS-loci}} = 0.781$$, $$t_{\mathrm{39}} = 7.80$$, $$P < 0.0001$$]. We took residuals from the above non-linear asymptotic regression models and used them as response variables (i.e., the component of node support not explained by branch length; hereafter called as bootstrap residuals) in subsequent analyses. Variation in the bootstrap residuals was analyzed with linear models (R function “lm”) where node depth and either the number of SNPs, the number of PIS, or number of loci were the explanatory variables. Interaction between the explanatory variables was included in both models. Results Optimization of ddRAD Loci Parameters On average, approximately five million reads per individual were obtained, of which 82.3% were retained after stringent quality filtering steps (Table 1). After filtering and clustering, the ddRADseq data matrix yielded approximately 15,000 loci per specimen, with a minimum coverage of $$3\times$$ after filtering for paralogs (Table 1; SupplementaryTable S3 available on Dryad). Only two loci (90 and 98 nucleotides) originated from Wolbachia pipientis. Table 1 Species included in the study and a summary of the ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Note: Values shown below are median. $$^{{a}}$$Clusters that passed filtering for $$3\times$$ minimum coverage. $$^{{b}}$$Loci retained after passing coverage and paralog filters. $$^{{c}}$$Median depth of loci. $$^{{d}}$$Frequency of polymorphic sites. View Large Table 1 Species included in the study and a summary of the ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Species Total reads Retained reads (%) Clusters at 85%$$^{{a}}$$ Retained loci$$^{{b}}$$ Consensus loci Coverage$$^{{c}}$$ Polymorphic$$^{{d}}$$ (%) Eupithecia abietaria 3,153,492 83.7 103,961 13,636 213 31.7 0.42 Eupithecia actaeata 7,966,281 81.3 133,203 28,112 172 35.1 0.45 Eupithecia assimilata 6,153,855 74.9 138,165 28,317 845 35.3 0.54 Eupithecia centaureata 63,136 85.6 16,005 3199 263 4.8 1.11 Eupithecia conterminata 1,734,585 83.2 85,217 17,062 901 20.4 0.43 Eupithecia denotata 8,105,802 82.2 126,102 19,527 698 53.1 0.46 Eupithecia dodoneata 14,005,161 76.4 202,298 34,626 544 32.3 0.49 Eupithecia exiguata 6,362,404 80.6 165,137 31,727 578 21.8 0.47 Eupithecia fennoscandica 831,000 84.7 65,608 15,311 833 12.2 0.39 Eupithecia gelidata 1 5,822,853 86.2 41,288 7265 300 337.0 0.31 Eupithecia gelidata 2 5,551,806 80.6 36,824 5127 307 361.3 0.40 Eupithecia haworthiata 14,131,470 87.8 73,255 17,428 526 398.8 0.41 Eupithecia icterata 1,402,900 86.1 73,714 16,806 1163 15.9 0.62 Eupithecia immundata 3,152,567 84.2 24,121 3560 238 156.0 0.76 Eupithecia intricata 564,471 85.9 18,674 2782 274 54.1 0.70 Eupithecia indigata 2,178,843 81.6 41,073 7117 522 75.2 0.93 Eupithecia irriguata 425,006 81.0 31,245 7444 708 11.5 0.32 Eupithecia lanceata 2,375,868 85.5 51,015 13,874 972 43.4 0.26 Eupithecia lariciata 5,529,328 84.0 96,100 22,598 854 70.2 0.39 Eupithecia linariata 467,142 82.3 46,377 11,224 710 10.9 0.56 Eupithecia millefoliata 3,985,644 81.0 129,913 24,154 818 19.6 0.44 Eupithecia nanata 342,098 82.7 22,858 2795 170 32.9 0.45 Eupithecia plumbeolata 1 1,945,090 84.1 44,623 10,587 165 61.0 0.18 Eupithecia plumbeolata 2 5,164,639 84.7 69,641 20,887 1455 43.6 0.61 Eupithecia plumbeolata 3 8,952,893 82.3 56,925 12,979 1177 185.2 1.04 Eupithecia plumbeolata 4 7,757,631 80.4 64,936 17,234 1322 108.8 0.79 Eupithecia pusillata 3,112,206 84.4 106,524 22,793 945 18.9 0.57 Eupithecia pygmaeata 3,904,053 84.0 107,330 27,585 1046 35.0 0.59 Eupithecia satyrata 1 2,452,991 85.6 30,499 3160 303 257.2 1.01 Eupithecia satyrata 2 1,438,806 88.0 43,806 8659 663 44.0 0.86 Eupithecia satyrata 3 7,504,374 83.9 82,506 19,296 425 125.1 0.19 Eupithecia satyrata 4 254,402 83.5 19,294 1680 193 21.6 0.29 Eupithecia selinata 22,420,628 80.8 338,963 58,787 511 30.4 0.49 Eupithecia semigraphata 11,155,627 83.0 184,098 36,853 870 56.4 0.52 Eupithecia simpliciata 621,787 80.8 37,087 4816 344 45.8 0.65 Eupithecia tantillaria 1,633,991 80.8 16,353 2034 109 185.0 0.54 Eupithecia tenuiata 2,749,080 79.6 47,481 15,067 1078 73.3 0.21 Eupithecia tripunctaria 8,556,484 82.2 170,227 30,904 789 42.3 0.37 Eupithecia trisignaria 3,069,263 81.4 87,462 18,591 842 30.8 0.34 Eupithecia undata 6,560,991 81.1 106,299 22,407 391 88.5 0.39 Eupithecia virgaureata 1,964,396 84.9 45,389 10,011 701 74.6 0.72 Eupithecia vulgata 7,791,154 83.6 23,469 3951 107 853.7 0.25 Pasiphila rectangulata 9,998,984 84.0 154,720 32,338 199 57.2 0.55 3,153,492 83.2 65,608 15,311 578 44.0 0.47 Note: Values shown below are median. $$^{{a}}$$Clusters that passed filtering for $$3\times$$ minimum coverage. $$^{{b}}$$Loci retained after passing coverage and paralog filters. $$^{{c}}$$Median depth of loci. $$^{{d}}$$Frequency of polymorphic sites. View Large The total number of loci ranged from 10 to 8737 between the nine data matrices, demonstrating the dramatic effect of parameter selection on the amount of data (Table 2). No shared loci were recovered across all 43 individuals in any of the data matrices, and only one locus was retained across 24 individuals (SupplementaryTable S4 available on Dryad). Data assemblages