Incorporating task-based learning in an extensive reading programme

Incorporating task-based learning in an extensive reading programme Abstract This article reports on an EFL reading programme that integrated extensive reading with task-based learning to promote L2 learners’ language development, increase their motivation in reading, and help them build reading habits. In this programme, students took an active role in selecting graded reading material relevant to their interests and participated in reasoning-gap, information-gap, opinion-exchange, and decision-making tasks in the classroom. Data were collected through interviews with students, classroom observation, students’ reading logs, and reflective journals. The results indicated that the combination of interesting reading materials and meaningful tasks created positive experiences in language learning. Comprehensible input from extensive reading and productive output in the follow-up tasks proved to be effective in facilitating language development. Most importantly, students reported feeling a sense of achievement when sharing what they read with peers and completing the tasks, which then motivated them to read more books and gradually develop reading habits. Introduction Reading is one of the most powerful tools in language education (Krashen 2004: 1). To develop the ability to read English efficiently, L2 learners need to be continually exposed to abundant comprehensible input in the target language (Grabe and Stoller 2011), and extensive reading is a primary way for learners to receive such input. A framework for an extensive reading approach comprises ten principles proposed by Day and Bamford (2002), including learners selecting their own reading materials that they find easy and enjoyable, reading for pleasure and general understanding, and teachers providing guidance and modelling reading in the classroom. Day and Bamford (ibid.) also suggest that as learners choose their own texts and read as much as possible, they develop consistent reading habits. Research has shown positive effects of extensive reading in many aspects of language learning. For instance, learners improve vocabulary knowledge (Hsu and Lee 2007) through extensive reading, which provides them with an opportunity to encounter words in the context of use. Extensive reading also improves reading ability (Beglar, Hunt, and Kite 2012) when the reading materials are well within their linguistic levels (Day and Bamford 2002). In addition, extensive reading leads to writing improvement (Tudor and Hafiz 1989) in the areas of content, organization, language use, and mechanics (Park 2016). Moreover, learners develop positive attitudes toward extensive reading and experience increased motivation for L2 reading (Takase 2007). Despite research evidence supporting extensive reading, the practice of extensive reading is not prevalent in exam-oriented contexts (e.g. Asian countries), where students’ attention is drawn to achieving better grades in academic performance. The impact of extensive reading on L2 acquisition over extended periods of time (i.e. one year or more) may not satisfy learners’ short-term purposes. To be successful, extensive reading needs to be integrated with other language-learning activities which have attainable purposes that learners can perceive clearly (Green 2005). Therefore, a task-based approach in which learners are given tasks that invite them to focus on meaning exchange and to use language for real-world purposes (Nunan 2006; Van den Branden 2006) is proposed to be beneficial for an extensive reading programme. The framework for task-based learning includes three phases. In the pre-task phase, learners are introduced to the topic and given preparation time for the task. In the task-planning-report phase, learners complete a task in pairs or groups and present a short report to the class; in this phase, the teacher plays the role of an advisor, suggesting words or phrases to help learners edit their language. In the third phase, the teacher selects language areas for practice based on the language that learners use in the task and report phase (Willis 1996: 52). Task-based extensive reading Both comprehensible input and productive output are essential for L2 development, and tasks provide full opportunities for both input and output requirements. Learners receive comprehensible input from the reading materials (e.g. graded readers), engage in meaningful tasks such as opinion exchange or decision-making tasks, and produce written reports or give oral presentations to the whole class. It is argued that extensive reading, which is done silently by individuals, fails to provide a clear and direct purpose for reading (Green 2005). This problem can be solved when extensive reading is incorporated in a task-based approach because the purpose of reading the material is to assist the completion of tasks. The effect of extensive reading can be optimized if more follow-up activities are offered to engage students in using language to express their personal viewpoint on the reading. It is suggested that extensive reading in a task-based approach is good for learners since it not only facilitates the development of specific reading skills (e.g. reading fluency) and critical thinking skills (e.g. reasoning ability) but also promotes learning through interaction (Green ibid.). The study Based on the rationale that extensive reading in a task-based approach provides a reading purpose for language learners and offers opportunities for learners to practise language, the present study investigated the implementation of task-based extensive reading in an EFL college reading course. Graded readers were the reading materials because they are specifically written for language learners and the content is adapted to match the language level of learners. The aim of this study was to answer the following research questions: 1. What are students’ views of the impact of task-based extensive reading on their language learning? 2. How can task-based extensive reading help students develop reading habits? Participants The participants in this study were 48 undergraduates taking an intermediate (B1 level) reading course at a private university in Taiwan. They were 36 females and 12 males, with ages ranging from 18 to 20 years. All were native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. English reading courses were required for English major students from the first to the third years of college. None of the students had experience with extensive reading in their previous school years. Classroom procedure This undergraduate reading course aimed to improve students’ reading comprehension and reading fluency as well as develop their confidence and motivation in reading. The class met two hours a week for 18 weeks. At the first class meeting, students were informed that extensive reading was a required component of the course and accounted for 20% of their final course grade. Students read both in and out of class and participated in task-based extensive reading activities. The teacher introduced task-based extensive reading to students by showing them how to access the school library resources