Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States

Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera:... Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are an emerging threat to soybean and corn production in the midwestern United States. An invasive species, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Sta˚l), is spreading through the region. However, little is known about the complex of stink bug species associ- ated with corn and soybean in the midwestern United States. In this region, particularly in the more northern states, stink bugs have historically caused only infrequent impacts to these crops. To prepare growers and agri- cultural professionals to contend with this new threat, we provide a review of stink bugs associated with soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. Descriptions and images of common stink bug species are provided as a diagnostic aid. The biologies and impacts of stink bugs to crops are discussed, with particular at- tention to differences among species. Based primarily on information from southern states, scouting, thresh- olds, and insecticide-based management of these pests are discussed. It is hoped that this review will provide stakeholders sufficient information for management of these pests, until more region-specific research can be performed on stink bugs in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. Key words: Chinavia hilaris, Euschistus servus, Euschistus variolarius, Halyomorpha halys, Podisus maculiventris The midwestern United States is the top Glycine max L. Merrill (Leskey et al. 2012a, Rice et al. 2014) but are expanding westward (soybean)- and Zea mays L. (corn)-producing region of the United into the midwestern United States (http://www.stopbmsb.org/where- States (National Agricultural Statistics Service [NASS] 2015). In this is-bmsb/state-by-state/). As populations of this species increase in the region, the stink bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fauna midwestern United States, increasing frequencies of economically sig- is relatively diverse, comprising 45–57 species per state (McPherson nificant infestations are likely. Since 2012, H. halys has been regularly 1982, Packauskas 2012, Rider 2012, Sites et al. 2012, Swanson found in Ohio soybean fields and sometimes at economic levels with 2012, Koch et al. 2014) and includes species known to be pests of other stink bug species (Michel et al. 2013). Another invasive species, corn and soybean in some regions (McPherson and McPherson Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (redbanded stink bug), is currently 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000). established in the southeastern United States and may be expanding The significance of stink bugs in the midwestern United States is its range northward (Tindall and Fothergill 2011). Piezodorus guildi- increasing. First, an invasive species of Asian origin, Halyomorpha nii is a significant pest of soybean (McPherson and McPherson 2000, halys (Sta ˚ l) (brown marmorated stink bug), is invading the region Panizzi et al. 2000). In addition to the spread of new invasive species, (Tindall et al. 2012, Koch 2014). This species was first collected in the abundance of native stink bug species appears to be increasing in North America in Pennsylvania in 1996 (Hoebeke and Carter 2003) the midwestern United States (Hunt et al. 2011, 2014; Michel et al. and has since spread throughout much of the continental United 2013). In particular, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (green stink bug), States (Leskey et al. 2012a, Rice et al. 2014). Halyomorpha halys is Euschistus servus (Say) (brown stink bug), Euschistus variolarius a pest of many crops, including soybean and corn (Leskey et al. (Palisot de Beauvois) (onespotted stink bug), and Thyanta custator 2012a, Lee et al. 2013, Rice et al. 2014). Economically significant accerra McAtee (redshouldered stink bug) have been increasing in infestations of this pest in fruit, vegetable, and field crops had been abundance and frequency for the past several years (Michel and limited primarily to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States Hunt, personal observations). V C The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 journals.permissions@oup.com 1 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 2 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Fig. 1. Line drawing of stink bug adult showing body parts important for discrimination of species common in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States (image credit: A.K. Tran). Owing to the growing attention stink bugs are receiving in the Sites et al. (2012), Swanson (2012), and Koch et al. (2014)] and spe- midwestern United States and the lack of a recent, comprehensive cies of stink bugs reported from soybean and corn [based on resource accessible to agricultural professionals, agency and McPherson (1982), Panizzi and Slansky (1985), McPherson and Extension staff, and producers, we compiled this review of the iden- McPherson (2000), and several more recent crop-specific publica- tification, biology, impacts, and management of stink bugs in soy- tions (see table footnotes)]. Some of these species have less extensive bean and corn in the midwestern United States. geographic ranges and do not occur in all parts of the midwestern United States (e.g., P. guildinii is more of a southern species). Depending on geography within the midwestern United States or species of interest, several diagnostic keys for stink bug identifica- Identification tion are available, including McPherson (1982) for stink bugs and General relatives of northeastern North America, McPherson and Stink bugs vary in shape and size, but are generally described as hav- McPherson (2000) for stink bugs of economic importance, Rider ing round or oval (sometimes shield-shaped) bodies, a well- (2012) for stink bugs and relatives of North Dakota, Paiero et al. developed and often triangle-shaped scutellum, piercing–sucking (2013) for stink bugs and parent bugs of Ontario, Packauskas mouthparts, and five-segmented antennae (Slater and Baranowski (2012) for stink bugs of Kansas, and Swanson (2012) for stink bugs 1978, McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000; Figs. 1 and 2). At least and relatives of Michigan. The electronic key by Paiero et al. (2013) 24 species or subspecies of stink bugs could potentially be encoun- is particularly user friendly with many color photographs. tered in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States (Table 1). Among the species potentially encountered in soybean and corn This list was created by developing and cross-referencing lists of spe- in the midwestern United States (Table 1), several are encountered cies of stink bugs known to occur in the midwestern United States with frequency. Koch and Pahs (2014, 2015) and Koch and Rich [based on McPherson (1982), Packauskas (2012), Rider (2012), (2015) recently performed surveys of the stink bugs associated with Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 3 Fig. 2. Stink bug adults commonly encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States: (A) Podisus maculiventris,(B) Chinavia hilaris, (C) Halyomorpha halys,(D) Thyanta custator accerra (green), (E) Thyanta custator accerra (brown), (F) Euschistus servus euschistoides, and (G) Euschistus vario- larius (photo credits: C. Kurtz and C. Philips, and modified by D. Pezzini). soybean and corn in Minnesota. In Minnesota soybean, E. variolar- common species of Euschistus in the United States (Slater and ius, Euschistus servus euschistoides, and C. hilaris comprise Baranowski 1978). This species is composed of two subspecies 68–90% of stink bug adults (Koch and Pahs 2014, Koch and Rich (McPherson 1982). Euschistus servus euschistoides occurs in the 2015). In Minnesota corn, E. variolarius and E. servus euschistoides northern United States (Fig. 2), and E. servus servus occurs in the comprised 95–100% of stink bug adults (Koch and Pahs 2015). A southern United States. These two subspecies are known to inter- predatory species, Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug) is also breed and create a hybrid population, where their two populations observed in corn and soybean (Koch and Pahs 2014, 2015; Koch meet in a swath extending from roughly Kansas to Maryland and Rich 2015). Further work is needed to characterize the stink (McPherson 1982). These subspecies and the hybrid are similar in bug community associated with these crops in other states in the re- size (11.0–15.0 mm long; McPherson 1982) and color (brown or gion. Understanding of stink bug anatomy (i.e., body parts) is im- light brown). However, the subspecies can be distinguished from portant for identification of these species (Fig. 1). each other based on close examination of the head, antennae, and edge of the abdomen (i.e., connexivum). The tip of the head of E. servus euschistoides appears notched because the juga are longer Euschistus servus (Brown Stink Bug) than the tylus, whereas the tip of the head of E. servus servus does Euschistus servus occurs throughout the midwestern United States not appear notched, because the juga and tylus are equal or nearly and much of North America (McPherson 1982), and is the most equal in length (Paiero et al. 2013). In addition, the last two Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 4 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Table 1. Plant-feeding stink bugs potentially encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States (“X” indicates reported presence of a species in a particular crop) Scientific name Common name Soybean Corn a,b,c,d,e g Banasa dimidiata (Say) X a,b,c g Banasa euchlora Sta˚l X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,k,l f,h,i,j Chinavia hilaris (Say) Green stink bug X X c,d,e g Chinavia pensylvanica (Gmelin) X a,b,c,d,e l f,h,i,j Chlorochroa persimilis Horvath X X a,b,c,d,e f,l Coenus delius (Say) X a,b,c,d,e l j Cosmopepla lintneriana Kirkaldy X X b,c,d,e f,g,k,l i,o Euschistus ictericus (L.) X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,k,l f,h,i,j, o Euschistus servus (Say) Brown stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,k,l i,o Euschistus tristigmus (Say) Dusky stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,l f,g,o Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) Onespotted stink bug X X c,d,e m m Halyomorpha halys (Sta ˚l) Brown marmorated stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,l f Holcostethus limbolarius (Sta ˚l) X X a,c,d f,g,j n Hymenarcys nervosa (Say) X X a,c,e j Mecidea major Sailer X a,b,c,d,e g,l Mormidea lugens (F.) X a,b,c,e f Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) Harlequin bug X b,c,d,e l Neottiglossa undata (Say) X a,c,d,e f,g,j,k f,i,j Oebalus pugnax (F.) Rice stink bug X X c g,h,j,k Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) Redbanded stink bug X c f,g Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois) X c,d f,g Thyanta calceata (Say) X a,b,c,d,e f,g,j,k,l f,j Thyanta custator accerra McAtee Redshouldered stink bug X X a g Thyanta pallidovirens (Sta˚l) X References for occurrence in midwestern United States: Packauskas (2012), Rider (2012), Sites et al. (2012), Swanson (2012), Koch et al. (2014) References for crop associations: McPherson (1982), Panizzi and Slansky (1985), McPherson and McPherson (2000), Tillman (2010), Suh et al. (2013), Temple et al. (2013), Koch and Pahs (2014), Rice et al. (2014), Sedlacek and Townsend (1988b), Koch and Pahs (2015) segments of the antennae (i.e., segments four and five) are usually black spot on the underside near the tip of the abdomen (i.e., on the dark brown in E. servus euschistoides and yellowish-brown or pygophore), hence the common name “onespotted stink bug” (Paiero reddish-brown in E. servus servus (Paiero et al. 2013). Finally, the et al. 2013). Euschistus variolarius and E. servus can be found in the edge of the abdomen is completely or nearly completely covered by same habitats at the same time (Koch and Pahs 2014, 2015) and look the front wing in E. servus euschistoides, whereas the edge of the ab- very similar to one another. However, E. variolarius can be fairly eas- domen is more exposed in E. servus servus (Paiero et al. 2013). ily distinguished from E. servus euschistoides (i.e., the more common Hybrid adults present a combination of the characters of the two subspecies in much of the midwestern United States) by examination subspecies (McPherson 1982). of the tip of the head and the “shoulders” (i.e., anterolateral margins of the pronotum; Fig. 2). The tip of the head of E. servus euschistoides appears notched, because the juga are longer than the tylus, whereas Euschistus variolarius (Onespotted Stink Bug) the tip of the head of E. variolarius does not appear notched, because Euschistus variolarius occurs throughout the midwestern United the juga and tylus are equal or nearly equal in length (Paiero et al. States and much of North America (McPherson 1982). This is the 2013). The “shoulders” of E. variolarius are generally more pointed most common stink bug in northern states, but it is relatively un- than those of E. servus euschistoides (McPherson 1982). Presence of common in the southern United States, particularly below 37 lati- the black spot on the pygophore of E. variolarius males is lacking in tude (Parish 1934, Slater and Baranowski 1978). Adults of E. E. servus (McPherson 1982), but should not be confused with the variolarius are yellowish-brown and 11.0–15.0 mm long black spots on the underside of the abdomen of a slightly smaller spe- (McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 2). Males have a large cies, Euschistus tristigmus (Say). Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 5 Fig. 3. Stink bug nymphs (late-instars) encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States: (A) Euschistus servus,(B) Podisus maculiventris,(C) Euschistus variolarius,(D) Thyanta custator,(E) Chinavia hilaris, and (F) Halyomorpha halys (photo credit: D. Pezzini). A diagnostic key and descriptions of the nymphal instars of E. Chinavia hilaris (Green Stink Bug) servus and E. variolarius are provided by Decoursey and Esselbaugh Chinavia hilaris occurs throughout the midwestern United States (1962) and Munyaneza and McPherson (1994). In general, nymphs and much of North America (McPherson 1982). This species is often of both species range from 1.5 to 10.4 mm long and are yellow referred to Acrosternum hilare (Say) (Kamminga et al. 2012). Adults brown in color (Fig. 3). First and second instars of the two species of C. hilaris are green and 13.0–19.0 mm long (McPherson 1982, are nearly identical, but the later instars can be distinguished. Third Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 2). However, an orange color form is infre- to fifth instars E. variolarius have a white band on the under (i.e., quently encountered (Kamminga et al. 2012). In crops in the mid- ventral) side of the head that extends to or nearly to the eyes; how- western United States, C. hilaris is generally larger than the other ever, this band is much reduced in E. servus (Munyaneza and green-colored stink bugs, such as Chlorochroa persimilis (11– McPherson 1994). In addition, the fourth and fifth instars differ in 15 mm) or T. custator accerra (see below; McPherson 1982, Rider coloration of the last two (i.e., fourth and fifth) antennal segments, 2012). Nymphs of C. hilaris are oval-shaped and range in size from which are brownish-black in E. variolarius and red or reddish- 1.6 to 12.7 mm (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of brown in E. servus (Munyaneza and McPherson 1994; Fig. 3). the nymphs transitions from mostly black with orange markings to Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 6 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Fig. 4. Stink bug (H. halys) egg mass (A) and first-instar nymphs on hatched egg mass (B) (photo credit: D. Pezzini). mostly green with black and orange markings as nymphs develop diagnostic key and description of the nymphal instars of H. halys is (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962; Fig. 3). However, as with the provided by Hoebeke and Carter (2003). In general, nymphs range adults, the nymphs of C. hilaris present two different color forms from 2.4 to 12.0 mm long, and body shape changes from elliptical to (i.e., a light form and a dark form; Kamminga et al. 2012). pear-shaped as they develop (Hoebeke and Carter 2003). Coloration of the abdomen of nymphs transitions from yellowish-orange with black markings to mostly brown as nymphs progress from the first Thyanta custator accerra (Redshouldered Stink Bug) to fifth instars (Hoebeke and Carter 2003, Rice et al. 2014; Figs. 3 Thyanta custator accerra occurs throughout the midwestern United and 4). States and large areas of North America (McPherson 1982, Rider and Chapin 1992). Adults of T. custator accerra are 9.0–13.0 mm Podisus maculiventris (Spined Soldier Bug) long (McPherson 1982, Paiero et al. 2013; Fig. 2). Two color forms of this species exist; a green form in spring and summer, and a Podisus maculiventris occurs throughout the midwestern United brown form in fall (McPherson 1982, Paiero et al. 2013). Some indi- States and much of North America (McPherson 1982), and is the viduals of the green color form have a red- or pink-colored band most common predatory stink bug in much of the United States across the pronotum, hence the common name “redshouldered stink (Slater and Baranowski 1978, De Clerq 2000). Adults of P. maculi- bug” (Paiero et al. 2013). This species can be distinguished from P. ventris are brown and 8.5–13.0 mm long (Slater and Baranowski guildinii, the redbanded stink bug, by the presence of a prominent 1978, McPherson 1982; Fig. 2). The “shoulders” (i.e., anterolateral spine extending from the base of the abdomen between the hind legs margins of the pronotum) of P. maculiventris are pointed and pointing toward the head on P. guildinii, and the lack of such (McPherson 1982), hence the common name “spined soldier bug.” spine on T. custator accerra (Kamminga et al. 2009). A description These pointed “shoulders” may cause confusion between this species of the nymphal instars of this species is provided by DeCoursey and and some of the common herbivorous species such as E. variolarius. Esselbaugh (1962). In general, nymphs range from 0.9 to 8.2 mm The thickness of the mouth parts (i.e., rostrum) can be used to dis- long (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of the thorax tinguish P. maculiventris and other predatory stink bugs (Asopinae) and abdomen of nymphs transitions from brown with white and yel- from herbivorous stink bugs (Pentatominae; Paiero et al. 2013). The low markings to brown with white, amber, and yellow markings as rostrum of the predatory species is thick (about twice the thickness nymphs progress from the first to fifth instars (DeCoursey and of the antenna) and that of the herbivorous species is thin (similar to Esselbaugh 1962; Fig. 3). The third to fifth instars generally have a thickness of antenna; Fig. 5). Nymphs of P. maculiventris range “T”-shaped mark on the pronotum (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh from 1.15 to 8.6 mm long, and body shape changes from broadly 1962). oval to elongate oval as they develop (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of the nymphs transitions from red with black markings to tan or orange with red and white markings as nymphs Halyomorpha halys (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug) progress from the first to fifth instars (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh Halyomorpha halys has rapidly spread throughout much of North 1962, Evans 1985; Fig. 3). Nymphs of P. maculiventris can be distin- America (Rice et al. 2014) and is becoming increasingly abundant in guished from other Podisus spp. using a diagnostic key by Evans the midwestern United States. Adult H. halys are variable in color (1985). and size, but are generally 12.0–17.0 mm long with a marbled- brown coloration (Hoebeke and Carter 2003; Fig. 2), hence the common name the “brown marmorated stink bug.” Halyomorpha Biology halys can be distinguished from other brown-colored stink bugs in the midwestern United States by its light colored underside, the pres- General ence of light-colored bands on dark antennae (i.e., the base and apex Stink bugs are herbivorous, predaceous, or occasionally omnivo- of the fourth antennal segment and the base of the fifth antennal seg- rous; generalists or specialists in feeding preference; and occur in a ment are pale), alternating light–dark pattern on the exposed edges diversity of habitats ranging from natural to cultivated, and grassy of abdomen (i.e., connexivum), and veins of the membranous parts or herbaceous to arboreal (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). With of front wings are dark brown (Hoebeke and Carter 2003). A such diversity, it is no surprise that this group contains both Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 7 Fig. 5. Mouthparts (i.e., rostra) of predatory (A) and herbivorous (B) stink bugs. Rostrum of predator is thick (about twice the thickness of the antenna), and ros- trum of herbivore is thin (similar to thickness of antenna) (arrows indicate rostra and antennae; photo credit: D. Pezzini). beneficial and pest species (McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000, De adults (Panizzi et al. 2000, McPherson and McPherson 2000). In the Clerq 2000). Members of the subfamily Asopinae are predaceous midwestern United States, stink bugs generally undergo one or two and some (e.g., Podisus maculiventris and Perillus bioculatus (F.)) generations per year (i.e., univoltine or bivoltine, respectively; are well-known predators of significant pests (De Clerq 2000). McPherson 1982). Members of the subfamilies Pentatominae and Podopinae are pri- For herbivorous stink bugs, adults and nymphs, except first in- marily herbivorous, but some have been reported to occasionally stars, actively feed on plant tissues. The first instars are generally prey on other insects (McPherson 1982). Most species, such as E. considered a nonfeeding stage and metabolize internal nutrient re- servus, E. variolarius, C. hilaris, and H. halys, are generalists and serves, and acquire important microbial symbionts from the egg feed on many hosts across several plant families (McPherson 1982, mass (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 4). Rice et al. 2014). The adults and fifth instars often cause more injury than the earlier Stink bugs of temperate regions generally overwinter as adults in stages (McPherson 1982). Stink bugs feed on all above-ground plant protected locations (e.g., under leaf litter or other debris; Saulish parts, including stems, petioles, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, but and Musolin 2012). Adults of H. halys will also overwinter under they generally prefer developing shoots, fruits, and seeds (Todd and loose tree bark or in buildings (Rice et al. 2014). Some species over- Herzog 1980, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Stink bugs feed by winter in other life stages. For example, Apoecilus cynicus (Say), a inserting their piercing–sucking mouthparts into plant tissues, inject- predatory species in the region, overwinters as eggs (Saulish and ing digestive enzymes, and sucking up nutrients from plant tissues Musolin 2012). The winter is passed in a physiological state called (McPherson and McPherson 2000). The act of inserting the mouth- diapause, which is associated with suppressed sexual development parts into the tissue causes mechanical injury and tissues are chemi- and behavior, active growth of the fat body, reduced oxygen con- cally injured by the enzymes injected by the insects (Hori 2000). sumption, and increased cold hardiness (Saulish and Musolin 2012). Feeding injury can result in reduced plant turgor pressure via re- In most species of temperate stink bugs with diapause in the adult moval of plant fluids, abnormal plant growth, deformation and dis- stage, diapause is induced by short day lengths experienced during coloration of seeds and fruit, abortion of seeds and fruit, delayed the nymphal stage; however, temperature and food quality can also plant maturity (e.g., stay-green syndrome in soybean), transmission play a role in diapause induction (Saulish and Musolin 2012). of pathogens, or plant death (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Development resumes in spring with longer day lengths, increasing Panizzi et al. 2000, Vyavhare et al. 2015b). Injury to fruit and seed temperatures, and availability of food resources (Saulish and is often greater when stink bugs feed earlier in the development of Musolin 2012). The surrounding landscape can play a role in popu- these plant structures (Panizzi et al. 2000). In crops, these various in- lation buildup of stink bug species, particularly those that are agri- juries can translate to reductions in quality and yield (McPherson cultural pests (Panizzi 1997). The generalist feeding habits and high and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000). mobility of these species allow them to move throughout the land- Finally, as their common name implies, stink bugs produce odor- scape utilizing different plant species (wild and cultivated) at differ- ous secretions from scent glands (Aldrich 1988). These secretions ent times, often depending on timing of fruit and seed development serve as defense against natural enemies or as aggregation-, sex-, or of the plants (Panizzi 1997, McPherson and McPherson 2000, alarm pheromones (Aldrich 1988, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Reisig 2011, Pilkay et al. 2015). Mating occurs in an end-to-end po- sition (McPherson 1982). Females generally lay barrel-shaped eggs in clusters on plant tissues, such as the undersides of leaves (Panizzi Euschistus servus (Brown Stink Bug) et al. 2000, McPherson and McPherson 2000; Fig. 4). After egg Euschistus servus can be found on a diversity of wild and cultivated hatch, stink bugs develop through five instars prior to becoming plant species (McPherson 1982, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 8 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Panizzi et al. 2000). For example, a combined list of crop plants Adults of C. hilaris overwinter under leaf litter in deciduous wooded from which E. servus subspecies or their hybrid have been collected areas (McPherson 1982, Kamminga et al. 2012). This species is gen- includes corn, soybean, wheat, oats, sunflower, sugar beet, alfalfa, erally considered univoltine, particularly in the northern United clover, tobacco, cotton, tomato, cabbage, bean, pepper, squash, pea, States (McPherson 1982, Kamminga et al. 2012). Bivoltine popula- okra, cantaloupe, blueberry, raspberry, grape, cherry, blackberry, tions of C. hilaris occur in the Gulf States and extend as far north as apple, pear, peach, citrus, and pecan (McPherson 1982, McPherson Kansas, Arkansas, and southern Illinois (McPherson 1982). and McPherson 2000). This species is considered the most economi- Photoperiod (i.e., day length) is an important determinant of the cally important Euschistus species in the United States and Canada number of generations for this species (Kamminga et al. 2012). This (Panizzi et al. 2000). However, the broad host range of E. servus species is considered semimigratory (Panizzi et al. 2000), and migra- may contribute to it not being an even more significant pest of crops tion from southern areas may contribute to populations in northern such as soybean (McPherson and McPherson 2000). Because its host areas (http://www.ent.iastate.edu/soybeaninsects/node/145). Eggs range includes numerous cultivated and wild plants with temporally are laid in masses of 1–72 eggs (Underhill 1934), with a mean of 32 overlapping reproductive (fruiting) growth stages, populations of E. eggs per cluster (Miner 1966). The lower developmental threshold servus may spread across several plant species on the landscape and for C. hilaris is 15 C, and development from egg to adult requires not necessarily be concentrated in any one crop (Jones and Sullivan the accumulation of 482.7 degree days (Simmons and Yeargan 1982, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Adults of E. servus over- 1988). When reared on soybean seeds in a growth chamber at 24 C, winter under objects such as crop debris, leaves, and grass, and pre- mean development time of C. hilaris from egg to adult was 48.3 d fer to overwinter in open fields rather than wooded areas (egg ¼ 9.9 d, first instar¼ 5.0 d, second instar ¼ 8.9 d, third in- (McPherson 1982). In Iowa and Illinois, E. servus has been reported star ¼ 5.8 d, fourth instar¼ 7.2 d, and fifth instar¼ 11.5 d; as being bivoltine (McPherson 1982). For example, in southern Simmons and Yeargan 1988). However, Da Silva and Daane (2014) Illinois, peaks of adult activity were observed in early April to mid- reported values considerably different (i.e., lower developmental May (overwintered adults), early July to late August (first-genera- threshold 12.3 C and 588 degree days) and suggested the difference tion adults), and mid-September to late October (second-generation may be owing to genetics between populations in Kentucky and adults; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). This species may be uni- California or diet used in experiments. voltine farther north. Eggs are laid in masses of 8–41 eggs (mean- ¼ 17.6; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). When reared on green Thyanta custator accerra (Redshouldered Stink Bug) beans in a growth chamber at 23 C, mean development time of E. The biology of T. custator accerra has not been studied in detail servus from egg to adult was 44.3 d (egg ¼ 5.8 d, first instar¼ 5.0 d, compared with other common stink bugs. This species has been col- second instar ¼ 6.0 d, third instar ¼ 6.7 d, fourth instar¼ 9.3 d, and lected from numerous wild and cultivated plants, including crops fifth instar¼ 11.5 d; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). such as corn, soybean, wheat, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, clover, bean, eggplant, lima bean, asparagus, and peach (McPherson 1982). This