that maximized the number of individuals per locus contained relatively few loci and SNPs, but at the same time reduced the amount of missing data. Those matrices produced discordant phylogenies compared to those with lower value of $$m$$. The different clustering thresholds had a significant effect on the total number of loci (range 794–3833 loci), variable sites (range 18,001–224,916) as well as the PIS (range 5122–69,029) (Table 2). The pairwise p-distance between specimens ranged from 0.1% and 14.7% across all specimens and data matrices and showed that both $$m$$ and clustering thresholds ($$c)$$ have a significant effect on mean distances between the specimens (SupplementaryFig. S4 available on Dryad). Resulting data matrices analyzed in RAxML produced overall similar tree topologies for most trials, but ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 produced a poorly resolved and very deviant tree probably as a result of scarcity of retained loci (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). The tree based on the strictest clustering threshold (ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6) also differed considerably from the other trees. In that tree, the number of SNPs was higher than in ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 and comparable to ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9, but the proportion of missing data was clearly higher (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). Table 2 Sequence information in the ddRAD and Sanger sequencing data matrices Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Note: The ddRADseq data matrices were generated with different parameters of clustering threshold ($$c)$$ and minimum individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value. VAR $$=$$ number of variable sites; PIS $$=$$ number of parsimony informative SNPs. View Large Table 2 Sequence information in the ddRAD and Sanger sequencing data matrices Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Matrix No. of loci No. of unlinked SNPs Consensus sequences (bp) VAR (%) PIS (%) Missing (%) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$4 8737 8394 1,922,029 424,617(22.1) 91,382(4.7) 86.7 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 3256 3164 726,658 167,368(23.0) 50,320(6.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$9 953 927 206,855 48,071(23.2) 17,392(8.4) 74.1 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$12 305 296 63,863 13,691(21.4) 5348(8.4) 66.9 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$15 95 90 19,412 3511(18.1) 1409(7.2) 59.6 ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$21 10 10 1917 148(7.7) 75(3.9) 49.2 ddRAD-$$c$$80$$m$$6 3833 3741 869,455 224,916(25.9) 69,029(7.9) 81.4 ddRAD-$$c$$90$$m$$6 2228 2132 484,133 89,717(18.5) 26,730(5.5) 81.5 ddRAD-$$c$$95$$m$$6 794 709 163,685 18,001(11.0) 5122(3.1) 81.3 Combined NR$$+$$MT 8 - 6172 1871(30.3) 1297(21.0) 24.4 Combined NR 7 - 4696 1376(29.3) 901(19.2) 26.9 mt COI 1 - 1476 495(33.5) 369(25.0) 16.4 Note: The ddRADseq data matrices were generated with different parameters of clustering threshold ($$c)$$ and minimum individuals per locus ($$m)$$ value. VAR $$=$$ number of variable sites; PIS $$=$$ number of parsimony informative SNPs. View Large Phylogeny of Eupithecia Of ddRAD topologies, the one based on ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 data (726,658 bp) was selected for further comparisons because of its general congruence with several other data sets and high number of retained loci (3256) and SNPs (3164). Phylogenetic trees based on other data matrices of ddRAD are provided in the Supplementary Figure S3 available on Dryad and basic statistics in Table 2. The concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data included 6172 bp and 8 loci (Table 2 and Fig. 2). Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Phylogenetic trees of Eupithecia based on a) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 and b) combined nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data. The combined nuclear and mitochondrial tree was constructed based on the nuclear CAD, EF1$$\alpha $$, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, RpS5, wingless, and mitochondrial COI genes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred with RAxML with 500 bootstrap replicates. Bootstrap values are indicated near branches. Figure 2. View largeDownload slide Phylogenetic trees of Eupithecia based on a) ddRAD-$$c$$85$$m$$6 and b) combined nuclear and mitochondrial Sanger data. The combined nuclear and mitochondrial tree was constructed based on the nuclear CAD, EF1$$\alpha $$, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, RpS5, wingless, and mitochondrial COI genes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred with RAxML with 500 bootstrap replicates. Bootstrap values are indicated near branches. The ddRAD and Sanger topologies were similar but not identical, the ddRAD data providing better support than Sanger data from intermediate to shallow nodes (bootstrap mostly 100% at <0.45 depth; see Fig. 3a), whereas both ddRAD and Sanger data showed moderate to poor resolution at deeper-level nodes (at >0.45 depth). The mt COI phylogeny produced a poorly resolved tree with low bootstrap values at most of the nodes, and the bootstrap values dropped especially fast between 0.2 and 0.4 depth (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. S3i available on Dryad). Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Bootstrap values in relation to node depth in a) ddRAD-$$c$$80, ddRAD-$$c$$85, ddRAD-$$c$$90 and b) combined NR$$+$$MT, mt COI. Shaded regions represent 95% confidence intervals around average coherence. Figure 3. View largeDownload slide Bootstrap values in relation to node depth in a) ddRAD-$$c$$80, ddRAD-$$c$$85, ddRAD-$$c$$90 and b) combined NR$$+$$MT, mt COI. Shaded regions represent 95% confidence intervals around average coherence. The ddRAD topology suggests that E. abietaria is the sister taxon to all other sampled Eupithecia, while the Sanger topology places Eupithecia actaeata in that position, indicating a clear conflict between the data sets (Fig. 2). The positions of E. centaureata, Eupithecia immundata, and Eupithecia irriguata remain largely unclear. Eupithecia simpliciata clustered with Eupithecia semigraphata in the ddRAD topology (bootstrap 100%; Fig. 2a), while it grouped (although poorly supported) with E. satyrata, Eupithecia indigata, Eupithecia conterminata, and E. intricata in the Sanger topology (bootstrap 36%; Fig. 2b). Eupithecia simpliciata and E. semigraphata shared 97 ddRAD loci, whereas E. simpliciata shared only two ddRAD loci with E. satyrata, E. indigata, E. conterminata, and E. intricata (Supplementary Fig. S5 available on Dryad). Eupithecia vulgata also showed a conflict between ddRAD and Sanger data sets. The number of recovered loci of E. vulgata was 107, being the lowest of all species in the ddRAD data set (Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. S6 available on Dryad). In a trial with E. tantillaria and E. vulgata removed, these having the highest levels of missing data, the phylogenetic placement and relationships of the species showing conflict between ddRAD and Sanger data (e.g., E. semigraphata, E. simpliciata) remained the same (see Supplementary Fig. S7b available on Dryad). The exclusion of the six poorest-quality samples did not significantly affect the phylogenetic results. For the reference assembly, an average of 271,114 reads per sample were mapped to the 26 reference genomes of Lepidoptera, while an average of 286,552 reads per sample remained unmapped (Supplementary Table S3 available on Dryad). After filtering, an average of 31,748 clusters per sample were obtained, with an average of 32.4 per sample for cluster depth. The final data set from the reference assembly consisted of 822 recovered loci per sample across more than three individuals. The phylogenetic hypothesis based on the reference assembly produced a remarkably incongruent tree with both the de novo ddRAD assembly tree and the Sanger tree (Supplementary Fig. S8 available on Dryad). Effects of Locus Conservation on SNP Frequency The number of SNPs per locus showed considerable variation at each value of individuals per locus ($$m$$, range 6–24), demonstrating pronounced variation in locus conservation regardless of its likelihood to be recovered. The average number of SNPs/locus, however, tended to decrease with increasing number of individuals/locus across loci shared by a minimum of 10 individuals (Fig. 4), demonstrating the connection between the locus dropout and the type of retained loci. The quadratic model (Supplementary Table S5 available on Dryad) explained the data much better than the linear model ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$1 8.3, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 12.3 in favor of the quadratic model). The 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals encompassed the fitted regression curve derived from the generalized linear model, lending support to inferences based on the regression model even though the normality assumption of the residuals was violated in the regression model. The number of recovered loci decreased dramatically when an increasing number of individuals were required to share a locus (Supplementary Fig. S9 available on Dryad). Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Number of SNPs per locus in relation to the number of individuals per locus. Open circles indicate the observations, and the thick and thin lines depict the fitted regression (a quadratic generalized linear model with negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function) and its 95% confidence intervals, respectively. The red crosses indicate the mean numbers of SNPs per locus in each category, and the red whiskers depict the 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals of the means. Figure 4. View largeDownload slide Number of SNPs per locus in relation to the number of individuals per locus. Open circles indicate the observations, and the thick and thin lines depict the fitted regression (a quadratic generalized linear model with negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function) and