and databases where a variety of reading materials were available, as well as explaining the principles of extensive reading and task-based learning. The study of task-based extensive reading comprised two stages: in the first stage, the whole class read teacher-selected texts, and in the second stage, individual students read self-selected books. (1) The purpose of the first stage was to guide students to read storybooks such as graded readers and help them choose materials at their reading levels. During the first four weeks of the semester, students were required to read Great Expectations (Level 5 from the Oxford Bookworms series). This book was selected by the teacher because it is suitable for intermediate-level learners and the themes of love and friendship generally interest Taiwanese students. Guided reading instruction was adopted to help students comprehend the text. The teacher demonstrated how to use reading strategies, such as asking questions, making predictions, visualizing, guessing unknown words, and reading for general understanding. (2) In the second stage, starting from the fifth week to the final (18th) week, students selected and read their own books. They were encouraged to read graded readers and choose materials in their ‘comfort zone’ (Day and Bamford 2002)—one in which they could read enjoyably and with high levels of comprehension. Each student on average read five graded readers (including the teacher-selected one, i.e. Great Expectations), with 1400–1800 headwords in each book, during the semester. Pedagogical tasks, which aimed to facilitate language learning in the classroom, were adopted as the extensive reading activities in this study. Table 1 shows the procedure of the tasks carried out in the classroom, including reasoning-gap tasks, information-gap tasks, opinion-exchange tasks, and decision-making tasks. These tasks were adapted from the extensive reading activities described by Bamford and Day (2004). Table 1 Procedure of task-based extensive reading Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. View Large Table 1 Procedure of task-based extensive reading Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. View Large A total of five tasks were implemented during the semester. In the pre-task phase, the teacher informed students of the reading task they had to prepare before coming to class. During the interactive task phase, students were paired up or divided into groups of four depending on the type of task. In week 4, students worked in groups to make predictions while reading the teacher-selected book. In weeks 7, 10, 13, and 16, each different task was carried out after every student read one different book. Students interviewed their peers about the stories they read, exchanged creative ideas, asked and answered questions in the form of a letter, and gave advice to the characters in the stories. While students were on-task, the teacher monitored and encouraged students to communicate in English. The products of these tasks were either written or in the form of an oral report. The teacher advised students on language use or answered students’ questions when they were planning to present their reports. In addition, students were required to keep reading journals, recording what they had read and listing their written work. This work might, for example, be new endings they had created for the stories, or the letters they had written to the characters in the stories. In the post-task phase, the teacher drew students’ attention to the language they used during the task. Students practised and wrote down useful words or phrases in their reading journals. They were also asked to reflect on what they had learned from the task and to record their reflections in the reading journals. Sources of data Data were collected through three sources including interviews with students, classroom observation, and students’ reading journals. Focus group interview Focus group interviews were conducted at the end of the semester to understand students’ experiences with and reflections on task-based extensive reading. Each group had six students who participated in the interview for 40 minutes to one hour. Interviews were conducted in Chinese and transcribed verbatim. A translation from Chinese to English was made for the data presented in this paper. The aim of the interview was to understand students’ perceptions of the impact of task-based extensive reading on their language learning, their views of the books they chose to read and the different types of tasks carried out in class, and whether they perceived changes in reading ability, reading motivation, and reading habits throughout the semester. Classroom observation The observation data were gathered through field notes by the researcher, who recorded her observations throughout the task-based extensive reading programme, specifically students’ attitudes toward reading and their responses to the extensive reading tasks in the classroom. Students’ reading journals Students’ reading journals included their reading logs and reflective journals. Their reading logs recorded their written work, such as making predictions about the story, making up a different ending of the story, and giving advice to one character in the story. In the reflective journals, students were asked to reflect on the experiences of completing the extensive reading tasks. Data analysis The data collected from the interviews, classroom field notes, and students’ reflective journals were analysed by the constant comparative method, which involves unitizing, categorizing, and filling in patterns (Lincoln and Guba 1985). The data were divided into smaller units of information (e.g. vocabulary knowledge and communication skills) and then sorted into categories (e.g. language improvement). This process was repeated until all the data fitted into clearly defined categories (e.g. language improvement, increased motivation, and reading habits). Categories were compared to other categories to establish relationships and identify patterns among them. Coded data were organized into three sub-topics: (1) impact of task-based extensive reading (TBER) on language improvement; (2) impact of TBER on reading motivation; and (3) impact of TBER on developing students’ reading habits. In this study, trustworthiness was established through triangulation, thick description, and member checking. Triangulation was achieved through three sources of data, namely interviews, classroom observations, and a review of students’ reading journals. Thick description means describing a phenomenon in sufficient detail (Lincoln and Guba 1985). The process and results of integrating extensive reading with task-based learning were described in sufficient detail to enable readers to transfer the findings to similar contexts. Moreover, the researcher conducted member checking at the end of interviews by summarizing the findings to ensure the accuracy of data. Results and discussion Impact of TBER on language improvement Thirty-five out of 48 students reported positive experiences with this programme. They reported perceived language improvement through extensive reading followed by task-based activities. I