Euschistus variolarius (Onespotted Stink Bug) species overwinters as adults (McPherson 1982). Thyanta custator Euschistus variolarius can be found on a diversity of wild and culti- accerra is bivoltine in the southern United States (Panizzi et al. vated plant species, including crops such as corn, soybean, wheat, 2000), may be only partially bivoltine in north-central Illinois rye, oats, sugar beet, alfalfa, clover, cotton, tobacco, bean, aspara- (McPherson 1982), and is likely univoltine in northern states. gus, tomato, potato, onion, squash, cantaloupe, strawberry, grape, raspberry, cherry, peach, and pear (McPherson 1982). Adults over- Halyomorpha halys (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug) winter in protected locations, such as under dry leaves, logs, and The biology of H. halys in Asia and North America was recently re- dead grass in fence rows (Parish 1934). This species has been re- viewed by Lee et al. (2013) and Rice et al. (2014), respectively. In ported as univoltine or bivoltine (McPherson 1982), with univoltine Asia, H. halys has been collected from 106 species of plants across populations occurring north of 40 latitude (Panizzi et al. 2000). For 45 plant families (Lee et al. 2013). In the United States, H. halys has example, E. variolarius was observed to be univoltine in southern also been collected from numerous wild and cultivated plants, in- Illinois, with peak adult activity in mid-April to mid-June (overwin- cluding crops such as corn, soybean, sunflower, cereal rye, wheat, tered adults), followed by appearance of first-generation adults in garden cucumber, field pumpkin (summer squash), horseradish, late June to late August (Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). Eggs Swiss chard, cabbage, collards, cayenne pepper, eggplant, garden to- are laid in masses of 6–27 (mean ¼ 16.2) eggs (Munyaneza and mato, filbert, hazelnut, common hop, bean, apricot, peach, rasp- McPherson 1994). When reared on green beans in a growth cham- berry, blackberry edible fig, highbush blueberry, wine grape, apple, ber at 23 C, mean development time of E. variolarius from egg to cherry, pear, and pecan (Rice et al. 2014; http://www.stopbmsb.org/ adult was 46.8 d (egg ¼ 5.4 d, first instar ¼ 4.9 d, second instar¼ 5.7 where-is-bmsb/host-plants/#host_plants_table). Adults overwinter d, third instar¼ 7.8 d, fourth instar¼ 9.7 d, and fifth instar¼ 13.3 under debris, in tree holes or under bark, in human-made structures, d; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). or in dry areas on mountains (Lee et al. 2013, 2014). This species is likely univoltine to bivoltine in the midwestern United States, as it is Chinavia hilaris (Green Stink Bug) in the mid-Atlantic region (Rice et al. 2014). In southern Asia, it can The biology of C. hilaris was recently reviewed by Kamminga et al. have as many as four to six generations per year (Lee et al. 2013). (2012). Chinavia hilaris prefers woody plants (McPherson 1982, Eggs are laid in masses of 20–30 eggs, and females lay about 244 Kamminga et al. 2012). However, this species can be found on a va- egg clusters in a lifetime (Hoebeke and Carter 2003, Nielsen et al. riety of wild and cultivated plants, including crops such as corn, soy- 2008a). The lower and upper developmental thresholds for H. halys bean, sugar beet, cotton, alfalfa, clover, asparagus, cabbage, are 14 C and 35 C, respectively, and development from egg to adult eggplant, green bean, lima bean, pea, pepper, tomato, turnip, mus- requires the accumulation of 538 degree days (Nielsen et al. 2008a). tard, okra, strawberry, raspberry, black berry, grape, apple, apricot, When reared on green beans and Spanish peanuts in a growth cham- cherry, orange, peach, pear, plum, and pecan (McPherson 1982). ber at 25 C, mean development time of H. halys from egg to adult Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 9 Fig. 6. Injury to soybean resulting from stink bug feeding (increasing stink bug feeding from left to right; photo credit: A. Michel). was 44.9 d (egg ¼ 6.1 d, first instar ¼ 4.8 d, second instar¼ 9.6 d, third instar¼ 7.1 d, fourth instar¼ 7.4 d, and fifth instar¼ 10.4 d; Nielsen et al. 2008a). Podisus maculiventris (Spined Soldier Bug) Unlike the previously described species, P. maculiventris is predatory. This predator shows a preference for lepidopteran larvae (i.e., cater- pillars), but is known to feed on >90 species of insects spanning eight insect orders occurring on a diversity of wild and cultivated plants (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). Podisus maculiventris and other predatory bugs often prefer prey that are large relative to their body size (Cohen 2000). Like the plant-feeding stink bugs, P. maculiventris feeds with piercing–sucking mouthparts. Cohen (2000) describes the feeding of P. maculiventris and other predatory bugs as solid-to-liquid feeding. The predators use their mouthparts to pierce the body wall of their prey and inject saliva (Cohen 2000). Enzymes and mechanical action of the mouthparts liquefy the tissues of the prey, and the preda- tor then sucks up the liquefied nutrients from inside the prey (Cohen 2000). Podisus maculiventris can feed on plants to acquire moisture and additional nutrients when prey is scarce, but this feeding is not known to cause crop injury (De Clerq 2000, Lambert 2007). Adults overwinter in protected locations, such as in leaf litter or under stones or bark of trees (De Clerq 2000). In much of the midwestern United States and southern Canada, P. maculiventris is univoltine to trivol- tine, but more generations are likely in the southern United States (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). Eggs are laid in masses of 15–30 eggs (De Clerq 2000). When reared at 23 C, development time of P. maculiventris from egg to adult was 33.5–36.5 d for a population for Fig. 7. Injury to corn resulting from stink bug feeding (photo credit: P. the northeastern United States (De Clerq 2000). Thomison). Injury to Crops Yeargan 1988, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Species may vary Stink bugs are pests of numerous crops, including soybean and corn in feeding duration and depth of injury to seed, which can result in (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000; Figs. 6 and different levels of damage (Corr^ ea-Ferreira and De Azevedo 2002, 7). Though much of our knowledge of stink bug injury to soybean Depieri and Panizzi 2011). Initial colonization of soybean in the and corn is based on research from southern states, it serves to in- midwestern United States typically occurs during flowering (Koch form the reader about crop response to these pests until more re- and Pahs 2014, Koch and Rich 2015, Hunt, personal observation), search can be performed on the impact of stink bugs to these crops as in other regions (Pilkay et al. 2015). Populations of stink bugs in in the midwestern United States. soybean then increase and peak during pod and seed development stages (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Koch and Pahs 2014, Soybean Koch and Rich 2015, Hunt, personal observation, Michel, personal The impact of stink bugs on soybean has been well studied and has observation). Stink bug abundance is affected by planting date and been reviewed by Todd and Herzog (1980), Panizzi and Slansky maturity group of soybean (Gore et al. 2006, Owens et al. 2013, (1985), and McPherson and McPherson (2000). Stink bugs can feed Temple et al. 2013). In addition, stink bug populations may be af- on all above-ground parts of soybean, but prefer pods and develop- fected by other pest management tactics. For example, Rich and ing seeds (Todd and Herzog 1980, Lee et al. 2013). Fifth instars and Koch (2016) found that H. halys preferred and survived better on adults cause more severe damage than early instars (Simmons and aphid-resistant soybean than on aphid-susceptible soybean. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 10 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Stink bug injury to soybean can impact yield, seed quality, and midwestern United States, injury to early growth stage corn has germination rates (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and Slansky 1985, been reported from Indiana and Illinois (Edwards et al. 1985), McPherson and McPherson 2000, Mesquita et. al. 2006). Although Minnesota (B. Potter, personal communication), and Nebraska some studies report yield losses owing to stink bug injury (Boethel (Hunt, personal observation). Fields with increased risk of injury et. al. 2000; McPherson and McPherson 2000; Vyavhare et al. from stink bugs on early growth stages of corn are those with no-till 2015a,b), others show no difference in yield owing to stink bug feeding or reduced-tillage, cover crop prior to planting, or corn following (Corr^ ea-Ferreira and De Azevedo 2002, Owens 2012, Owens et al. wheat (Edwards et al. 1985, Townsend and Sedlacek 1986, 2013). The variation of results may be explained by several factors. Sedlacek and Townsend 1988a). Theseverityofdamage causedbystink bugs candependonsoybean Stink bugs feed on early vegetative corn by inserting their mouth- developmental stage, density of bugs, and duration of infestation parts into the bases of plants while their bodies rest on the soil sur- (Young et. al. 2008, Owens 2012, Owens et al. 2013). Among these, face or on the plants with heads oriented downward (Townsend and soybean developmental stage is the main factor (Smith et al. 2009, Sedlacek 1986). Feeding at the plant base causes mechanical and Nielsen et al. 2011). In general, feeding during early pod and seed de- chemical injury to the growing point of the plant (Sedlacek and velopment can result in pod loss and seed abortion (flat pods); feeding Townsend 1988a). Injury to early vegetative growth stages of corn during pod fill can result in shriveled, deformed, and smaller seeds; and by stink bugs can result in yield reduction (Annan and Bergman feeding during seed maturation can result in slight deformation of seed 1988), and symptoms include elongate holes surrounded by chlo- anddiscoloredpuncturemarks (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and rotic or necrotic tissue on the leaves, twisting and bending of termi- Slansky 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Mesquita et. al. nal leaves, tightly rolled or severed whorl leaves, wilting, stunting, 2006, Owens 2012, Koch and Rich 2015, Vyavhare et al. 2015a; Fig. tillering, and plant death (Annan and Bergman 1988, Sedlacek and 6). For example, in a caged experiment, infestation of soybean with E. Townsend 1988a). Feeding by E. servus and E. variolarius on corn servus and E. variolarius at different timings resulted in decreased in- seedlings can cause immediate termination of or delay in plant jury with increasing plant reproductive growth stage (McPherson and growth and result in decreased above- and below-ground biomass McPherson 2000). Soybean has been shown to compensate for stink (Townsend and Sedlacek 1986, Sedlacek and Townsend 1988a). bug feeding by increasing the weight of unaffected seeds (Todd and The most significant impacts from E. servus and E. variolarius feed- Turnipseed 1974, Russin et al. 1987, Boethel et al. 2000, McPherson ing are tillering and plant mortality (Apriyanto et al. 1989a,b). and McPherson 2000, Koch and Rich 2015). Tillering of corn plants is caused by stink bugs feeding on lower por- In addition to impacts on yield, stink bug feeding can affect the tions of plants (Townsend and Sedlacek 1986). The type of tissue quality and maturity of soybean. When seed fed upon by stink bugs is damaged and amount of tissue damaged are likely the most impor- sown, reductions in germination, emergence, and survival of seedlings tant factors contributing to injury, such as tillering (Apriyanto et al. can be observed (Jensen and Newsom 1972). Germination of seed is 1989a). Plants that tiller in response to stink bug feeding are shorter, more affected by the location of feeding punctures (e.g., punctures have delayed silking, and decreased yields compared with plants ex- near the radicle–hypocotyl axis) than the overall number of feeding posed to stink bugs that did not tiller and unexposed plants punctures (McPherson and McPherson 2000). Locally, stink bug (Apriyanto et al. 1989b). feeding punctures form small brown or black spots in the pod (Kogan Susceptibility of early growth stages of corn to stink bug feeding and Herzog 1980). Stink bug feeding can increase protein and de- varies with plant growth stage and stink bug life stage. In general, crease oil content of soybean seeds and alter the fatty acid composi- early corn growth stages (e.g., seedlings) are most susceptible and tion of soybean oil (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and Slansky large nymphs and adults of stink bugs are most damaging (Sedlacek 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000). However, such impacts to and Townsend 1988a). quality were not detected for H. halys feeding on soybean in In Minnesota, E. variolarius and E. servus euschistoides were the Minnesota (Koch and Rich 2015). In addition, stink bug feeding, par- most abundant stink bug species found on corn during reproductive ticularly during pod-set and pod-filling stages, can cause delayed plant growth stages (Koch and Pahs 2015). During reproductive plant maturity (i.e., “stay-green” syndrome; Todd and Herzog 1980, growth stages of corn, stink bugs will feed on developing ears and Panizzi and Slansky 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Musser kernels and, depending on timing of infestation, can affect ear num- et. al 2011, Vyavhare et al. 2015b), which can adversely affect harvest ber, ear size, and kernel size and quality (Negron  and Riley 1987, Ni of the crop (Musser et al. 2011). In the midwestern United States, de- et al. 2010, Rice et al. 2014; Fig. 7). Corn plants appear most sus- layed maturity has been observed in Ohio soybean with mixed infes- ceptible to stink bug feeding during early development of the corn tation of stink bugs (Michel, personal observation) and in a cage ears, including late vegetative corn growth stages. Observations of study with H. halys in Minnesota (Koch and Rich 2015). Although ear abortion have been made for H. halys feeding on late vegetative some studies try to explain the mechanisms of delayed maturity of stages of corn (Rice et al. 2014). Corn was more susceptible to E. soybeans (Boethel et al. 2000, Egli and Bruening 2006), questions re- servus feeding at the VT (tasseling) stage than the R1 (silking) or R2 main about the specific mechanism (Vyavhare et al. 2015b). Finally, (blister) stages (Ni et al. 2010). At the VT stage, three or more E. feeding by stink bugs can transmit pathogens to soybean. For exam- servus feeding for 9 d caused significant kernel damage and reduc- ple, stink bugs transmit Nematospora coryli Peglion, which causes tion in ear and kernel weight (Ni et al. 2010). As corn ear develop- yeast-spot disease (Daugherty 1967, Ragsdale et al. 1979). Stink bugs ment progresses, feeding by stink bugs is more likely to affect grain can also transmit bacteria with potential plant