its 95% confidence intervals, respectively. The red crosses indicate the mean numbers of SNPs per locus in each category, and the red whiskers depict the 95% adjusted bootstrap percentile confidence intervals of the means. Patterns of Locus, SNP, and PIS Dropouts and Their Effects on Node Confidence Locus dropout towards deeper nodes was linear, as expected (Table 3 and Fig. 5a), the 95% confidence interval of the regression slope ($$-$$315, $$-$$46.7) and the support for the linear regression over the quadratic one ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 1.98, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 3.70 in favor of the linear model) supporting the prediction presented in Figure 1. The coefficients of determination were the same for both the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$) and quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$) regression models for locus dropout, further supporting the choice of the simpler linear regression model. The number of SNPs was highest at intermediate node depth and decreased towards shallow and deep nodes (Table 3 and Fig. 5b), which is also consistent with the prediction (cf. Fig. 1). Consistency with the prediction is further supported by the 95% confidence interval of the coefficient for squared node depth ($$-$$14,697, $$-$$1781), the support for the quadratic regression over the linear regression model ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 4.63, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 2.92 in favor of the quadratic model), and the higher coefficient of determination for the quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$) than the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.17$$) regression model. The ln-transformed number of PIS linearly increased towards deep nodes (Fig. 5c; 95% confidence interval of the slope: 5.29, 13.0), and the linear model was supported over the quadratic one ($$\Delta $$AIC $$=$$ 1.87, $$\Delta $$BIC $$=$$ 3.20 in favor of the linear model), the coefficients of determination being similar for both the linear ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$) and quadratic ($$R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$) models. Variation in bootstrap residuals was only explained by node depth, and not by the number of loci, SNPs or PIS in ddRAD data (Supplementary Table S6 available on Dryad and Fig. 6). Table 3 Regression coefficients for locus dropout, SNP dropout, PIS dropout, and the number of SNPs per locus (each handled as separate response variables) Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 $$^{{a}}$$The number of PIS per taxon was ln([number of PIS per taxon] $$+$$ 1)-transformed. $$^{{b}}$$Observations were weighted with the number of loci. View Large Table 3 Regression coefficients for locus dropout, SNP dropout, PIS dropout, and the number of SNPs per locus (each handled as separate response variables) Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 Response variable Parameter Estimate Std.E. t $$P$$ Locus dropout Intercept 148 24.6 6.02 $$<$$0.0001 Node depth $$-181$$ 66.4 -2.73 0.0096 SNP dropout Intercept $$-1$$01 301 -0.337 0.74 Node depth 7116 2097 3.39 0.0016 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ $$-8239$$ 3190 -2.58 0.014 PIS dropout$$^{{a}}$$ Intercept $$-$$0.513 0.794 -0.646 0.52 Node depth 9.12 1.86 4.90 $$<$$0.0001 SNPs per locus$$^{{b}}$$ Intercept 1.48 2.92 0.508 0.61 Node depth $$-5$$.68 19.0 -0.298 0.77 (Node depth)$$^{{2}}$$ 134 29.1 4.62 $$<$$0.0001 $$^{{a}}$$The number of PIS per taxon was ln([number of PIS per taxon] $$+$$ 1)-transformed. $$^{{b}}$$Observations were weighted with the number of loci. View Large Figure 5. View largeDownload slide The number of loci (a), SNPs (b), and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) (c) in relation to node depth. Observations are indicated with points. The number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed as ln([number of PIS] $$+$$ 1), one added because data include zeros, to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The fitted regression curves (thick lines) and their 95% confidence limits (thin lines) are depicted, the regression equations being a) $$Y = 148 - 180X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$), b) $$Y = -101 + 7116X - 8239X^{\mathrm{2}} (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$), and c) $$Y = -0.513 + 9.12X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$); $$Y$$ refers to the response variable and $$X$$ to node depth. Figure 5. View largeDownload slide The number of loci (a), SNPs (b), and parsimony informative SNPs (PIS) (c) in relation to node depth. Observations are indicated with points. The number of PIS per taxon was logarithmically transformed as ln([number of PIS] $$+$$ 1), one added because data include zeros, to ensure model goodness-of-fit. The fitted regression curves (thick lines) and their 95% confidence limits (thin lines) are depicted, the regression equations being a) $$Y = 148 - 180X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.16$$), b) $$Y = -101 + 7116X - 8239X^{\mathrm{2}} (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.30$$), and c) $$Y = -0.513 + 9.12X (R^{\mathrm{2}} = 0.48$$); $$Y$$ refers to the response variable and $$X$$ to node depth. Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Contour plots of the fitted regression surfaces explaining variation in bootstrap residuals in relation to node depth and either the number of loci (a), SNPs (b), or parsimony informative SNPs (c). The color gradient illustrates the shape of the regression surface, predicted negative and positive bootstrap residuals being indicated by blue and red colors, respectively. Observations are indicated with points, the color of the point being the darker the higher the bootstrap residual. Note that the absolute values of the contours extend beyond 100 in the upper corners in (b) and (c) because the estimated regression surface extends beyond the data range there, rendering the predictions meaningless. The regression surfaces should be interpreted only within the space filled by observations (points). Figure 6. View largeDownload slide Contour plots of the fitted regression surfaces explaining variation in bootstrap residuals in relation to node depth and either the number of loci (a), SNPs (b), or parsimony informative SNPs (c). The color gradient illustrates the shape of the regression surface, predicted negative and positive bootstrap residuals being indicated by blue and red colors, respectively. Observations are indicated with points, the color of the point being the darker the higher the bootstrap residual. Note that the absolute values of the contours extend beyond 100 in the upper corners in (b) and (c) because the estimated regression surface extends beyond the data range there, rendering the predictions meaningless. The regression surfaces should be interpreted only within the space filled by observations (points). Discussion Previous studies have demonstrated that RAD methods are generally efficient in inferring shallow-level phylogenies (e.g., Tiffin and Ross-Ibarra 2014; Hou et al. 2015; Leaché et al. 2015b; Ree and Hipp 2015; Andrews et al. 2016; Kim et al. 2016). Counterintuitively, RAD phylogenies have often yielded unexpectedly well-resolved relationships also at relatively deep phylogenetic levels, and even tens of millions of years old divergences have been resolvable (Rubin et al. 2012; Cariou et al. 2013; Leaché et al. 2015a; Herrera and Shank 2016). Eaton et al. (2017) recently recognized that growing hierarchical redundancy towards the deeper splits constitutes a major reason for the high power of RAD methods at relatively deep phylogenetic levels. As far as we know, our study is the first to investigate how locus dropout affects the amount of phylogenetic information at different phylogenetic depths. We demonstrate that the number of retained loci is not an accurate measure of phylogenetic information content in RAD data sets, and that they tend to become more information-rich towards the deeper phylogenetic levels. Our comparison with an eight-gene Sanger data indicates that ddRAD sequencing yields overall congruent tree topologies despite a lack of retained loci that are shared among all studied taxa. While we base our conclusions on an empirical data set of 35 species of moths, the observed patterns are likely to occur in the RAD data sets from other taxa as well. Effects of Sample Quality and the adopted Protocol A relatively low number (median 578) of consensus loci was retained in the ddRAD data set with a minimum number of individuals per locus being 6. We observed a very strong locus dropout effect as demonstrated by the observation that while on average 15k loci were recovered per specimen, none of them was recovered across all specimens. While an age estimate for the genus is not available, it is likely that it is less than 10–20 million years old, given that a deep split within the subfamily to which Eupithecia belongs to is estimated at 33 Ma (Wahlberg et al. 2013). The power of the analysis could likely be substantially increased by improving sample quality, repeating the ddRAD library preparation, using different (or additional) restriction enzymes, using a different RAD method, and increasing sampling intensity. Optimally, samples to be used should be stored in a way that minimizes the degradation of DNA as the level of DNA degradation is directly correlated with the probability of finding a given locus supplementary Fig. S10. To increase the density of taxon sampling, samples of suboptimal quality may be included as the availability of alcohol or freezer-preserved samples is usually limited. In some cases, the final number of retained loci remained much lower than in others. This could have been partly avoided by increasing the amount of tissue used for DNA extraction, but for very small species (the majority of extant species are small) even this is not an option. A substantial increase in the amount of loci could have been obtained by analyzing the library to a greater depth by reducing the number of individuals included in a single run or duplication of the RAD library preparation. This is supported by the observation that, on