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Influenza viral shedding in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected children and adults in 2 provinces of South Africa, 2012-2014

Influenza viral shedding in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected children and... Abstract Background Prolonged shedding of influenza viruses may be associated with increased transmissibility and resistance mutation acquisition due to therapy. We compared duration and magnitude of influenza shedding between HIV-infected and –uninfected individuals. Methods A prospective cohort study during three influenza seasons enrolled patients with influenza-like illness and a positive influenza rapid test. Influenza viruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Weibull accelerated failure time regression models were used to describe influenza virus shedding. Mann-Whitney U tests explored initial influenza viral loads (VL). Results Influenza virus shedding duration was similar in 65 HIV-infected (6 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-10] days) and 176 HIV-uninfected individuals (7 [IQR 4-11] days, p=0.97), as was initial influenza VL (HIV-uninfected 5.28 +/- 1.33 log10 copies/mL, HIV-infected 4.73 +/- 1.68 log10 copies/mL, p=0.08). Adjusted for age, HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts shed influenza virus for longer than those with higher counts (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-12.08). Discussion A longer duration of influenza virus shedding in HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts may suggest a possible increased risk for transmission or viral evolution in severely immunocompromised individuals. HIV-infected individuals should be prioritized for annual influenza immunization. Influenza, shedding, HIV, South Africa © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected]. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Infectious Diseases Oxford University Press

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References (47)

Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected].
ISSN
0022-1899
eISSN
1537-6613
DOI
10.1093/infdis/jiy310
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Background Prolonged shedding of influenza viruses may be associated with increased transmissibility and resistance mutation acquisition due to therapy. We compared duration and magnitude of influenza shedding between HIV-infected and –uninfected individuals. Methods A prospective cohort study during three influenza seasons enrolled patients with influenza-like illness and a positive influenza rapid test. Influenza viruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Weibull accelerated failure time regression models were used to describe influenza virus shedding. Mann-Whitney U tests explored initial influenza viral loads (VL). Results Influenza virus shedding duration was similar in 65 HIV-infected (6 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-10] days) and 176 HIV-uninfected individuals (7 [IQR 4-11] days, p=0.97), as was initial influenza VL (HIV-uninfected 5.28 +/- 1.33 log10 copies/mL, HIV-infected 4.73 +/- 1.68 log10 copies/mL, p=0.08). Adjusted for age, HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts shed influenza virus for longer than those with higher counts (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-12.08). Discussion A longer duration of influenza virus shedding in HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts may suggest a possible increased risk for transmission or viral evolution in severely immunocompromised individuals. HIV-infected individuals should be prioritized for annual influenza immunization. Influenza, shedding, HIV, South Africa © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected]. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

Journal

The Journal of Infectious DiseasesOxford University Press

Published: May 24, 2018

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