pathogenicity to soy- quality. Halyomorpha halys will feed on developing kernels by bean (Ragsdale et al. 1979, Husseneder et al. 2016). piercing through corn husks and cause kernel shrinkage and discol- oration (Rice et al. 2014, Cissel et al. 2015). Euschistus servus feed- ing at later reproductive growth stages caused greater effects on Corn grain quality (kernel discoloration) than yield (Ni et al. 2010). Stink bugs can colonize and feed on corn from emergence of the An additional concern related to stink bugs in corn production plants through maturity. The seedling and early reproductive stages was the possibility that cattle fed H. halys-contaminated corn silage of corn appear most susceptible to stink bug feeding. In the might produce milk tainted by odorous compounds from H. halys Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 11 (Baldwin et al. 2014). However, H. halys contamination of silage are observed, consider treatment when 5% of the plants exhibit in- did not affect feed consumption by cattle or milk production, and jury and stink bugs are present. Infestations of stink bugs on vegeta- odorous compounds (i.e., E-2-decenal and tridecane) from H. halys tive growth stages may be more likely to occur in late-planted fields were not detected in milk after cattle were fed contaminated silage and no-till fields. Fields planted during wet-field conditions may be nor after odor compounds were infused directly into the rumen of particularly vulnerable if the seed furrow is not properly closed, al- the cattle (Baldwin et al. 2014). The process of ensiling and metabo- lowing stink bug access to the below-ground growing point. lism of the cattle appear to mitigate the risk of milk being tainted by Corn is also vulnerable to injury from stink bugs during ear for- stink bug contamination in corn silage (Baldwin et al. 2014). mation through ear fill. Scouting during this period is also per- formed by direct examination of plants, particularly in the ear zone. Action thresholds are based on counts of nymphs (>0.64 cm [1/ Management 4 inch]) and adults of herbivorous species. Check at least 10 consec- utive plants in five or more locations in field for the presence of stink Much of the information provided here is derived from literature on bugs. Insecticide sprays are recommended when stink bug density management of stink bugs in southern states. This information reaches one stink bug per four plants, from ear forming to beginning serves to inform the reader about management of these pests until of pollen shed, and one stink bug per two plants, from end of pollen more research can be performed on the management of stink bugs shed to the blister stage (Hunt et al. 2014). on soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. As state- and region-specific management recommendations are developed and re- fined, check the recommendations from Extension in your state. Management Tactics Panizzi and Slansky (1985) and McPherson and McPherson (2000) provide reviews of stink bug management, including tactics such as Scouting and Thresholds in Soybean trap cropping, timing of planting, row spacing, resistant varieties, In general, scouting for stink bugs in soybean should start as pods and biological control. Biological control of stink bugs is expounded begin to develop and continue through seed development. Scouting upon by McPherson (1982), with a listing of natural enemies known can be performed with a sweep net or drop cloth. A sweep net is to attack different species of stink bugs. A thorough review of man- more often used with narrow-row (76.2-cm [30-inch] spacing or agement tactics is beyond the scope of this paper. However, we pro- less) soybean and a drop cloth with wide-row (>76.2-cm [30-inch] vide a brief review of more recent literature on chemical control for spacing) soybean. Although both methods are similar in efficiency of stink bugs, as this will be the most immediately implemented tactic catching stink bugs, using a sweep net is more convenient owing to against these emerging pests in soybean and corn in the midwestern ease of use and being less time consuming (Rudd and Jensen 1977, United States. Todd and Herzog 1980). Scouting should include edge and interior Broad-spectrum insecticides are generally effective and com- areas of fields, because the abundance of stink bugs within fields can monly used for stink bug management (Willrich et al. 2003, Nielsen be greater on field edges (i.e., an edge effect; Todd and Herzog et al. 2008b, Kamminga et al. 2009, Leskey et al. 2012b, Rice et al. 1980, Leskey et al. 2012a, Koch and Pahs 2014, Venugopal et al. 2014). Stink bug susceptibility to insecticides varies by species, life 2014) and areas of soybean adjacent to wooded habitats or early stages, and sex. For example, E. servus has been shown to be less maturing crops (Leskey et al. 2012a, Venugopal et al. 2014). Recent susceptible than C. hilaris to pyrethroid and organophosphate insec- research in cotton and soybean show that H. halys has a “startle-re- ticides (Willrich et al. 2003, Snodgrass et al. 2005). Kamminga et al. sponse” and readily drop off the plants (Kamminga et al. 2014, (2009) showed differences in susceptibility of C. hilaris and E. ser- Herbert et al. 2015). However, Owens et al. (2013) show that vus to different neonicotinoid insecticides. The predator, P. maculi- sweep-net sampling is still an efficient method for the stink bug com- ventris, is more susceptible than the herbivore, E. servus, to some plex containing H. halys. insecticides (Tillman and Mullinix 2004). Nymphs of C. hilaris are For stink bugs in soybean, treatment decisions are based on the more susceptible to insecticides than adults of C. hilaris (Kamminga combined count of nymphs (>0.64 cm [1/4 inch]) and adults of all et al. 2009). Organic insecticides can be more effective on early in- herbivorous stink bug species. Economic thresholds for stink bugs in stars than older stages (Herbert et al. 2015). In addition, male stink soybean in the midwestern United States depend on the end use of bugs can be more susceptible to insecticides than females, owing to the soybean. For soybean grown for seed production, the economic the smaller body size of males (Nielsen et al. 2008b). Residual activ- threshold is presently 5 stink bugs per 25 sweeps or 1 stink bug per ity of insecticides should be considered for mobile pests like H. 0.3 m (1 ft) of row (Kogan 1976). For soybean grown for grain, the halys, which can recolonize treated crops (Funayama 2012, Leskey economic threshold is presently 10 stink bugs per 25 sweeps or 3 et al. 2013). In addition to stink bugs, other insects can cause eco- stink bugs per 0.3 m (1 ft) of row (Kogan 1976). These thresholds nomic losses to these crops (e.g., soybean aphid in soybean); there- will need validation and refinement as stink bug infestations increase fore, when economically significant infestations of multiple pests in the region. Owens et al. (2013) show the economic threshold for occur, products that can control multiple pests may be preferred. the invasive H. halys not differing from those recommended for na- tive stink bugs. Conclusion Scouting and Thresholds in Corn Scouting during the first 2 wk after corn emergence is critical to In conclusion, the threat posed by new and emerging stink bug pests managing infestations of stink bugs early in the season. Check at in corn and soybean in the midwestern United States is a challenge least 10 consecutive plants in five or more locations per field for for growers and their crop advisors. Identification of these pests and stink bug injury and stink bugs. In these early vegetative growth knowledge of their biologies provides a foundation for management stages, examine the entire corn plant from near the base to within programs. Though much can be gained from review of literature, the whorl. For corn <61 cm (2 ft) tall, consider treatment if stink primarily from the southern states, on impacts of stink bugs to crops bugs are present on 10% or more of the plants. When injured plants and management recommendations, further research on these topics Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 12 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Egli, D. B., and W. P. Bruening. 2006. Depodding causes green-stem syndrome is needed in the midwestern United States. In addition, sampling in soybean. Crop Management 5: 1. doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0104-01-RS. methods, treatment thresholds, and management tactics for stink Evans, E. W. 1985. A key to nymphs of four species of the genus Podisus bugs require further validation in the midwestern United States. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) of northeastern North America. Proceedings of Furthermore, future studies should examine the interaction between the Entomological Society of Washington 87: 94–97. stink bugs and other pests and pest management tactics in soybean Funayama, K. 2012. Control effect on the brown-marmorated stink bug, and corn of the midwestern United States (Rich and Koch 2016). Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), by combined spraying of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in apple orchards in northern Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47: 75–78. Gore, J., C. A. Abel, J. J. Adamczyk, and G. Snodgrass. 2006. Influence of soy- bean planting date and maturity group on stink bug (Heteroptera: Acknowledgments Pentatomidae) populations. Environmental Entomology 35: 531–536. We thank Walter Rich, Dr. Christopher Philips, and two anonymous Herbert, D. A. Jr., B. Cissel, J. Whalen, G. Dively, C. Hooks, T. Patton, D. reviewers for providing reviews of earlier versions of this paper or section of Venugopal, T. Kuhar, B. Aigner, S. Malone, et al. 2015. Brown marmorated this paper. This work was supported in part by the Minnesota Soybean stink bug biology and management in Mid-Atlantic soybeans. Virginia Research and Promotion Council, Minnesota Environment and Natural Cooperative Extension. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ENTO/ENTO-168/ENTO- Resources Trust Fund, Nebraska Soybean Board, Ohio Soybean Council, and 168.html) (accessed 1 April 2017). North Central Soybean Research Program. Hoebeke, E. R., and M. E. Carter. 2003. Halyomorpha halys (Sta˚l) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): A polyphagous plant pest from Asia newly de- tected in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of References Cited Washington 105: 225–237. Aldrich, J. A. 1988. Chemical ecology of the Heteroptera. Annual Review of Hori, K. 2000. Possible causes of disease symptoms resulting from the feeding Entomology 33: 211–238. of phytophagous Heteroptera, pp. 11–35. In C. W. Schaefer and A. R. Annan, I. B., and M. K. Bergman. 1988. Effects of the one-spotted stink bug Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of Economic importance. CRC Press, Boca (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on growth and yield of corn. Journal of Raton, FL. Economic Entomology 81: 649–653. Hunt, T., B. Wright, and K. Jarvi. 2011. Stink bug populations developing in Apriyanto, D., T. D. Sedlacek, and L. H. Townsend. 1989a. Feeding activity soybeans and corn. CropWatch, 4 August 2011. University of Nebraska- of Euschistus servus and E. variolarius (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and Lincoln, NE. (http://cropwatch.unl.edu/archive/-/asset_publisher/ damage to an early growth stage of corn. Journal of the Kansas VHeSpfv0Agju/content/4620945) (accessed 1 April 2017) Entomological Society 62: 392–399. Hunt, T., B. Wright, and K. Jarvi. 2014. Stink bugs reported in corn and Apriyanto, D., L. H. Townsend, and J. D. Sedlacek. 1989b. Yield reduction soybeans. CropWatch, 29 July 2014. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE. from feeding by Euschistus servus and E. variolarius (Heteroptera: (http://cropwatch.unl.edu/archive/-/asset_publisher/VHeSpfv0Agju/content/ Pentatomidae) on stage V2 field corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 82: stink-bugs-reported-in-nebraska-corn-and-soybeans) (accessed 1 April 2017). 445–448. Husseneder, C., J. S. Park, A. Howells, C. V. Tikhe, and J. A. Davis. 2016. Baldwin, R. L., A. Zhang, S. W. Fultz, S. Abubeker, C. Harris, E. E. Connor, Bacteria associated with Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and D. L. Van Hekken. 2014. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor with special reference to those transmitted by feeding. Environmental compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn si- Entomology nvw112. lage to lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 97: 1877–1884. Jensen, R. L., and L. D. Newsom. 1972. Effect of stink bug damaged soybean Boethel, D. J., S. Russin, A. T. Wier, M. B. Layton, J. S. Mink, and M. L. seeds on germination, emergence, and yield. Journal of Economic Boyd. 2000. Delayed maturity associated with southern green stink bug Entomology 6: 261–264. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) injury at various soybean phenological stages. Jones, W. A., and M. J. Sullivan. 1982. Role of host plants in population dy- Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 707–712. namics of stink bug pests of soybean in South Carolina. Environmental Cissel, W. J., E. Mason, J. Whalen, J. Hough-Goldstein, and C. R. Hooks. Entomology 11: 867–875. 2015. Effects of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Kamminga, K. L., A. Herbert, T. P. Kuhar, S. Malone, and A. Koppel. 2009. feeding injury on sweet corn yield and quality. Journal of Economic Efficacy of insecticides against Acrosternum hilare and Euschistus servus Entomology 108: 1065–1071. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia and North Carolina. Journal of Cohen, A. C. 2000. How carnivorous bugs feed, pp. 563–570. In C. W. Entomological Science 44: 1–10. Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of economic importance. Kamminga, K., A. D. Herbert, S. M. Malone, T. P. Kuhar, and J. K. Greene. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2012. Field guide to stink bugs of agricultural importance in the Upper Corr^ea-Ferreira, B. S., and J. De Azevedo. 2002. Soybean seed damage by dif- Southern Region and Mid–Atlantic States. College of Agricultural and Live ferent species of stink bugs. Agriculture and Forest Entomology 4: 145–150. Sciences, Virginia Tech, VA. (https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/ Da Silva, P. G., and K. M. Daane. 2014. Life history parameters of Chinavia 10919/50280/444-356.pdf?sequence¼1&isAllowed¼y) (accessed 1 April 2017). hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a stink bug injurious to pistachios in Kamminga, K., A. D. Herbert, M. D. Toews, S. Malone, and T. Kuhar. 2014. California. Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 166–173. Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding injury on cotton Daugherty, D. M. 1967. Pentatomidae as vectors of yeast-spot disease of soy- bolls. The Journal of Cotton Science 18: 68–74. beans. Journal of Economic Entomology 60: 147–152. Koch, R. L. 2014. Detection of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: De Clerq, P. 2000. Predaceous stink bugs (Pentatomidae: Asopinae), pp. Pentatomidae) in Minnesota. Journal of Entomological Science 49: 313–317. 