average, only 20.6% of all loci showed a depth value of at least 3 and could be retained (Supplementary Table S7 available on Dryad). Furthermore, since a majority of loci were recovered less than four times, many loci not falling within the locus dropout zone due to mutation–disruption were likely not recovered even a single time. The power of RAD analysis could additionally be increased by repeating the analysis with another set of restriction enzymes, although this nearly duplicates the costs, which is why such trials are rare. Additionally, single digest RAD methods may yield more phylogenetic information than double-digest methods such as the one used here (Andrews et al. 2016). Finally, the tree resolution could be improved by a denser and more balanced taxon sampling (Eaton et al. 2017), and especially by the inclusion of “critical” taxa, namely those cutting the long branches of the tree and hence increasing the hierarchical redundancy of the data. Due to the low DNA quantity of the original DNA extracts, we conducted a whole-genome amplification (WGA) for each sample. WGA may amplify different parts of the genome in a biased way and introduce errors in the amplified regions (Pinard et al. 2006; Blair et al. 2015; Burford Reiskind et al. 2016), although it has been shown that WGA produced accurate reduced representations of human, mouse, and bird genomes (Barker et al. 2004; Han et al. 2012; Rheindt et al. 2014). Tin et al. (2014) conducted WGA for RAD tags with ant museum material with degraded DNA, and similarly observed no significant genomic bias due to the genomic enrichment. If WGA underamplifies the genome, a lower number of unique loci and a greater coverage of the amplified regions is expected. Alternatively, if WGA introduces errors to amplified regions, an exaggerated degree of SNPs is expected. We attempted to validate our data through careful bioinformatics scrutiny and applied a strict $$m$$ (minimum number of individuals per locus) value, albeit at the expense of the number of loci included in the final data set. Effects of Clustering Threshold and Minimum Individual Parameters on RAD Data Matrix Although on average approximately 15,000 loci for each sample were recovered for Eupithecia, an average of only 610 loci per individual were retained in the final data set. This represents a well-demonstrated drawback of RAD methods. For example, Rheindt et al. (2014) could save only 2.9–3.9% of all recovered SNPs in their between-population analyses. The breadth of the RAD data is greatly affected by the stringency of clustering and minimum individual thresholds. Failure to pay careful attention to these issues may easily lead to the inclusion of paralogs, contaminant reads and otherwise misleading data, reducing the overall reliability of data. RAD methods have a benefit of being feasible for nonmodel taxa lacking a reference genome, but the reverse side of this is that filtering out alien reads and paralogs is complicated and must be done informatically (Ree and Hipp 2015). We assessed the effects of both the clustering threshold and the minimum individual threshold on the tree topology of each data matrix. Most of our analyses based on ddRADseq matrices produced congruent trees with high support values for most nodes. In particular, the minimum individual parameter controls the amount of missing data as it has a direct relation with the number of loci (or SNPs) in the final matrix (Ree and Hipp 2015). The variation in the degree of missing data did not strongly affect the tree topologies, but the largest, and thus most informative, data matrices resulted in the highest phylogenetic support for nodes (see Table 2 and Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). This result is consistent with previous observations that large amounts of missing data in RADseq data sets do not adversely affect the accuracy of phylogenetic inference (Rubin et al. 2012; Keller et al. 2013; Hipp et al. 2014; Takahashi et al. 2014; Hou et al. 2015; Herrera and Shank 2016). However, Leaché et al. (2015a) demonstrated that, although this generally holds true, data sets with high levels of missing data are error-prone. They emphasized that the statistical node support value is not equal to its true confidence (see also Rubin et al. 2012), but may artificially result from biases of the data. In our case, broad congruence between the two phylogenies based on independent data sets suggest that missing data did not have significant adverse effects on recovering a robust tree topology. Comparison of RAD and Sanger Tree Topologies Previous comparisons between Sanger and RAD data sets have shown that RAD data generally outperform Sanger data sets (Eaton and Ree 2013; Keller et al. 2013; Cruaud et al. 2014; Escudero et al. 2014; Hipp et al. 2014; Herrera et al. 2015; Ruane et al. 2015). In our case, the ddRAD and Sanger data provided overall similar tree topologies. This would be an unlikely result if one or both of the data sets were poor in phylogenetic information and hence misleading. However, a few remarkable cases of incongruence were detected. In both trees, some of the deeper nodes