improve my vocabulary knowledge because the words appear repeatedly in the book and I use these words when working on the tasks with my group members. (S18, interview) The tasks provide me with opportunities to practise the words and phrases I learn from the book. Sometimes I have to narrate the plot or the problem the character faces in the story. I find my oral fluency improved as well. (S24, reflective journal) Students further indicated that they learned to solve linguistic problems and negotiate meaning through the tasks. I perceived the tasks as a constructive learning experience. Through working with my peers who had better English proficiency, I learned to use the right words and grammar structures to write and speak. I never thought I could correct the mistakes myself without their help. (S45, reflective journal) In the activity ‘giving advice to one character,’ my partner and I had different opinions, and we discussed to reach a consensus. I think my communication skills were enhanced through completing this task. (S13, interview) As the researcher observed, the tasks enabled students to express their ideas and develop thinking skills. For example, in the activity ‘making prediction about the story’, students exercised critical thinking and made predictions using text evidence. When sharing their thoughts with peers, they interacted with the thinking of other students and communicated in a social context. Students expressed their views of developing logical thinking abilities through the tasks. Knowing that I would be writing a different ending for the story, I read carefully and followed the clues to create a new ending. I found I was able to convey my ideas in a coherent and logical way. (S9, reflective journal) I like the oral interview activity in which we take turns playing the role of the main character and the roles of interviewers. It is a good activity that trains our logical thinking. I learn to present the story in a logical sequence, and we experience the process of effective communication. (S1, interview) These findings support the idea that extensive reading in a task-based approach provides a scaffold for language development. This is in accordance with the view that social interaction mediates learning (Ellis 2000: 209). Students learn cooperatively and constructively with their peers through the tasks, in which the process of sharing their ideas and completing the tasks contributes to cognitive and language development. Impact of TBER on reading motivation Extensive reading in a task-based approach makes reading an interactive activity. Students reported that extensive reading tasks motivated them to read in English. On one hand, sharing what they read with classmates gave them a sense of accomplishment and further motivated them to read more books. On the other hand, reading each other’s work (e.g. making up a different ending or writing a letter to a character in the story) and receiving feedback strengthened their motivation to read along. I enjoy retelling the story or sharing what I read with my classmates. I felt a sense of achievement, as it means I have finished one book. It encourages me to continue reading more books. (S8, interview) It is fun either to read the new ending my partner wrote for the story or to hear the advice she would give to the character. Knowing that my peers are engaged in reading, I become motivated to read. (S5, reflective journal) As students were motivated to read more books, they gradually discovered their favourite genres. As reported by one student, I started to read in order to complete the follow-up task. Then I find my interest in detective stories. I enjoy the process of solving mysteries and I will continue to read more detective stories. (S23, interview) Students’ positive experiences during the extensive reading tasks contributed to decreasing their anxiety about reading and communication. They indicated that they felt anxious when they first entered the extensive reading programme. However, as the semester progressed, the teacher guided them to choose easy and interesting graded readers, and they participated in cooperative tasks in which they supported and learned from each other. Discussion with peers beforehand made them feel less anxious to present their works to the teacher and the class. I felt anxious at the beginning of the semester because of my limited English proficiency. But after finishing one graded reader and taking part in the task, I develop a sense of achievement. Teacher support and peer support provide a pleasant atmosphere for learning. (S39, reflective journal) These findings suggest that extensive reading in a task-based approach promotes learners’ intrinsic motivation and reduces anxiety in reading. Interesting materials and meaningful tasks, followed by the feeling of accomplishment and self-confidence, sustain learners’ motivation in reading (Takase 2007) and overcome their anxiety about reading and communication. Impact of TBER on developing students’ reading habits As previously stated, students became motivated to read, and developed reading habits throughout the task-based extensive reading programme. In the interviews and reflective journals, students expressed their preferences for specific genres or well-known authors. I discover my favorite genre and enjoy reading Sherlock Holmes stories because of the mysterious nature of the stories. I will continue to read this type of stories and share them with my classmates. (S28, interview) I find my interest in reading books written by Margaret Johnson. I got inspiration from the book ‘All I Want’ when I first read it. Then I continued to check out another book ‘Jungle Love’ and enjoyed it as well. (S31, reflective journal) From the researcher’s observation, students were more engaged in the discussion when they shared similar reading preferences. While some students liked to read the same genre (e.g. mystery or romance), others exchanged books in order to be exposed to different genres of texts, which also prompted discussion among the students. Students further indicated that choosing reading materials relevant to their interests and at appropriate levels contributed to the formation of reading habits. After this programme, I have learned how to choose reading materials of my language level. I read faster and with better comprehension when the reading materials are easy. I think this programme has developed my reading habit in English. (S7, reflective journal) When I read interesting graded readers within my reading level, I am engrossed in the story and even forget about the time. I will read more frequently because of the enjoyment I find in reading. (S20, interview) These findings are signs for developing consistent reading habits (e.g. finding interesting books and reading more frequently). When learners are able to choose texts of their interests and within their linguistic abilities (Day and Bamford 2002), they develop intrinsic motivation in reading, build reading habits, and become independent readers. Implications and conclusion This study showed that integrating extensive reading with task-based learning promoted a positive learning cycle among students. Students