737–789. In C. W. Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of eco- Koch, R. L., and T. Pahs. 2014. Species composition, abundance, and seasonal nomic importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota soybean DeCoursey, R. M., and C. O. Esselbaug. 1962. Descriptions of the nymphal fields. Environmental Entomology 43: 883–888. stages of some North American Pentatomidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Koch, R. L., and T. Pahs. 2015. Species composition and abundance of stink Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 323–342. bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota field corn. Depieri, R. A., and A. R. Panizzi. 2011. Duration of feeding and superficial Environmental Entomology 44: 233–238. and in-depth damage to soybean seed by selected species of stink bugs Koch, R. L., and W. A. Rich. 2015. Stink bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology 40: 197–203. Pentatomidae) feeding and phenology on early-maturing soybean in Edwards, C. R., K. Bergman, and L. W. Bledsoe. 1985. Stink bug injury on Minnesota. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 2335–2343. corn. In Proceedings, Indiana Plant Food and Agricultural Chemicals Koch, R. L., A. Rider, P. P. Tinerella, and W. A. Rich. 2014. Stink bugs Conference, 19–20 December 1985. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Minnesota: An annotated Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 13 checklist and new state records. The Great Lakes Entomologist 47: Nielsen, A. L. C. Hamilton, and P. W. Shearer. 2011. Seasonal phenology and 171–185. monitoring of the non-native Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Kogan, M. 1976. Soybean disease and insect pest management, pp. 114–121. Pentatomidae) in soybean. Environmental Entomology 40: 231–238. In R. M. Goodman (eds.), Expanding the use of soybeans. Proceedings of a Owens, D. R. 2012. Behavior of and crop injury induced by native and exotic Conference for Asia and Oceania, p. 261. University of Illinois, College of stink bugs in Mid-Atlantic soybean. M.S. thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. Agriculture, INTSOY. Ser. 10. Owens, D. R., D. A. Herbert, Jr., G. P. Dively, D. D. Reisig, and T. P. Kuhar. Kogan, M., and D. C. Herzog. 1980. Sampling methods in soybean entomol- 2013. Does feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) re- ogy. Springer-Verlag, NY. duce soybean seed quality and yield? Journal of Economic Entomology 106: Lambert, A. M. 2007. Effects of prey availability, facultative plant feeding, 1317–1323. and plant defenses on a generalist insect predator. Arthropod-Plant Packauskas, R. 2012. The Pentatomidae, or stink bugs, of Kansas with a key Interactions 1: 167–173. to species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). The Great Lakes Entomology 4: Lee, D. H., D. Short, S. V. Joseph, J. C. Bergh, and T. C. Leskey. 2013. Review 210–219. of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys Paiero, S. M., S. A. Marshall, J. E. McPherson, and M. S. Ma. 2013. Stink (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. bugs (Pentatomidae) and parent bugs (Acanthosomatidae) of Ontario and Environmental Entomology 42: 627–641. adjacent areas: A key to species and a review of the fauna. Canadian Journal Lee, D. H., P. Cullum, J. L. Anderson, J. L. Daugherty, L. M. Beckett, and T. of Arthropod Identification No. 1 September, 2013. (http://cjai.biological C. Leskey. 2014. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive survey.ca/pmmm_24/pmmm_24.html) (accessed 1 April 2017). brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors Panizzi, A. R. 1997. Wild hosts of pentatomids: Ecological significance and and detector canines. PLoS ONE 9: e91575. role in their pest status on crops. Annual Review of Entomology 42: Leskey, T. C., C. Hamilton, A. L. Nielsen, D. F. Polk, C. Rodriguez-Saona, J. 99–722. C. Bergh, D. A. Herbert, T. P. Kuhar, D. Pfeiffer, G. P. Dively, et al. 2012a. Panizzi, A. R., and F. Slansky. 1985. Review of phytophagous pentatomids Pest status of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in the (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated with soybean in the Americas. USA. Outlooks on Pest Management 23: 218–226. Florida Entomologist 68: 184–214. Leskey, T. C., D. H. Lee, B. D. Short, and S. E. Wright. 2012b. Impact of in- Panizzi, A. R., J. E. McPherson, D. G. James, M. Javahery, and R. M. secticides on the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): McPherson. 2000. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae), pp. 421–474. In C. W. Analysis of insecticide lethality. Journal of Economic Entomology Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of economic importance. 1726–1735. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Leskey, T. C., D. Short, and D. H. Lee. 2013. Efficacy of insecticide residues Parish, H. E. 1934. Biology of Euschistus variolarius P. De B. (Family on adult Halyomorpha halys (Sta ˚ l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality Pentatomidae: Order Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of and injury in apple and peach orchards. Pest Management Science 70: America 27: 50–54. 1097–1104. Pilkay, G. L., P. F. Reay-Jones, M. D. Toews, J. K. Greene, and W. C. Bridges. McPherson, J. E. 1982. The Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) of northeastern 2015. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farm- North America with emphasis on the fauna of Illinois. Southern Illinois scapes. Journal of Insect Science 15: DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev006. University Press, Carbondale, IL. Ragsdale, D. W., D. Larson, and L. D. Newson. 1979. Microorganisms associ- McPherson, J. E., and R. M. McPherson. 2000. Stink bugs of economic impor- ated with feeding and from various organs of Nezara viridula. Journal of tance in America North of Mexico. CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, FL. Economic Entomology 72: 725–727. Mesquita, C. M., A. Hanna, and N. P. Costa. 2006. Crop and harvesting oper- Reisig, D. D. 2011. Insecticidal management and movement of the brown ation characteristics affecting field losses and physical qualities of soybeans- stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn. Journal of Insect Science 11: 168. doi: Part I. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22: 325–333. 10.1673/031.011.01 Michel, A., R. Bansal, and R. B. Hammond. 2013. Stink bugs on soybean and Rice, K. B., J. Bergh, E. J. Bergmann, D. J. Biddinger, C. Dieckhoff, G. Dively, other field crops. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet, FC_ENT-x- H. Fraser, T. Gariepy, G. Hamilton, T. Haye, et al. 2014. Biology, ecology, 13. (http://oardc.osu.edu/ag/images/StB_Factsheet_June_26.pdf) (accessed and management of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: 1 April 2017). Pentatomidae). Journal of Integrated Pest Management 5: A1–A13. Miner, F. D. 1966. Biology and control of stink bugs on soybean. Arkansas Rich, W. A., and R. L. Koch. 2016. Effects of Rag1 aphid-resistant soybean on Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 708: 1–40. mortality, development, and preference of brown marmorated stink bug. Munyaneza, J., and J. E. McPherson. 1994. Comparative study of life histo- Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata. 158: 109–117. ries, laboratory rearing, and immature stages of Euschistus servus and Rider, D. A. 2012. The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) of North Dakota I: Euschistus variolarius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The Great Lakes Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea. The Great Lakes Entomology 45: Entomology 26: 263–274. 312–380. Musser, F. R., L. Catchot, B. K. Gibson, and K. S. Knighten. 2011. Economic Rider, D. A., and J. B. Chapin. 1992. Revision of the genus Thyanta Sta ˚ l, 1862 injury levels for southern green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in R7 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). II. Central America, North America, and the growth stage soybeans. Crop Protection 30: 63–69. West Indies. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100: 42–98. (NASS) National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2015. United States Rudd, W. G., and R. L. Jensen. 1977. Sweep net and ground cloth sampling Department of Agriculture. (http://www.nass.usda.gov/index.asp) (accessed for insects in soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 70: 301–304. 1 April 2017). Russin, J. S., B. Layton, D. B. Orr, and D. J. Boethel. 1987. Within-plant dis- Negron,  J. F., and T. J. Riley. 1987. Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula tribution of, and partial compensation for, stink bug (Heteroptera: (Heteroptera Pentatomidae), feeding in corn. Journal of Economic Pentatomidae) damage to soybean seeds. Journal of Economic Entomology Entomology 80: 666–669. 80: 215–220. Ni, X., K. Da, G. D. Buntin, T. E. Cottrell, P. G. Tillman, D. M. Olson, R. Saulish, A. K., and D. L. Musolin. 2012. Diapause in the seasonal cycle of Powell, Jr., R. D. Lee, J. P. Wilson, and B. T. Scully. 2010. Impact of brown stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) from the temperate zone. stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield compo- Entomological Review 92: 1–26. nents and quality. Journal of Economic Entomology 130: 2072–2079. Sedlacek, J. D., and L. H. Townsend. 1988a. Impact of Euschistus servus and Nielsen, A. L., C. Hamilton, and D. Matadha. 2008a. Developmental rate esti- E. variolarius (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on early growth stages mation and life table analysis for Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: of corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 81: 840–844. Pentatomidae). Environmental Entomology 27: 348–355. Sedlacek, J. D., and L. H. Townsend. 1988b. Hymenarcys nervosa Say Nielsen, A. L., W. Shearer, and G. C. Hamilton. 2008b. Toxicity of insecti- (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): Another species of stink bug damaging early cides to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using glass-vial bio- growth stages of corn in Kentucky. Journal of Entomological Science 23: assays. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1439–1442. 402–404. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 14 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Simmons, A. M., and K. V. Yeargan. 1988. Development and survivorship of Tindall, K. V., K. Fothergill, and B. McCormack. 2012. Halyomorpha halys green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on soy- (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): A first Kansas record. Journal of the Kansas bean. Environmental Entomology 17: 527–532. Entomological Society 85: 169. Sites, R. W., B. Simpson, and D. L. Wood. 2012. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Todd, J. W., and D. C. Herzog. 1980. Sampling phytophagous Pentatomidae Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Missouri. The Great Lakes Entomology 45: on soybean, pp 438–478. In M. Kogan and D. C. Herzog (eds.), Sampling 134–163. methods in soybean entomology. Springer-Verlag, NY. Slater, J. A., and R. M. Baranowski. 1978. How to know the true bugs. C. Todd, J. W., and S. M. Turnipseed. 1974. Effects of southern green stink bug Brown Company Publishers. Dubuque, IA. damage on yield and quality of soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology Smith, J. F., G. Luttrell, and J. K. Greene. 2009. Seasonal abundance, species 67: 421–426. composition, and population dynamics of stink bugs in production fields of Townsend, L. H., and J. D. Sedlacek. 1986. Damage to corn caused by early and late soybean in South Arkansas. Journal of Economic Entomology Euschistus servus, E. variolarius, and Acrosternum hilare (Heteroptera: 102: 229–236. Pentatomidae) under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Economic Snodgrass, G. L., J. Adamczyk, and J. Gore. 2005. Toxicity of insecticides in a Entomology 79: 1254–1258. glass-vial bioassay to adult brown, green, and southern green stink bugs Underhill, G. W. 1934. The green stink bug. Virginia Agricultural Experiment (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 177–181. Station Bulletin 294: 1–26. Suh, C.P.C., K. Westbrook, and J. F. Esquivel. 2013. Species of stink bugs in Venugopal, P. D., P. L. Coffey, G. P. Dively, and W. O. Lamp. 2014. Adjacent cotton and other row crops in the Brazos River Bottom of Texas. habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the Southwestern Entomologist 38: 561–570. associated damage at field corn and soybean edges. PLoS ONE 9: e109917. Swanson, D. R. 2012. An updated synopsis of the Pentatomoidea Vyavhare, S. S., O. Way, and R. F. Medina. 2015a. Determination of growth (Heteroptera) of Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 45: 263–311. stage-specific response of soybean to redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Temple,J.H., A. Davis, S. Micinski,J.T.Hardke, P. Price, andB.R.Leonard. Pentatomidae) and its relationship to the development of flat pods. Journal 2013. Species composition and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: of Economic Entomology 108: 1770–1778. Pentatomidae) in Louisiana soybean. Environmental Entomology 42: 648–657. Vyavhare, S. S., O. Way, R. A. Pearson, and R. F. Medina. 2015b. Redbanded Tillman, P. G. 2010. Composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infestation and occurrence of delayed Pentatomidae) in corn. Environmental Entomology 39: 1765–1774. maturity in soybean. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 1516–1525. Tillman, P. G., and B. G. Mullinix. 2004. Comparison of susceptibility of Willrich, M. M., R. Leonard, and D. R. Cook. 2003. Laboratory and field pest Euschistus servus and predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: evaluations of insecticide toxicity to stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to selected insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: Pentatomidae). Journal of Cotton Science 116: 110–116. 800–806. Young, S. Y., K. Greene, and G. M. Lorenz. 2008. Damage to soybean by Tindall, K., and K. Fothergill. 2011. First records of Piezodorus guildinii in Acrosternum hilare (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Missouri. Southwestern Entomologist 36: 203–205. Entomological Science 43: 257–267. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Integrated Pest Management Oxford University Press

Identification, Biology, Impacts, and Management of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Soybean and Corn in the Midwestern United States

Free
14 pages

Loading next page...
 
/lp/ou_press/identification-biology-impacts-and-management-of-stink-bugs-hemiptera-GJyuvqOsYO
Publisher
Entomological Society of America
Copyright
© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
eISSN
2155-7470
D.O.I.