were statistically poorly supported likely due to very short internodal branches. Nodes at intermediate phylogenetic depth were better supported by ddRAD data compared to Sanger data, but at the deepest levels bootstrap values in ddRAD data sets dropped steeply (Fig. 3). A likely explanation for this is the decay of phylogenetic information due to the dropout of data (Fig. 5). Based on ddRAD data, the sister species to the rest of the sampled Eupithecia is E. abietaria. Although no prior rigorous analysis of phylogenetic relationships in Eupithecia exists to support this finding, we find it a likely scenario based on the morphological distinctiveness of this taxon within Eupithecia but shared with Pasiphila, our outgroup taxon. Using Sanger data, the sister lineage to all other Eupithecia was inferred to be E. actaeata, a species that shows close overall morphological similarity with many other species of Eupithecia. However, in the Sanger data the monophyly of the sampled Eupithecia with E. actaeata excluded is very strongly supported, whereas in ddRAD data the monophyly of all except for E. abietaria remains supported by a bootstrap support (BS) of only 68%. This incongruence is difficult to explain, since E. actaeata is firmly (100% BS) associated with two other species (E. exiguata and E. assimilata) in all ddRAD trials and is never placed even close to the root. Another remarkable case of incongruence between the data sets is the position of E. simpliciata, which appears as a highly unstable taxon whose position is poorly supported in the Sanger data, and separated by a very short internodal branch. In the ddRAD data, it associates with E. semigraphata with 100% BS, and together with three other species (E. millefoliata, E. icterata, and E. denotata), forms a strongly supported entity, which, with the exclusion of E. simpliciata, is also strongly supported by Sanger data as well. Interestingly, all these five species share an ecological trait, their flight period being late summer. We conclude that the pattern displayed by E. simpliciata in Sanger data is likely to be caused by a shortage of phylogenetic information in this data set, which, unlike ddRAD data, performs poorly at intermediate phylogenetic levels (Fig. 3). The position of E. vulgata represents another remarkable case of incongruence between the data sets. On the basis of morphology, this species appears to be a close relative of E. assimilata, with which it associates in Sanger data with strong support (together with E. exiguata). In contrast, E. vulgata associates with E. selinata in the ddRAD tree. The position of E. vulgata is, however, significantly unstable in the various ddRAD trials (Supplementary Fig. S3 available on Dryad). The reason lies in the poor success of E. vulgata for loci recovery. With a low number of loci recovered (107) and a mean locus coverage of as high as 854, E. vulgata represents a likely case of poor quality in the original DNA template. The multimarker Sanger gene set we used has proven to be efficient for Lepidoptera higher-level phylogenetics (Mutanen et al. 2010; Sihvonen et al. 2011; Zahiri et al. 2012). This and the overall congruence of Sanger and ddRAD phylogenies call into question the use of RAD approaches, why change if Sanger sequencing works? RAD protocols have the benefit of having a very broad phylogenetic scalability, whereas Sanger protocols tend to have limited scalability across different groups especially due to primer issues. At optimal, relatively shallow phylogenetic scales, RAD approaches yield significantly higher amounts of phylogenetic information in terms of loci, SNPs, and PIS. Furthermore, building a RAD library for a large number of specimens is actually faster and cheaper than building a Sanger data set of ten gene fragments as done in this study, especially when labor costs are considered. Patterns of Loci, SNPs, and PIS in RAD Data Sets Huang and Knowles (2016) demonstrated with simulations that the proportion of missing data is associated with the type of loci retained in the data. This is intuitively plausible as it can be expected that slowly evolving loci are less likely to drop out than rapidly evolving loci. Our study is the first to demonstrate with empirical data that the more often a locus is found among species, the poorer they are in phylogenetic information (measured in this analysis by SNPs). Likely for the same reason, the minimum number of individuals per locus value ($$m)$$ is negatively correlated with the pairwise genetic distance between specimens. While the negative correlation between the locus recovery rate and their SNP content was statistically highly significant, there is overall much variation in SNP frequency, and the observed decline of SNPs is not steep. We presume that this effect is mitigated by opposite effects: conserved loci are more “long-living” (less sensitive to mutation–disruption), thus have had a longer time to accumulate mutations. These opposite effects might even compensate each other. The observed trend may therefore actually be explained by the higher proportion of ultraconserved loci retained with higher