took an active role in selecting reading texts in their ‘comfort zone’ (Day and Bamford ibid.), and were guided to read graded readers which are considered interesting materials that provide comprehensible input to language learners. Then, during the tasks, students used the language for real purposes, including retelling stories, exchanging information and opinions, making decisions, and receiving feedback. The combination of interesting reading materials and meaningful tasks created positive experiences in language learning and, in turn, enhanced students’ sense of achievement, which then motivated them to read more books and gradually develop reading habits. This learning process explains how extensive reading in a task-based approach promotes students’ language development and builds reading habits. One implication from this study is that incorporating task-based learning into an extensive reading programme can facilitate both language and cognitive development (e.g. logical thinking). Constant exposure to input through extensive reading enables students to improve linguistic knowledge, which is further consolidated through interaction with peers during the tasks. As reported by the students, they worked together to solve linguistic problems beyond their individual abilities. They also developed critical thinking skills in some tasks that required them to make decisions or solve problems, which was evident in the task performance. The reading–thinking–sharing experience suggests that students collaboratively construct knowledge (Ellis 2000) through social interaction. Another implication is that the teacher can offer various types of tasks to maintain student motivation and engagement. Information-gap, reasoning-gap, opinion-gap, and decision-making tasks were the four basic types of tasks adopted in this study. An information-gap task such as ‘oral interview’ allows students to request information, ask for clarification, and learn to present the story in a logical sequence. In the reasoning-gap task, students use reason and logic to make predictions or inferences about the story. An opinion-exchange task like ‘a different ending’ allows students to share with each other their new endings composed in an authentic creative writing activity. In the decision-making task ‘giving advice to the character’, students work together to solve the problems faced by the characters in the stories. The products of these tasks involve both written reports and oral presentations. As the researcher observed in the class, students showed interest and were willing to participate in the activities. This study has demonstrated the benefits of integrating extensive reading with task-based learning on students’ language learning. Previous studies have found positive effects of extensive reading on language and literacy development. This study fills the gap by proposing extensive reading in a task-based approach to develop students’ motivation and engage them in more reading. The findings suggest that extensive reading followed by task-based activities promotes language development, engages students in meaningful interaction, and motivates them to keep reading and develop reading habits. Task-based extensive reading is still an under-researched approach. It is hoped that this study will serve as a starting point for future studies which incorporate task-based learning into an extensive reading programme. More research should be carried out to explore how task-based extensive reading can contribute to language acquisition. I-Chen Chen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Applied English at Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Her research interests include second language reading and writing and teachers’ curricular planning. E-mail: jennychen@stust.edu.tw References Bamford , J. and R. R. Day (eds.). 2004 . Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Beglar , D. , A. Hunt , and Y. Kite . 2012 . ‘ The effect of pleasure reading on Japanese university EFL learners’ reading rates ’. Language Learning 62 / 3 : 665 – 703 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Day , R. R. and J. Bamford . 2002 . ‘ Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading ’. Reading in a Foreign Language 14 / 2 : 136 – 41 . Ellis , R . 2000 . ‘ Task-based research and language pedagogy ’. Language Teaching Research 4 / 3 : 193 – 220 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Grabe , W. and F. Stoller . 2011 . Teaching and Researching Reading (Second edition). London : Pearson Education . Green , C . 2005 . ‘ Integrating extensive reading in the task-based curriculum ’. ELT Journal 59 / 4 : 306 – 11 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Hsu , Y. Y. and S. Y. Lee . 2007 . ‘ Extensive reading and EFL junior college in Taiwan ’. Studies of English Language and Literature 20 : 137 – 45 . Krashen , S . 2004 . The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research (Second edition). Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann . Lincoln , Y. S. and E. G. Guba . 1985 . Naturalistic Inquiry . Beverly Hills, CA : Sage . Nunan , D . 2006 . ‘ Task-based language teaching in the Asia context: defining task ’. Asian EFL Journal 8 / 3 : 12 – 18 . Park , J . 2016 . ‘ Integrating reading and writing through extensive reading ’. ELT Journal 70 / 3 : 287 – 95 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Takase , A . 2007 . ‘ Japanese high school students’ motivation for extensive L2 reading ’. Reading in a Foreign Language 19 / 1 : 1 – 18 . Tudor , I. and F. Hafiz . 1989 . ‘ Extensive reading as a means of input to L2 learning ’. Journal of Research in Reading 12 / 2 : 164 – 78 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Van den Branden , K . 2006 . Task-Based Language Education: From Theory to Practice . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Willis , J . 1996 . A Framework for Task-Based Learning . Harlow : Longman . © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png ELT Journal Oxford University Press

Incorporating task-based learning in an extensive reading programme

ELT Journal , Volume 72 (4) – Nov 1, 2018

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0951-0893
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Abstract