10.1093/jipm/pmx004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are an emerging threat to soybean and corn production in the midwestern United States. An invasive species, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Sta˚l), is spreading through the region. However, little is known about the complex of stink bug species associ- ated with corn and soybean in the midwestern United States. In this region, particularly in the more northern states, stink bugs have historically caused only infrequent impacts to these crops. To prepare growers and agri- cultural professionals to contend with this new threat, we provide a review of stink bugs associated with soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. Descriptions and images of common stink bug species are provided as a diagnostic aid. The biologies and impacts of stink bugs to crops are discussed, with particular at- tention to differences among species. Based primarily on information from southern states, scouting, thresh- olds, and insecticide-based management of these pests are discussed. It is hoped that this review will provide stakeholders sufficient information for management of these pests, until more region-specific research can be performed on stink bugs in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. Key words: Chinavia hilaris, Euschistus servus, Euschistus variolarius, Halyomorpha halys, Podisus maculiventris The midwestern United States is the top Glycine max L. Merrill (Leskey et al. 2012a, Rice et al. 2014) but are expanding westward (soybean)- and Zea mays L. (corn)-producing region of the United into the midwestern United States (http://www.stopbmsb.org/where- States (National Agricultural Statistics Service [NASS] 2015). In this is-bmsb/state-by-state/). As populations of this species increase in the region, the stink bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fauna midwestern United States, increasing frequencies of economically sig- is relatively diverse, comprising 45–57 species per state (McPherson nificant infestations are likely. Since 2012, H. halys has been regularly 1982, Packauskas 2012, Rider 2012, Sites et al. 2012, Swanson found in Ohio soybean fields and sometimes at economic levels with 2012, Koch et al. 2014) and includes species known to be pests of other stink bug species (Michel et al. 2013). Another invasive species, corn and soybean in some regions (McPherson and McPherson Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (redbanded stink bug), is currently 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000). established in the southeastern United States and may be expanding The significance of stink bugs in the midwestern United States is its range northward (Tindall and Fothergill 2011). Piezodorus guildi- increasing. First, an invasive species of Asian origin, Halyomorpha nii is a significant pest of soybean (McPherson and McPherson 2000, halys (Sta ˚ l) (brown marmorated stink bug), is invading the region Panizzi et al. 2000). In addition to the spread of new invasive species, (Tindall et al. 2012, Koch 2014). This species was first collected in the abundance of native stink bug species appears to be increasing in North America in Pennsylvania in 1996 (Hoebeke and Carter 2003) the midwestern United States (Hunt et al. 2011, 2014; Michel et al. and has since spread throughout much of the continental United 2013). In particular, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (green stink bug), States (Leskey et al. 2012a, Rice et al. 2014). Halyomorpha halys is Euschistus servus (Say) (brown stink bug), Euschistus variolarius a pest of many crops, including soybean and corn (Leskey et al. (Palisot de Beauvois) (onespotted stink bug), and Thyanta custator 2012a, Lee et al. 2013, Rice et al. 2014). Economically significant accerra McAtee (redshouldered stink bug) have been increasing in infestations of this pest in fruit, vegetable, and field crops had been abundance and frequency for the past several years (Michel and limited primarily to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States Hunt, personal observations). V C The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 journals.permissions@oup.com 1 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 2 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Fig. 1. Line drawing of stink bug adult showing body parts important for discrimination of species common in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States (image credit: A.K. Tran). Owing to the growing attention stink bugs are receiving in the Sites et al. (2012), Swanson (2012), and Koch et al. (2014)] and spe- midwestern United States and the lack of a recent, comprehensive cies of stink bugs reported from soybean and corn [based on resource accessible to agricultural professionals, agency and McPherson (1982), Panizzi and Slansky (1985), McPherson and Extension staff, and producers, we compiled this review of the iden- McPherson (2000), and several more recent crop-specific publica- tification, biology, impacts, and management of stink bugs in soy- tions (see table footnotes)]. Some of these species have less extensive bean and corn in the midwestern United States. geographic ranges and do not occur in all parts of the midwestern United States (e.g., P. guildinii is more of a southern species). Depending on geography within the midwestern United States or species of interest, several diagnostic keys for stink bug identifica- Identification tion are available, including McPherson (1982) for stink bugs and General relatives of northeastern North America, McPherson and Stink bugs vary in shape and size, but are generally described as hav- McPherson (2000) for stink bugs of economic importance, Rider ing round or oval (sometimes shield-shaped) bodies, a well- (2012) for stink bugs and relatives of North Dakota, Paiero et al. developed and often triangle-shaped scutellum, piercing–sucking (2013) for stink bugs and parent bugs of Ontario, Packauskas mouthparts, and five-segmented antennae (Slater and Baranowski (2012) for stink bugs of Kansas, and Swanson (2012) for stink bugs 1978, McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000; Figs. 1 and 2). At least and relatives of Michigan. The electronic key by Paiero et al. (2013) 24 species or subspecies of stink bugs could potentially be encoun- is particularly user friendly with many color photographs. tered in soybean and corn in the midwestern United States (Table 1). Among the species potentially encountered in soybean and corn This list was created by developing and cross-referencing lists of spe- in the midwestern United States (Table 1), several are encountered cies of stink bugs known to occur in the midwestern United States with frequency. Koch and Pahs (2014, 2015) and Koch and Rich [based on McPherson (1982), Packauskas (2012), Rider (2012), (2015) recently performed surveys of the stink bugs associated with Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 3 Fig. 2. Stink bug adults commonly encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States: (A) Podisus maculiventris,(B) Chinavia hilaris, (C) Halyomorpha halys,(D) Thyanta custator accerra (green), (E) Thyanta custator accerra (brown), (F) Euschistus servus euschistoides, and (G) Euschistus vario- larius (photo credits: C. Kurtz and C. Philips, and modified by D. Pezzini). soybean and corn in Minnesota. In Minnesota soybean, E. variolar- common species of Euschistus in the United States (Slater and ius, Euschistus servus euschistoides, and C. hilaris comprise Baranowski 1978). This species is composed of two subspecies 68–90% of stink bug adults (Koch and Pahs 2014, Koch and Rich (McPherson 1982). Euschistus servus euschistoides occurs in the 2015). In Minnesota corn, E. variolarius and E. servus euschistoides northern United States (Fig. 2), and E. servus servus occurs in the comprised 95–100% of stink bug adults (Koch and Pahs 2015). A southern United States. These two subspecies are known to inter- predatory species, Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug) is also breed and create a hybrid population, where their two populations observed in corn and soybean (Koch and Pahs 2014, 2015; Koch meet in a swath extending from roughly Kansas to Maryland and Rich 2015). Further work is needed to characterize the stink (McPherson 1982). These subspecies and the hybrid are similar in bug community associated with these crops in other states in the re- size (11.0–15.0 mm long; McPherson 1982) and color (brown or gion. Understanding of stink bug anatomy (i.e., body parts) is im- light brown). However, the subspecies can be distinguished from portant for identification of these species (Fig. 1). each other based on close examination of the head, antennae, and edge of the abdomen (i.e., connexivum). The tip of the head of E. servus euschistoides appears notched because the juga are longer Euschistus servus (Brown Stink Bug) than the tylus, whereas the tip of the head of E. servus servus does Euschistus servus occurs throughout the midwestern United States not appear notched, because the juga and tylus are equal or nearly and much of North America (McPherson 1982), and is the most equal in length (Paiero et al. 2013). In addition, the last two Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 4 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Table 1. Plant-feeding stink bugs potentially encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States (“X” indicates reported presence of a species in a particular crop) Scientific name Common name Soybean Corn a,b,c,d,e g Banasa dimidiata (Say) X a,b,c g Banasa euchlora Sta˚l X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,k,l f,h,i,j Chinavia hilaris (Say) Green stink bug X X c,d,e g Chinavia pensylvanica (Gmelin) X a,b,c,d,e l f,h,i,j Chlorochroa persimilis Horvath X X a,b,c,d,e f,l Coenus delius (Say) X a,b,c,d,e l j Cosmopepla lintneriana Kirkaldy X X b,c,d,e f,g,k,l i,o Euschistus ictericus (L.) X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,k,l f,h,i,j, o Euschistus servus (Say) Brown stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,k,l i,o Euschistus tristigmus (Say) Dusky stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,h,j,l f,g,o Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) Onespotted stink bug X X c,d,e m m Halyomorpha halys (Sta ˚l) Brown marmorated stink bug X X a,b,c,d,e f,g,l f Holcostethus limbolarius (Sta ˚l) X X a,c,d f,g,j n Hymenarcys nervosa (Say) X X a,c,e j Mecidea major Sailer X a,b,c,d,e g,l Mormidea lugens (F.) X a,b,c,e f Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) Harlequin bug X b,c,d,e l Neottiglossa undata (Say) X a,c,d,e f,g,j,k f,i,j Oebalus pugnax (F.) Rice stink bug X X c g,h,j,k Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) Redbanded stink bug X c f,g Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois) X c,d f,g Thyanta calceata (Say) X a,b,c,d,e f,g,j,k,l f,j Thyanta custator accerra McAtee Redshouldered stink bug X X a g Thyanta pallidovirens (Sta˚l) X References for occurrence in midwestern United States: Packauskas (2012), Rider (2012), Sites et al. (2012), Swanson (2012), Koch et al. (2014) References for crop associations: McPherson (1982), Panizzi and Slansky (1985), McPherson and McPherson (2000), Tillman (2010), Suh et al. (2013), Temple et al. (2013), Koch and Pahs (2014), Rice et al. (2014), Sedlacek and Townsend (1988b), Koch and Pahs (2015) segments of the antennae (i.e., segments four and five) are usually black spot on the underside near the tip of the abdomen (i.e., on the dark brown in E. servus euschistoides and yellowish-brown or pygophore), hence the common name “onespotted stink bug” (Paiero reddish-brown in E. servus servus (Paiero et al. 2013). Finally, the et al. 2013). Euschistus variolarius and E. servus can be found in the edge of the abdomen is completely or nearly completely covered by same habitats at the same time (Koch and Pahs 2014, 2015) and look the front wing in E. servus euschistoides, whereas the edge of the ab- very similar to one another. However, E. variolarius can be fairly eas- domen is more exposed in E. servus servus (Paiero et al. 2013). ily distinguished from E. servus euschistoides (i.e., the more common Hybrid adults present a combination of the characters of the two subspecies in much of the midwestern United States) by examination subspecies (McPherson 1982). of the tip of the head and the “shoulders” (i.e., anterolateral margins of the pronotum; Fig. 2). The tip of the head of E. servus euschistoides appears notched, because the juga are longer than the tylus, whereas Euschistus variolarius (Onespotted Stink Bug) the tip of the head of E. variolarius does not appear notched, because Euschistus variolarius occurs throughout the midwestern United the juga and tylus are equal or nearly equal in length (Paiero et al. States and much of North America (McPherson 1982). This is the 2013). The “shoulders” of E. variolarius are generally more pointed most common stink bug in northern states, but it is relatively un- than those of E. servus euschistoides (McPherson 1982). Presence of common in the southern United States, particularly below 37 lati- the black spot on the pygophore of E. variolarius males is lacking in tude (Parish 1934, Slater and Baranowski 1978). Adults of E. E. servus (McPherson 1982), but should not be confused with the variolarius are yellowish-brown and 11.0–15.0 mm long black spots on the underside of the abdomen of a slightly smaller spe- (McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 2). Males have a large cies, Euschistus tristigmus (Say). Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 5 Fig. 3. Stink bug nymphs (late-instars) encountered in soybean and corn of the midwestern United States: (A) Euschistus servus,(B) Podisus maculiventris,(C) Euschistus variolarius,(D) Thyanta custator,(E) Chinavia hilaris, and (F) Halyomorpha halys (photo credit: D. Pezzini). A diagnostic key and descriptions of the nymphal instars of E. Chinavia hilaris (Green Stink Bug) servus and E. variolarius are provided by Decoursey and Esselbaugh Chinavia hilaris occurs throughout the midwestern United States (1962) and Munyaneza and McPherson (1994). In general, nymphs and much of North America (McPherson 1982). This species is often of both species range from 1.5 to 10.4 mm long and are yellow referred to Acrosternum hilare (Say) (Kamminga et al. 2012). Adults brown in color (Fig. 3). First and second instars of the two species of C. hilaris are green and 13.0–19.0 mm long (McPherson 1982, are nearly identical, but the later instars can be distinguished. Third Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 2). However, an orange color form is infre- to fifth instars E. variolarius have a white band on the under (i.e., quently encountered (Kamminga et al. 2012). In crops in the mid- ventral) side of the head that extends to or nearly to the eyes; how- western United States, C. hilaris is generally larger than the other ever, this band is much reduced in E. servus (Munyaneza and green-colored stink bugs, such as Chlorochroa persimilis (11– McPherson 1994). In addition, the fourth and fifth instars differ in 15 mm) or T. custator accerra (see below; McPherson 1982, Rider coloration of the last two (i.e., fourth and fifth) antennal segments, 2012). Nymphs of C. hilaris are oval-shaped and range in size from which are brownish-black in E. variolarius and red or reddish- 1.6 to 12.7 mm (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of brown in E. servus (Munyaneza and McPherson 1994; Fig. 3). the nymphs transitions from mostly black with orange markings to Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 6 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Fig. 4. Stink bug (H. halys) egg mass (A) and first-instar nymphs on hatched egg mass (B) (photo credit: D. Pezzini). mostly green with black and orange markings as nymphs develop diagnostic key and description of the nymphal instars of H. halys is (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962; Fig. 3). However, as with the provided by Hoebeke and Carter (2003). In general, nymphs range adults, the nymphs of C. hilaris present two different color forms from 2.4 to 12.0 mm long, and body shape changes from elliptical to (i.e., a light form and a dark form; Kamminga et al. 2012). pear-shaped as they develop (Hoebeke and Carter 2003). Coloration of the abdomen of nymphs transitions from yellowish-orange with black markings to mostly brown as nymphs progress from the first Thyanta custator accerra (Redshouldered Stink Bug) to fifth instars (Hoebeke and Carter 2003, Rice et al. 2014; Figs. 3 Thyanta custator accerra occurs throughout the midwestern United and 4). States and large areas of North America (McPherson 1982, Rider and Chapin 1992). Adults of T. custator accerra are 9.0–13.0 mm Podisus maculiventris (Spined Soldier Bug) long (McPherson 1982, Paiero et al. 2013; Fig. 2). Two color forms of this species exist; a green form in spring and summer, and a Podisus maculiventris occurs throughout the midwestern United brown form in fall (McPherson 1982, Paiero et al. 2013). Some indi- States and much of North America (McPherson 1982), and is the viduals of the green color