values of individuals/locus (see Fig. 4). Locus dropout is caused by the disruption of restriction site recognition as a result of mutation at the restriction region, resulting in a pattern of decline in locus sharing with phylogenetic distance. Accordingly, in our data, the number of loci shows a constant decline along with increased coalescence time (node depth), and nearly reaches zero at the deepest nodes. As we hypothesized, the number of loci is not a good proxy for phylogenetic information (number of SNPs and PIS) retained in the data (Fig. 5b, c). The shallow nodes with large numbers of shared loci between the sister lineages were constantly poor in SNPs and PIS in relation to the sister lineages at the intermediate phylogenetic levels. The number of SNPs was also low in the deepest phylogenetic nodes, reflecting the decay of recovered loci. While the loci retained at the deepest levels tend to be conserved, they are not necessarily particularly poor in phylogenetic information because they have had the longest time to accumulate mutations, as suggested by the relatively high number of PIS in the deepest phylogenetic nodes. Interestingly, neither the number of loci or SNPs, nor PIS explained node support when the confounding effect of the length of the branch leading to the node was eliminated. Only node depth explained node support. The lack of contribution to node support should, however, be considered with caution, because our data do not contain much information about these effects. Our observations are strongly biased towards low numbers of loci, SNPs, and PIS (see Fig. 6). Secondly, the observed BSs are strongly dominated by very high values, which also makes it difficult to estimate the dependency of node support on any explanatory variables. Furthermore, bootstrap values do not provide an accurate estimate of the true phylogeny under all conditions (Hillis and Bull 1993). Owing to these reasons, we cannot exclude the possibility that the number of loci, and the number of SNPs or PIS in particular, are positively correlated with the node confidence, as would be expected. Yet, given the clear-cut results concerning locus and SNP/PIS dropouts, any data are predicted to be unevenly spread in the node depth-phylogenetic information (numbers of loci/SNPs/PIS) space, which remains a potential challenge for future analyses. Conclusions RAD methods are characterized by large numbers of recovered loci combined with a strong locus dropout effect and large proportions of missing data, arguably compromising their use at deep phylogenetic levels. The plain number of retained loci, however, does not provide a good proxy for the amount of phylogenetic information in the data, because (i) retained loci tend to become more informative towards deeper phylogenetic levels (Huang and Knowles 2016, this study), (ii) hierarchical redundancy is increased towards deeper phylogenetic levels (Eaton et al. 2017), and (iii) the number of loci does not equal the number of SNPs and PIS (this study). Thus, attention should be paid to available phylogeny-informative SNPs retained at different phylogenetic depths. Comprehensive and balanced taxon sampling helps to resolve phylogenetic affinities also at relatively deep phylogenetic levels. We demonstrated this with a comparison of ddRAD and multigene Sanger-sequencing-based phylogenetic analyses of 35 species of a diverse moth genus. The number of available loci could be further increased by repeating the library preparation and applying different restriction enzymes. Since ddRAD library preparation is straightforward and a large number of specimens can be analyzed simultaneously and cost-effectively in a short time (100 specimens in less than 2 weeks), the method has high potential to provide an efficient tool to resolve phylogenetic relationships especially of species-rich genera and lower-level taxonomic groups. Funding This study was financially supported by the Academy of Finland through a research grant #277984 to MM. NW acknowledges support from the Swedish Research Council and SMK thanks Emil Aaltonen Foundation and the Estonian Research Council (grant PUT1474) for research grants. Acknowledgments We are grateful to Laura Törmälä and Soile Alatalo for their efficient work in lab and for continuously developing laboratory protocols and practices. We are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers and Vlad Dinca for providing numerous useful comments on the manuscript. The authors also wish to acknowledge CSC – IT Center for Science, Finland for providing computational resources. We also would like to thank people at the CCDB for sequencing the DNA barcode regions and continuous support with BOLD data management. Supplementary material Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.474nd. References Andrews K.R. , Good J.M. , Miller M.R. , Luikart G. , Hohenlohe P.A. 2016 . Harnessing the power of RADseq for ecological and evolutionary genomics . Nat. Rev. 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Systematic BiologyOxford University Press

Published: Apr 14, 2018

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