Abstract This article reports on an EFL reading programme that integrated extensive reading with task-based learning to promote L2 learners’ language development, increase their motivation in reading, and help them build reading habits. In this programme, students took an active role in selecting graded reading material relevant to their interests and participated in reasoning-gap, information-gap, opinion-exchange, and decision-making tasks in the classroom. Data were collected through interviews with students, classroom observation, students’ reading logs, and reflective journals. The results indicated that the combination of interesting reading materials and meaningful tasks created positive experiences in language learning. Comprehensible input from extensive reading and productive output in the follow-up tasks proved to be effective in facilitating language development. Most importantly, students reported feeling a sense of achievement when sharing what they read with peers and completing the tasks, which then motivated them to read more books and gradually develop reading habits. Introduction Reading is one of the most powerful tools in language education (Krashen 2004: 1). To develop the ability to read English efficiently, L2 learners need to be continually exposed to abundant comprehensible input in the target language (Grabe and Stoller 2011), and extensive reading is a primary way for learners to receive such input. A framework for an extensive reading approach comprises ten principles proposed by Day and Bamford (2002), including learners selecting their own reading materials that they find easy and enjoyable, reading for pleasure and general understanding, and teachers providing guidance and modelling reading in the classroom. Day and Bamford (ibid.) also suggest that as learners choose their own texts and read as much as possible, they develop consistent reading habits. Research has shown positive effects of extensive reading in many aspects of language learning. For instance, learners improve vocabulary knowledge (Hsu and Lee 2007) through extensive reading, which provides them with an opportunity to encounter words in the context of use. Extensive reading also improves reading ability (Beglar, Hunt, and Kite 2012) when the reading materials are well within their linguistic levels (Day and Bamford 2002). In addition, extensive reading leads to writing improvement (Tudor and Hafiz 1989) in the areas of content, organization, language use, and mechanics (Park 2016). Moreover, learners develop positive attitudes toward extensive reading and experience increased motivation for L2 reading (Takase 2007). Despite research evidence supporting extensive reading, the practice of extensive reading is not prevalent in exam-oriented contexts (e.g. Asian countries), where students’ attention is drawn to achieving better grades in academic performance. The impact of extensive reading on L2 acquisition over extended periods of time (i.e. one year or more) may not satisfy learners’ short-term purposes. To be successful, extensive reading needs to be integrated with other language-learning activities which have attainable purposes that learners can perceive clearly (Green 2005). Therefore, a task-based approach in which learners are given tasks that invite them to focus on meaning exchange and to use language for real-world purposes (Nunan 2006; Van den Branden 2006) is proposed to be beneficial for an extensive reading programme. The framework for task-based learning includes three phases. In the pre-task phase, learners are introduced to the topic and given preparation time for the task. In the task-planning-report phase, learners complete a task in pairs or groups and present a short report to the class; in this phase, the teacher plays the role of an advisor, suggesting words or phrases to help learners edit their language. In the third phase, the teacher selects language areas for practice based on the language that learners use in the task and report phase (Willis 1996: 52). Task-based extensive reading Both comprehensible input and productive output are essential for L2 development, and tasks provide full opportunities for both input and output requirements. Learners receive comprehensible input from the reading materials (e.g. graded readers), engage in meaningful tasks such as opinion exchange or decision-making tasks, and produce written reports or give oral presentations to the whole class. It is argued that extensive reading, which is done silently by individuals, fails to provide a clear and direct purpose for reading (Green 2005). This problem can be solved when extensive reading is incorporated in a task-based approach because the purpose of reading the material is to assist the completion of tasks. The effect of extensive reading can be optimized if more follow-up activities are offered to engage students in using language to express their personal viewpoint on the reading. It is suggested that extensive reading in a task-based approach is good for learners since it not only facilitates the development of specific reading skills (e.g. reading fluency) and critical thinking skills (e.g. reasoning ability) but also promotes learning through interaction (Green ibid.). The study Based on the rationale that extensive reading in a task-based approach provides a reading purpose for language learners and offers opportunities for learners to practise language, the present study investigated the implementation of task-based extensive reading in an EFL college reading course. Graded readers were the reading materials because they are specifically written for language learners and the content is adapted to match the language level of learners. The aim of this study was to answer the following research questions: 1. What are students’ views of the impact of task-based extensive reading on their language learning? 2. How can task-based extensive reading help students develop reading habits? Participants The participants in this study were 48 undergraduates taking an intermediate (B1 level) reading course at a private university in Taiwan. They were 36 females and 12 males, with ages ranging from 18 to 20 years. All were native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. English reading courses were required for English major students from the first to the third years of college. None of the students had experience with extensive reading in their previous school years. Classroom procedure This undergraduate reading course aimed to improve students’ reading comprehension and reading fluency as well as develop their confidence and motivation in reading. The class met two hours a week for 18 weeks. At the first class meeting, students were informed that extensive reading was a required component of the course and accounted for 20% of their final course grade. Students read both in and out of class and participated in task-based extensive reading activities. The teacher introduced task-based extensive reading to students by showing them how to access the school library resources and databases where a variety of reading materials were available, as well as explaining the principles of extensive reading and task-based learning. The study of task-based extensive reading comprised two stages: in the first stage, the whole class read teacher-selected texts, and in the second stage, individual students read self-selected books. (1) The purpose of the first stage was to guide students to read storybooks such as graded readers and help them choose materials at their reading levels. During the first four weeks of the semester, students were required to read Great Expectations (Level 5 from the Oxford Bookworms series). This book was selected by the teacher because it is suitable for intermediate-level learners and the themes of love and friendship generally interest Taiwanese students. Guided reading instruction was adopted to help students comprehend the text. The teacher demonstrated how to use reading strategies, such as asking questions, making predictions, visualizing, guessing unknown words, and reading for general