form have a red- or pink-colored band most common predatory stink bug in much of the United States across the pronotum, hence the common name “redshouldered stink (Slater and Baranowski 1978, De Clerq 2000). Adults of P. maculi- bug” (Paiero et al. 2013). This species can be distinguished from P. ventris are brown and 8.5–13.0 mm long (Slater and Baranowski guildinii, the redbanded stink bug, by the presence of a prominent 1978, McPherson 1982; Fig. 2). The “shoulders” (i.e., anterolateral spine extending from the base of the abdomen between the hind legs margins of the pronotum) of P. maculiventris are pointed and pointing toward the head on P. guildinii, and the lack of such (McPherson 1982), hence the common name “spined soldier bug.” spine on T. custator accerra (Kamminga et al. 2009). A description These pointed “shoulders” may cause confusion between this species of the nymphal instars of this species is provided by DeCoursey and and some of the common herbivorous species such as E. variolarius. Esselbaugh (1962). In general, nymphs range from 0.9 to 8.2 mm The thickness of the mouth parts (i.e., rostrum) can be used to dis- long (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of the thorax tinguish P. maculiventris and other predatory stink bugs (Asopinae) and abdomen of nymphs transitions from brown with white and yel- from herbivorous stink bugs (Pentatominae; Paiero et al. 2013). The low markings to brown with white, amber, and yellow markings as rostrum of the predatory species is thick (about twice the thickness nymphs progress from the first to fifth instars (DeCoursey and of the antenna) and that of the herbivorous species is thin (similar to Esselbaugh 1962; Fig. 3). The third to fifth instars generally have a thickness of antenna; Fig. 5). Nymphs of P. maculiventris range “T”-shaped mark on the pronotum (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh from 1.15 to 8.6 mm long, and body shape changes from broadly 1962). oval to elongate oval as they develop (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh 1962). Coloration of the nymphs transitions from red with black markings to tan or orange with red and white markings as nymphs Halyomorpha halys (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug) progress from the first to fifth instars (DeCoursey and Esselbaugh Halyomorpha halys has rapidly spread throughout much of North 1962, Evans 1985; Fig. 3). Nymphs of P. maculiventris can be distin- America (Rice et al. 2014) and is becoming increasingly abundant in guished from other Podisus spp. using a diagnostic key by Evans the midwestern United States. Adult H. halys are variable in color (1985). and size, but are generally 12.0–17.0 mm long with a marbled- brown coloration (Hoebeke and Carter 2003; Fig. 2), hence the common name the “brown marmorated stink bug.” Halyomorpha Biology halys can be distinguished from other brown-colored stink bugs in the midwestern United States by its light colored underside, the pres- General ence of light-colored bands on dark antennae (i.e., the base and apex Stink bugs are herbivorous, predaceous, or occasionally omnivo- of the fourth antennal segment and the base of the fifth antennal seg- rous; generalists or specialists in feeding preference; and occur in a ment are pale), alternating light–dark pattern on the exposed edges diversity of habitats ranging from natural to cultivated, and grassy of abdomen (i.e., connexivum), and veins of the membranous parts or herbaceous to arboreal (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). With of front wings are dark brown (Hoebeke and Carter 2003). A such diversity, it is no surprise that this group contains both Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 7 Fig. 5. Mouthparts (i.e., rostra) of predatory (A) and herbivorous (B) stink bugs. Rostrum of predator is thick (about twice the thickness of the antenna), and ros- trum of herbivore is thin (similar to thickness of antenna) (arrows indicate rostra and antennae; photo credit: D. Pezzini). beneficial and pest species (McPherson 1982, Panizzi et al. 2000, De adults (Panizzi et al. 2000, McPherson and McPherson 2000). In the Clerq 2000). Members of the subfamily Asopinae are predaceous midwestern United States, stink bugs generally undergo one or two and some (e.g., Podisus maculiventris and Perillus bioculatus (F.)) generations per year (i.e., univoltine or bivoltine, respectively; are well-known predators of significant pests (De Clerq 2000). McPherson 1982). Members of the subfamilies Pentatominae and Podopinae are pri- For herbivorous stink bugs, adults and nymphs, except first in- marily herbivorous, but some have been reported to occasionally stars, actively feed on plant tissues. The first instars are generally prey on other insects (McPherson 1982). Most species, such as E. considered a nonfeeding stage and metabolize internal nutrient re- servus, E. variolarius, C. hilaris, and H. halys, are generalists and serves, and acquire important microbial symbionts from the egg feed on many hosts across several plant families (McPherson 1982, mass (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000; Fig. 4). Rice et al. 2014). The adults and fifth instars often cause more injury than the earlier Stink bugs of temperate regions generally overwinter as adults in stages (McPherson 1982). Stink bugs feed on all above-ground plant protected locations (e.g., under leaf litter or other debris; Saulish parts, including stems, petioles, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, but and Musolin 2012). Adults of H. halys will also overwinter under they generally prefer developing shoots, fruits, and seeds (Todd and loose tree bark or in buildings (Rice et al. 2014). Some species over- Herzog 1980, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Stink bugs feed by winter in other life stages. For example, Apoecilus cynicus (Say), a inserting their piercing–sucking mouthparts into plant tissues, inject- predatory species in the region, overwinters as eggs (Saulish and ing digestive enzymes, and sucking up nutrients from plant tissues Musolin 2012). The winter is passed in a physiological state called (McPherson and McPherson 2000). The act of inserting the mouth- diapause, which is associated with suppressed sexual development parts into the tissue causes mechanical injury and tissues are chemi- and behavior, active growth of the fat body, reduced oxygen con- cally injured by the enzymes injected by the insects (Hori 2000). sumption, and increased cold hardiness (Saulish and Musolin 2012). Feeding injury can result in reduced plant turgor pressure via re- In most species of temperate stink bugs with diapause in the adult moval of plant fluids, abnormal plant growth, deformation and dis- stage, diapause is induced by short day lengths experienced during coloration of seeds and fruit, abortion of seeds and fruit, delayed the nymphal stage; however, temperature and food quality can also plant maturity (e.g., stay-green syndrome in soybean), transmission play a role in diapause induction (Saulish and Musolin 2012). of pathogens, or plant death (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Development resumes in spring with longer day lengths, increasing Panizzi et al. 2000, Vyavhare et al. 2015b). Injury to fruit and seed temperatures, and availability of food resources (Saulish and is often greater when stink bugs feed earlier in the development of Musolin 2012). The surrounding landscape can play a role in popu- these plant structures (Panizzi et al. 2000). In crops, these various in- lation buildup of stink bug species, particularly those that are agri- juries can translate to reductions in quality and yield (McPherson cultural pests (Panizzi 1997). The generalist feeding habits and high and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000). mobility of these species allow them to move throughout the land- Finally, as their common name implies, stink bugs produce odor- scape utilizing different plant species (wild and cultivated) at differ- ous secretions from scent glands (Aldrich 1988). These secretions ent times, often depending on timing of fruit and seed development serve as defense against natural enemies or as aggregation-, sex-, or of the plants (Panizzi 1997, McPherson and McPherson 2000, alarm pheromones (Aldrich 1988, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Reisig 2011, Pilkay et al. 2015). Mating occurs in an end-to-end po- sition (McPherson 1982). Females generally lay barrel-shaped eggs in clusters on plant tissues, such as the undersides of leaves (Panizzi Euschistus servus (Brown Stink Bug) et al. 2000, McPherson and McPherson 2000; Fig. 4). After egg Euschistus servus can be found on a diversity of wild and cultivated hatch, stink bugs develop through five instars prior to becoming plant species (McPherson 1982, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 8 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Panizzi et al. 2000). For example, a combined list of crop plants Adults of C. hilaris overwinter under leaf litter in deciduous wooded from which E. servus subspecies or their hybrid have been collected areas (McPherson 1982, Kamminga et al. 2012). This species is gen- includes corn, soybean, wheat, oats, sunflower, sugar beet, alfalfa, erally considered univoltine, particularly in the northern United clover, tobacco, cotton, tomato, cabbage, bean, pepper, squash, pea, States (McPherson 1982, Kamminga et al. 2012). Bivoltine popula- okra, cantaloupe, blueberry, raspberry, grape, cherry, blackberry, tions of C. hilaris occur in the Gulf States and extend as far north as apple, pear, peach, citrus, and pecan (McPherson 1982, McPherson Kansas, Arkansas, and southern Illinois (McPherson 1982). and McPherson 2000). This species is considered the most economi- Photoperiod (i.e., day length) is an important determinant of the cally important Euschistus species in the United States and Canada number of generations for this species (Kamminga et al. 2012). This (Panizzi et al. 2000). However, the broad host range of E. servus species is considered semimigratory (Panizzi et al. 2000), and migra- may contribute to it not being an even more significant pest of crops tion from southern areas may contribute to populations in northern such as soybean (McPherson and McPherson 2000). Because its host areas (http://www.ent.iastate.edu/soybeaninsects/node/145). Eggs range includes numerous cultivated and wild plants with temporally are laid in masses of 1–72 eggs (Underhill 1934), with a mean of 32 overlapping reproductive (fruiting) growth stages, populations of E. eggs per cluster (Miner 1966). The lower developmental threshold servus may spread across several plant species on the landscape and for C. hilaris is 15 C, and development from egg to adult requires not necessarily be concentrated in any one crop (Jones and Sullivan the accumulation of 482.7 degree days (Simmons and Yeargan 1982, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Adults of E. servus over- 1988). When reared on soybean seeds in a growth chamber at 24 C, winter under objects such as crop debris, leaves, and grass, and pre- mean development time of C. hilaris from egg to adult was 48.3 d fer to overwinter in open fields rather than wooded areas (egg ¼ 9.9 d, first instar¼ 5.0 d, second instar ¼ 8.9 d, third in- (McPherson 1982). In Iowa and Illinois, E. servus has been reported star ¼ 5.8 d, fourth instar¼ 7.2 d, and fifth instar¼ 11.5 d; as being bivoltine (McPherson 1982). For example, in southern Simmons and Yeargan 1988). However, Da Silva and Daane (2014) Illinois, peaks of adult activity were observed in early April to mid- reported values considerably different (i.e., lower developmental May (overwintered adults), early July to late August (first-genera- threshold 12.3 C and 588 degree days) and suggested the difference tion adults), and mid-September to late October (second-generation may be owing to genetics between populations in Kentucky and adults; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). This species may be uni- California or diet used in experiments. voltine farther north. Eggs are laid in masses of 8–41 eggs (mean- ¼ 17.6; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). When reared on green Thyanta custator accerra (Redshouldered Stink Bug) beans in a growth chamber at 23 C, mean development time of E. The biology of T. custator accerra has not been studied in detail servus from egg to adult was 44.3 d (egg ¼ 5.8 d, first instar¼ 5.0 d, compared with other common stink bugs. This species has been col- second instar ¼ 6.0 d, third instar ¼ 6.7 d, fourth instar¼ 9.3 d, and lected from numerous wild and cultivated plants, including crops fifth instar¼ 11.5 d; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). such as corn, soybean, wheat, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, clover, bean, eggplant, lima bean, asparagus, and peach (McPherson 1982). This Euschistus variolarius (Onespotted Stink Bug) species overwinters as adults (McPherson 1982). Thyanta custator Euschistus variolarius can be found on a diversity of wild and culti- accerra is bivoltine in the southern United States (Panizzi et al. vated plant species, including crops such as corn, soybean, wheat, 2000), may be only partially bivoltine in north-central Illinois rye, oats, sugar beet, alfalfa, clover, cotton, tobacco, bean, aspara- (McPherson 1982), and is likely univoltine in northern states. gus, tomato, potato, onion, squash, cantaloupe, strawberry, grape, raspberry, cherry, peach, and pear (McPherson 1982). Adults over- Halyomorpha halys (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug) winter in protected locations, such as under dry leaves, logs, and The biology of H. halys in Asia and North America was recently re- dead grass in fence rows (Parish 1934). This species has been re- viewed by Lee et al. (2013) and Rice et al. (2014), respectively. In ported as univoltine or bivoltine (McPherson 1982), with univoltine Asia, H. halys has been collected from 106 species of plants across populations occurring north of 40 latitude (Panizzi et al. 2000). For 45 plant families (Lee et al. 2013). In the United States, H. halys has example, E. variolarius was observed to be univoltine in southern also been collected from numerous wild and cultivated plants, in- Illinois, with peak adult activity in mid-April to mid-June (overwin- cluding crops such as corn, soybean, sunflower, cereal rye, wheat, tered adults), followed by appearance of first-generation adults in garden cucumber, field pumpkin (summer squash), horseradish, late June to late August (Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). Eggs Swiss chard, cabbage, collards, cayenne pepper, eggplant, garden to- are laid in masses of 6–27 (mean ¼ 16.2) eggs (Munyaneza and mato, filbert, hazelnut, common hop, bean, apricot, peach, rasp- McPherson 1994). When reared on green beans in a growth cham- berry, blackberry edible fig, highbush blueberry, wine grape, apple, ber at 23 C, mean development time of E. variolarius from egg to cherry, pear, and pecan (Rice et al. 2014; http://www.stopbmsb.org/ adult was 46.8 d (egg ¼ 5.4 d, first instar ¼ 4.9 d, second instar¼ 5.7 where-is-bmsb/host-plants/#host_plants_table). Adults overwinter d, third instar¼ 7.8 d, fourth instar¼ 9.7 d, and fifth instar¼ 13.3 under debris, in tree holes or under bark, in human-made structures, d; Munyaneza and McPherson 1994). or in dry areas on mountains (Lee et al. 2013, 2014). This species is likely univoltine to bivoltine in the midwestern United States, as it is Chinavia hilaris (Green Stink Bug) in the mid-Atlantic region (Rice et al. 2014). In southern Asia, it can The biology of C. hilaris was recently reviewed by Kamminga et al. have as many as four to six generations per year (Lee et al. 2013). (2012). Chinavia hilaris prefers woody plants (McPherson 1982, Eggs are laid in masses of 20–30 eggs, and females lay about 244 Kamminga et al. 2012). However, this species can be found on a va- egg clusters in a lifetime (Hoebeke and Carter 2003, Nielsen et al. riety of wild and cultivated plants, including crops such as corn, soy- 2008a). The lower and upper developmental thresholds for H. halys bean, sugar beet, cotton, alfalfa, clover, asparagus, cabbage, are 14 C and 35 C, respectively, and development from egg to adult eggplant, green bean, lima bean, pea, pepper, tomato, turnip, mus- requires the accumulation of 538 degree days (Nielsen et al. 2008a). tard, okra, strawberry, raspberry, black berry, grape, apple, apricot, When reared on green beans and Spanish peanuts in a growth cham- cherry, orange, peach, pear, plum, and pecan (McPherson 1982). ber at 25 C, mean development time of H. halys from egg to adult Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 9 Fig. 6. Injury to soybean resulting from stink bug feeding (increasing stink bug feeding from left to right; photo credit: A. Michel). was 44.9 d (egg ¼ 6.1 d, first instar ¼ 4.8 d, second instar¼ 9.6 d, third instar¼ 7.1 d, fourth instar¼ 7.4 d, and fifth instar¼ 10.4 d; Nielsen et al. 2008a). Podisus maculiventris (Spined Soldier Bug) Unlike the previously described species, P. maculiventris is predatory. This predator shows a