understanding. (2) In the second stage, starting from the fifth week to the final (18th) week, students selected and read their own books. They were encouraged to read graded readers and choose materials in their ‘comfort zone’ (Day and Bamford 2002)—one in which they could read enjoyably and with high levels of comprehension. Each student on average read five graded readers (including the teacher-selected one, i.e. Great Expectations), with 1400–1800 headwords in each book, during the semester. Pedagogical tasks, which aimed to facilitate language learning in the classroom, were adopted as the extensive reading activities in this study. Table 1 shows the procedure of the tasks carried out in the classroom, including reasoning-gap tasks, information-gap tasks, opinion-exchange tasks, and decision-making tasks. These tasks were adapted from the extensive reading activities described by Bamford and Day (2004). Table 1 Procedure of task-based extensive reading Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. View Large Table 1 Procedure of task-based extensive reading Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. Task type Pre-tasks Interactive tasks Week 4 (Book 1) Making predictions (reasoning-gap task) Students read the teacher- selected book and prepared answers to the questions (e.g. What do you think will happen to the main character during the next ten years?) Students predicted what would happen to the main character. In groups of four, they shared their ideas and checked if their predictions were logical. The teacher asked some groups to present their predictions to the class. Week 7 (Book 2) Oral interview (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to answer the questions as if they were the main characters in the stories (e.g. What happened to you? How did you feel?) Students in groups of four held an oral interview. One student acted as the main character, and the rest of group members acted as interviewers trying to find out what happened in the story. The teacher invited students to tell the class about the stories that sounded interesting. Week 10 (Book 3) A different ending (opinion-exchange task) Students read self-selected books and created endings for the stories. Students in groups of four first summarized the stories and then read the stories with new endings to the group. Students worked with the group to polish and refine their endings. Week 13 (Book 4) A letter to one character (information-gap task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to narrate the story. In pairs, each partner narrated the plot from the point of view of a character. When both partners finished, each one wrote questions or comments to the other partner’s character in the form of a letter. Then partners exchanged letters and responded to the questions in letter form. Week 16 (Book 5) Giving advice to one character (decision-making task) Students read self-selected books and prepared to give advice to one character in the story. In pairs, each partner summarized the story and narrated the problem the character faced in the story. Both partners gave advice to the character. Then students chose the best piece of advice through negotiation and discussion. View Large A total of five tasks were implemented during the semester. In the pre-task phase, the teacher informed students of the reading task they had to prepare before coming to class. During the interactive task phase, students were paired up or divided into groups of four depending on the type of task. In week 4, students worked in groups to make predictions while reading the teacher-selected book. In weeks 7, 10, 13, and 16, each different task was carried out after every student read one different book. Students interviewed their peers about the stories they read, exchanged creative ideas, asked and answered questions in the form of a letter, and gave advice to the characters in the stories. While students were on-task, the teacher monitored and encouraged students to communicate in English. The products of these tasks were either written or in the form of an oral report. The teacher advised students on language use or answered students’ questions when they were planning to present their reports. In addition, students were required to keep reading journals, recording what they had read and listing their written work. This work might, for example, be new endings they had created for the stories, or the letters they had written to the characters in the stories. In the post-task phase, the teacher drew students’ attention to the language they used during the task. Students practised and wrote down useful words or phrases in their reading journals. They were also asked to reflect on what they had learned from the task and to record their reflections in the reading journals. Sources of data Data were collected through three sources including interviews with students, classroom observation, and students’ reading journals. Focus group interview Focus group interviews were conducted at the end of the semester to understand students’ experiences with and reflections on task-based extensive reading. Each group had six students who participated in the interview for 40 minutes to one hour. Interviews were conducted in Chinese and transcribed verbatim. A translation from Chinese to English was made for the data presented in this paper. The aim of the interview was to understand students’ perceptions of the impact of task-based extensive reading on their language learning, their views of the books they chose to read and the different types of tasks carried out in class, and whether they perceived changes in reading ability, reading motivation, and reading habits throughout the semester. Classroom observation The observation data were gathered through field notes by the researcher, who recorded her observations throughout the task-based extensive reading programme, specifically students’ attitudes toward reading and their responses to the extensive reading tasks in the classroom. Students’ reading journals Students’ reading journals included their reading logs and reflective journals. Their reading logs recorded their written work, such as making predictions about the story, making up a different ending of the story, and giving advice to one character in the story. In the reflective journals, students were asked to reflect on the experiences of completing the extensive reading tasks. Data analysis The data collected from the interviews, classroom field notes, and students’ reflective journals were analysed by the constant comparative method, which involves unitizing, categorizing, and filling in patterns (Lincoln and Guba 1985). The data were divided into smaller units of information (e.g. vocabulary knowledge and communication skills) and then sorted into categories (e.g. language improvement). This process was repeated until all the data fitted into clearly defined categories (e.g. language improvement, increased motivation, and reading habits). Categories were compared to other categories to establish relationships and identify patterns among them. Coded data were organized into three sub-topics: (1) impact of task-based extensive reading (TBER) on language improvement; (2) impact of TBER on reading motivation; and (3) impact of TBER on developing students’ reading habits. In this study, trustworthiness was established through triangulation, thick description, and member checking. Triangulation was achieved through three sources of data, namely interviews, classroom observations, and a review of students’ reading journals. Thick description means describing a phenomenon in sufficient detail (Lincoln and Guba 1985). The process and results of integrating extensive reading with task-based learning were described in sufficient detail to enable readers to transfer the findings to similar contexts. Moreover, the researcher conducted member checking at the end of interviews by summarizing the findings to ensure the accuracy of data. Results and discussion Impact of TBER on language improvement Thirty-five out of 48 students reported positive experiences with this programme. They reported perceived language improvement through extensive reading followed by task-based activities. I improve my vocabulary knowledge because the words appear repeatedly in the book and I use these words when working on the tasks with my group members. (S18, interview) The tasks provide me with opportunities to practise the words and phrases I learn from the book. Sometimes I have to narrate the plot or the problem the character faces in the story. I find my oral fluency improved as well. (S24, reflective journal) Students further indicated that they learned to solve linguistic problems and negotiate meaning through the tasks. I perceived the tasks as a constructive learning experience. Through working with my peers who had better English proficiency, I learned to use the right words and grammar structures to write and speak. I never thought I could correct the mistakes myself without their help. (S45, reflective journal) In the activity ‘giving advice to one character,’ my partner and I had different opinions, and we discussed to reach a consensus. I think my communication skills were enhanced through completing this task. (S13, interview) As the researcher observed, the tasks enabled students to express their ideas and develop thinking skills. For example, in the activity ‘making prediction about the story’, students exercised critical thinking and made predictions using text evidence. When sharing their thoughts with peers, they interacted with the thinking of other students and communicated in a social context. Students expressed their views of developing logical thinking abilities through the tasks. Knowing that I would be writing a different ending for the story, I read carefully and followed the clues to create a new ending. I found I was able to convey my ideas in a coherent and logical way. (S9, reflective journal) I like the oral interview activity in which we take turns playing the role of the main character and the roles of interviewers. It is a good activity that trains our logical thinking. I learn to present the story in a logical sequence, and we experience the process of effective communication. (S1, interview) These findings support the idea that extensive reading in a task-based approach provides a scaffold for language development. This is in accordance with the view that social interaction mediates learning (Ellis 2000: 209). Students learn cooperatively and constructively with their peers through the tasks, in which the process of sharing their ideas and completing the tasks contributes to cognitive and language development. Impact of TBER on reading motivation Extensive reading in a task-based approach makes reading an interactive activity. Students reported that extensive reading tasks motivated them to read in English. On one hand, sharing what they read with classmates gave them a sense of accomplishment and further motivated them to read more books. On the other hand, reading each other’s work (e.g. making up a different ending or writing a letter to a character in the story) and receiving feedback strengthened their motivation to read along. I enjoy retelling the story or sharing what I read with my classmates. I felt a sense of achievement, as it means I have finished one book. It encourages me to continue reading more books. (S8, interview) It is fun either to read the new ending my partner wrote for the story or to hear the advice she would give to the character. Knowing that my peers are engaged in reading, I become motivated to read. (S5, reflective journal) As students were motivated to read more books, they gradually discovered their favourite genres. As reported by one student, I started to read in order to complete the follow-up task. Then I find my interest in detective stories. I enjoy the process of solving mysteries and I will continue to read more detective stories. (S23, interview) Students’ positive experiences during the extensive reading tasks contributed to decreasing their anxiety about reading and communication. They indicated that they felt anxious when they first entered the extensive reading programme. However, as the semester progressed, the teacher guided them to choose easy and interesting graded readers, and they participated in cooperative tasks in which they supported and learned from each other. Discussion with peers beforehand made them feel less anxious to present their works to the teacher and the class. I felt anxious at the beginning of the semester because of my limited English proficiency. But after finishing one graded reader and taking part in the task, I develop a sense of achievement. Teacher support and peer support provide a pleasant atmosphere for learning. (S39, reflective journal) These findings suggest that extensive reading in a task-based approach promotes learners’ intrinsic motivation and reduces anxiety in reading. Interesting materials and meaningful tasks, followed by the feeling of accomplishment and self-confidence, sustain learners’ motivation in reading (Takase 2007) and overcome their anxiety about reading and communication. Impact of TBER on developing students’ reading habits As previously stated, students became motivated to read, and developed reading habits throughout the task-based extensive reading programme. In the interviews and reflective journals, students expressed their preferences for specific genres or well-known authors. I discover my favorite genre and enjoy reading Sherlock Holmes stories because of the mysterious nature of the stories. I will continue to read this type of stories and share them with my classmates. (S28, interview) I find my interest in reading books written by Margaret Johnson. I got inspiration from the book ‘All I Want’ when I first read it. Then I continued to check out another book ‘Jungle Love’ and enjoyed it as well. (S31, reflective journal) From the researcher’s observation, students were more engaged in the discussion when they shared similar reading preferences. While some students liked to read the same genre (e.g. mystery or romance), others exchanged books in order to be exposed to different genres of texts, which also prompted discussion among the students. Students further indicated that choosing reading materials relevant to their interests and at appropriate levels contributed to the formation of reading habits. After this programme, I have learned how to choose reading materials of my language level. I read faster and with better comprehension when the reading materials are easy. I think this programme has developed my reading habit in English. (S7, reflective journal) When I read interesting graded readers within my reading level, I am engrossed in the story and even forget about the time. I will read more frequently because of the enjoyment I find in reading. (S20, interview) These findings are signs for developing consistent reading habits (e.g. finding interesting books and reading more frequently). When learners are able to choose texts of their interests and within their linguistic abilities (Day and Bamford 2002), they develop intrinsic motivation in reading, build reading habits, and become independent readers. Implications and conclusion This study showed that integrating extensive reading with task-based learning promoted a positive learning cycle among students. Students took an active role in selecting reading texts in their ‘comfort zone’ (Day and Bamford ibid.), and were guided to read graded readers which are considered interesting materials that provide comprehensible input to language learners. Then, during the tasks, students used the language for real purposes, including retelling stories, exchanging information and opinions, making decisions, and receiving feedback. The combination of interesting reading materials and meaningful tasks created positive experiences in language learning and, in turn, enhanced students’ sense of achievement, which then motivated them to read more books and gradually develop reading habits. This learning process explains how extensive reading in a task-based approach promotes students’ language development and builds reading habits. One implication from this study is that incorporating task-based learning into an extensive reading programme can facilitate both language and cognitive development (e.g. logical thinking). Constant exposure to input through extensive reading enables students to improve linguistic knowledge, which is further consolidated through interaction with peers during the tasks. As reported by the students, they worked together to solve linguistic problems beyond their individual abilities. They also developed critical thinking skills in some tasks that required them to make decisions or solve problems, which was evident in the task performance. The reading–thinking–sharing experience suggests that students collaboratively construct knowledge (Ellis 2000) through social interaction. Another implication is that the teacher can offer various types of tasks to maintain student motivation and engagement. Information-gap, reasoning-gap, opinion-gap, and decision-making tasks were the four basic types of tasks adopted in this study. An information-gap task such as ‘oral interview’ allows students to request information, ask for clarification, and learn to present the story in a logical sequence. In the reasoning-gap task, students use reason and logic to make predictions or inferences about the story. An opinion-exchange task like ‘a different ending’ allows students to share with each other their new endings composed in an authentic creative writing activity. In the decision-making task ‘giving advice to the character’, students work together to solve the problems faced by the characters in the stories. The products of these tasks involve both written reports and oral presentations. As the researcher observed in the class, students showed interest and were willing to participate in the activities. This study has demonstrated the benefits of integrating extensive reading with task-based learning on students’ language learning. Previous studies have found positive effects of extensive reading on language and literacy development. This study fills the gap by proposing extensive reading in a task-based approach to develop students’ motivation and engage them in more reading. The findings suggest that extensive reading followed by task-based activities promotes language development, engages students in meaningful interaction, and motivates them to keep reading and develop reading habits. Task-based extensive reading is still an under-researched approach. It is hoped that this study will serve as a starting point for future studies which incorporate task-based learning into an extensive reading programme. More research should be carried out to explore how task-based extensive reading can contribute to language acquisition. I-Chen Chen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Applied English at Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Her research interests include second language reading and writing and teachers’ curricular planning. E-mail: jennychen@stust.edu.tw References Bamford , J. and R. R. Day (eds.). 2004 . Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Beglar , D. , A. Hunt , and Y. Kite . 2012 . ‘ The effect of pleasure reading on Japanese university EFL learners’ reading rates ’. Language Learning 62 / 3 : 665 – 703 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Day , R. R. and J. Bamford . 2002 . ‘ Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading ’. Reading in a Foreign Language 14 / 2 : 136 – 41 . Ellis , R . 2000 . ‘ Task-based research and language pedagogy ’. Language Teaching Research 4 / 3 : 193 – 220 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Grabe , W. and F. Stoller . 2011 . Teaching and Researching Reading (Second edition). London : Pearson Education . Green , C . 2005 . ‘ Integrating extensive reading in the task-based curriculum ’. ELT Journal 59 / 4 : 306 – 11 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Hsu , Y. Y. and S. Y. Lee . 2007 . ‘ Extensive reading and EFL junior college in Taiwan ’. Studies of English Language and Literature 20 : 137 – 45 . Krashen , S . 2004 . The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research (Second edition). Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann . Lincoln , Y. S. and E. G. Guba . 1985 . Naturalistic Inquiry . Beverly Hills, CA : Sage . Nunan , D . 2006 . ‘ Task-based language teaching in the Asia context: defining task ’. Asian EFL Journal 8 / 3 : 12 – 18 . Park , J . 2016 . ‘ Integrating reading and writing through extensive reading ’. ELT Journal 70 / 3 : 287 – 95 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Takase , A . 2007 . ‘ Japanese high school students’ motivation for extensive L2 reading ’. Reading in a Foreign Language 19 / 1 : 1 – 18 . Tudor , I. and F. Hafiz . 1989 . ‘ Extensive reading as a means of input to L2 learning ’. Journal of Research in Reading 12 / 2 : 164 – 78 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS Van den Branden , K . 2006 . Task-Based Language Education: From Theory to Practice . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Willis , J . 1996 . A Framework for Task-Based Learning . Harlow : Longman . © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

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ELT JournalOxford University Press

Published: Nov 1, 2018

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