preference for lepidopteran larvae (i.e., cater- pillars), but is known to feed on >90 species of insects spanning eight insect orders occurring on a diversity of wild and cultivated plants (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). Podisus maculiventris and other predatory bugs often prefer prey that are large relative to their body size (Cohen 2000). Like the plant-feeding stink bugs, P. maculiventris feeds with piercing–sucking mouthparts. Cohen (2000) describes the feeding of P. maculiventris and other predatory bugs as solid-to-liquid feeding. The predators use their mouthparts to pierce the body wall of their prey and inject saliva (Cohen 2000). Enzymes and mechanical action of the mouthparts liquefy the tissues of the prey, and the preda- tor then sucks up the liquefied nutrients from inside the prey (Cohen 2000). Podisus maculiventris can feed on plants to acquire moisture and additional nutrients when prey is scarce, but this feeding is not known to cause crop injury (De Clerq 2000, Lambert 2007). Adults overwinter in protected locations, such as in leaf litter or under stones or bark of trees (De Clerq 2000). In much of the midwestern United States and southern Canada, P. maculiventris is univoltine to trivol- tine, but more generations are likely in the southern United States (McPherson 1982, De Clerq 2000). Eggs are laid in masses of 15–30 eggs (De Clerq 2000). When reared at 23 C, development time of P. maculiventris from egg to adult was 33.5–36.5 d for a population for Fig. 7. Injury to corn resulting from stink bug feeding (photo credit: P. the northeastern United States (De Clerq 2000). Thomison). Injury to Crops Yeargan 1988, McPherson and McPherson 2000). Species may vary Stink bugs are pests of numerous crops, including soybean and corn in feeding duration and depth of injury to seed, which can result in (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Panizzi et al. 2000; Figs. 6 and different levels of damage (Corr^ ea-Ferreira and De Azevedo 2002, 7). Though much of our knowledge of stink bug injury to soybean Depieri and Panizzi 2011). Initial colonization of soybean in the and corn is based on research from southern states, it serves to in- midwestern United States typically occurs during flowering (Koch form the reader about crop response to these pests until more re- and Pahs 2014, Koch and Rich 2015, Hunt, personal observation), search can be performed on the impact of stink bugs to these crops as in other regions (Pilkay et al. 2015). Populations of stink bugs in in the midwestern United States. soybean then increase and peak during pod and seed development stages (McPherson and McPherson 2000, Koch and Pahs 2014, Soybean Koch and Rich 2015, Hunt, personal observation, Michel, personal The impact of stink bugs on soybean has been well studied and has observation). Stink bug abundance is affected by planting date and been reviewed by Todd and Herzog (1980), Panizzi and Slansky maturity group of soybean (Gore et al. 2006, Owens et al. 2013, (1985), and McPherson and McPherson (2000). Stink bugs can feed Temple et al. 2013). In addition, stink bug populations may be af- on all above-ground parts of soybean, but prefer pods and develop- fected by other pest management tactics. For example, Rich and ing seeds (Todd and Herzog 1980, Lee et al. 2013). Fifth instars and Koch (2016) found that H. halys preferred and survived better on adults cause more severe damage than early instars (Simmons and aphid-resistant soybean than on aphid-susceptible soybean. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 10 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Stink bug injury to soybean can impact yield, seed quality, and midwestern United States, injury to early growth stage corn has germination rates (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and Slansky 1985, been reported from Indiana and Illinois (Edwards et al. 1985), McPherson and McPherson 2000, Mesquita et. al. 2006). Although Minnesota (B. Potter, personal communication), and Nebraska some studies report yield losses owing to stink bug injury (Boethel (Hunt, personal observation). Fields with increased risk of injury et. al. 2000; McPherson and McPherson 2000; Vyavhare et al. from stink bugs on early growth stages of corn are those with no-till 2015a,b), others show no difference in yield owing to stink bug feeding or reduced-tillage, cover crop prior to planting, or corn following (Corr^ ea-Ferreira and De Azevedo 2002, Owens 2012, Owens et al. wheat (Edwards et al. 1985, Townsend and Sedlacek 1986, 2013). The variation of results may be explained by several factors. Sedlacek and Townsend 1988a). Theseverityofdamage causedbystink bugs candependonsoybean Stink bugs feed on early vegetative corn by inserting their mouth- developmental stage, density of bugs, and duration of infestation parts into the bases of plants while their bodies rest on the soil sur- (Young et. al. 2008, Owens 2012, Owens et al. 2013). Among these, face or on the plants with heads oriented downward (Townsend and soybean developmental stage is the main factor (Smith et al. 2009, Sedlacek 1986). Feeding at the plant base causes mechanical and Nielsen et al. 2011). In general, feeding during early pod and seed de- chemical injury to the growing point of the plant (Sedlacek and velopment can result in pod loss and seed abortion (flat pods); feeding Townsend 1988a). Injury to early vegetative growth stages of corn during pod fill can result in shriveled, deformed, and smaller seeds; and by stink bugs can result in yield reduction (Annan and Bergman feeding during seed maturation can result in slight deformation of seed 1988), and symptoms include elongate holes surrounded by chlo- anddiscoloredpuncturemarks (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and rotic or necrotic tissue on the leaves, twisting and bending of termi- Slansky 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Mesquita et. al. nal leaves, tightly rolled or severed whorl leaves, wilting, stunting, 2006, Owens 2012, Koch and Rich 2015, Vyavhare et al. 2015a; Fig. tillering, and plant death (Annan and Bergman 1988, Sedlacek and 6). For example, in a caged experiment, infestation of soybean with E. Townsend 1988a). Feeding by E. servus and E. variolarius on corn servus and E. variolarius at different timings resulted in decreased in- seedlings can cause immediate termination of or delay in plant jury with increasing plant reproductive growth stage (McPherson and growth and result in decreased above- and below-ground biomass McPherson 2000). Soybean has been shown to compensate for stink (Townsend and Sedlacek 1986, Sedlacek and Townsend 1988a). bug feeding by increasing the weight of unaffected seeds (Todd and The most significant impacts from E. servus and E. variolarius feed- Turnipseed 1974, Russin et al. 1987, Boethel et al. 2000, McPherson ing are tillering and plant mortality (Apriyanto et al. 1989a,b). and McPherson 2000, Koch and Rich 2015). Tillering of corn plants is caused by stink bugs feeding on lower por- In addition to impacts on yield, stink bug feeding can affect the tions of plants (Townsend and Sedlacek 1986). The type of tissue quality and maturity of soybean. When seed fed upon by stink bugs is damaged and amount of tissue damaged are likely the most impor- sown, reductions in germination, emergence, and survival of seedlings tant factors contributing to injury, such as tillering (Apriyanto et al. can be observed (Jensen and Newsom 1972). Germination of seed is 1989a). Plants that tiller in response to stink bug feeding are shorter, more affected by the location of feeding punctures (e.g., punctures have delayed silking, and decreased yields compared with plants ex- near the radicle–hypocotyl axis) than the overall number of feeding posed to stink bugs that did not tiller and unexposed plants punctures (McPherson and McPherson 2000). Locally, stink bug (Apriyanto et al. 1989b). feeding punctures form small brown or black spots in the pod (Kogan Susceptibility of early growth stages of corn to stink bug feeding and Herzog 1980). Stink bug feeding can increase protein and de- varies with plant growth stage and stink bug life stage. In general, crease oil content of soybean seeds and alter the fatty acid composi- early corn growth stages (e.g., seedlings) are most susceptible and tion of soybean oil (Todd and Herzog 1980, Panizzi and Slansky large nymphs and adults of stink bugs are most damaging (Sedlacek 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000). However, such impacts to and Townsend 1988a). quality were not detected for H. halys feeding on soybean in In Minnesota, E. variolarius and E. servus euschistoides were the Minnesota (Koch and Rich 2015). In addition, stink bug feeding, par- most abundant stink bug species found on corn during reproductive ticularly during pod-set and pod-filling stages, can cause delayed plant growth stages (Koch and Pahs 2015). During reproductive plant maturity (i.e., “stay-green” syndrome; Todd and Herzog 1980, growth stages of corn, stink bugs will feed on developing ears and Panizzi and Slansky 1985, McPherson and McPherson 2000, Musser kernels and, depending on timing of infestation, can affect ear num- et. al 2011, Vyavhare et al. 2015b), which can adversely affect harvest ber, ear size, and kernel size and quality (Negron  and Riley 1987, Ni of the crop (Musser et al. 2011). In the midwestern United States, de- et al. 2010, Rice et al. 2014; Fig. 7). Corn plants appear most sus- layed maturity has been observed in Ohio soybean with mixed infes- ceptible to stink bug feeding during early development of the corn tation of stink bugs (Michel, personal observation) and in a cage ears, including late vegetative corn growth stages. Observations of study with H. halys in Minnesota (Koch and Rich 2015). Although ear abortion have been made for H. halys feeding on late vegetative some studies try to explain the mechanisms of delayed maturity of stages of corn (Rice et al. 2014). Corn was more susceptible to E. soybeans (Boethel et al. 2000, Egli and Bruening 2006), questions re- servus feeding at the VT (tasseling) stage than the R1 (silking) or R2 main about the specific mechanism (Vyavhare et al. 2015b). Finally, (blister) stages (Ni et al. 2010). At the VT stage, three or more E. feeding by stink bugs can transmit pathogens to soybean. For exam- servus feeding for 9 d caused significant kernel damage and reduc- ple, stink bugs transmit Nematospora coryli Peglion, which causes tion in ear and kernel weight (Ni et al. 2010). As corn ear develop- yeast-spot disease (Daugherty 1967, Ragsdale et al. 1979). Stink bugs ment progresses, feeding by stink bugs is more likely to affect grain can also transmit bacteria with potential plant pathogenicity to soy- quality. Halyomorpha halys will feed on developing kernels by bean (Ragsdale et al. 1979, Husseneder et al. 2016). piercing through corn husks and cause kernel shrinkage and discol- oration (Rice et al. 2014, Cissel et al. 2015). Euschistus servus feed- ing at later reproductive growth stages caused greater effects on Corn grain quality (kernel discoloration) than yield (Ni et al. 2010). Stink bugs can colonize and feed on corn from emergence of the An additional concern related to stink bugs in corn production plants through maturity. The seedling and early reproductive stages was the possibility that cattle fed H. halys-contaminated corn silage of corn appear most susceptible to stink bug feeding. In the might produce milk tainted by odorous compounds from H. halys Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 11 (Baldwin et al. 2014). However, H. halys contamination of silage are observed, consider treatment when 5% of the plants exhibit in- did not affect feed consumption by cattle or milk production, and jury and stink bugs are present. Infestations of stink bugs on vegeta- odorous compounds (i.e., E-2-decenal and tridecane) from H. halys tive growth stages may be more likely to occur in late-planted fields were not detected in milk after cattle were fed contaminated silage and no-till fields. Fields planted during wet-field conditions may be nor after odor compounds were infused directly into the rumen of particularly vulnerable if the seed furrow is not properly closed, al- the cattle (Baldwin et al. 2014). The process of ensiling and metabo- lowing stink bug access to the below-ground growing point. lism of the cattle appear to mitigate the risk of milk being tainted by Corn is also vulnerable to injury from stink bugs during ear for- stink bug contamination in corn silage (Baldwin et al. 2014). mation through ear fill. Scouting during this period is also per- formed by direct examination of plants, particularly in the ear zone. Action thresholds are based on counts of nymphs (>0.64 cm [1/ Management 4 inch]) and adults of herbivorous species. Check at least 10 consec- utive plants in five or more locations in field for the presence of stink Much of the information provided here is derived from literature on bugs. Insecticide sprays are recommended when stink bug density management of stink bugs in southern states. This information reaches one stink bug per four plants, from ear forming to beginning serves to inform the reader about management of these pests until of pollen shed, and one stink bug per two plants, from end of pollen more research can be performed on the management of stink bugs shed to the blister stage (Hunt et al. 2014). on soybean and corn in the midwestern United States. As state- and region-specific management recommendations are developed and re- fined, check the recommendations from Extension in your state. Management Tactics Panizzi and Slansky (1985) and McPherson and McPherson (2000) provide reviews of stink bug management, including tactics such as Scouting and Thresholds in Soybean trap cropping, timing of planting, row spacing, resistant varieties, In general, scouting for stink bugs in soybean should start as pods and biological control. Biological control of stink bugs is expounded begin to develop and continue through seed development. Scouting upon by McPherson (1982), with a listing of natural enemies known can be performed with a sweep net or drop cloth. A sweep net is to attack different species of stink bugs. A thorough review of man- more often used with narrow-row (76.2-cm [30-inch] spacing or agement tactics is beyond the scope of this paper. However, we pro- less) soybean and a drop cloth with wide-row (>76.2-cm [30-inch] vide a brief review of more recent literature on chemical control for spacing) soybean. Although both methods are similar in efficiency of stink bugs, as this will be the most immediately implemented tactic catching stink bugs, using a sweep net is more convenient owing to against these emerging pests in soybean and corn in the midwestern ease of use and being less time consuming (Rudd and Jensen 1977, United States. Todd and Herzog 1980). Scouting should include edge and interior Broad-spectrum insecticides are generally effective and com- areas of fields, because the abundance of stink bugs within fields can monly used for stink bug management (Willrich et al. 2003, Nielsen be greater on field edges (i.e., an edge effect; Todd and Herzog et al. 2008b, Kamminga et al. 2009, Leskey et al. 2012b, Rice et al. 1980, Leskey et al. 2012a, Koch and Pahs 2014, Venugopal et al. 2014). Stink bug susceptibility to insecticides varies by species, life 2014) and areas of soybean adjacent to wooded habitats or early stages, and sex. For example, E. servus has been shown to be less maturing crops (Leskey et al. 2012a, Venugopal et al. 2014). Recent susceptible than C. hilaris to pyrethroid and organophosphate insec- research in cotton and soybean show that H. halys has a “startle-re- ticides (Willrich et al. 2003, Snodgrass et al. 2005). Kamminga et al. sponse” and readily drop off the plants (Kamminga et al. 2014, (2009) showed differences in susceptibility of C. hilaris and E. ser- Herbert et al. 2015). However, Owens et al. (2013) show that vus to different neonicotinoid insecticides. The predator, P. maculi- sweep-net sampling is still an efficient method for the stink bug com- ventris, is more susceptible than the herbivore, E. servus, to some plex containing H. halys. insecticides (Tillman and Mullinix 2004). Nymphs of C. hilaris are For stink bugs in soybean, treatment decisions are based on the more susceptible to insecticides than adults of C. hilaris (Kamminga combined count of nymphs (>0.64 cm [1/4 inch]) and adults of all et al. 2009). Organic insecticides can be more effective on early in- herbivorous stink bug species. Economic thresholds for stink bugs in stars than older stages (Herbert et al. 2015). In addition, male stink soybean in the midwestern United States depend on the end use of bugs can be more susceptible to insecticides than females, owing to the soybean. For soybean grown for seed production, the economic the smaller body size of males (Nielsen et al. 2008b). Residual activ- threshold is presently 5 stink bugs per 25 sweeps or 1 stink bug per ity of insecticides should be considered for mobile pests like H. 0.3 m (1 ft) of row (Kogan 1976). For soybean grown for grain, the halys, which can recolonize treated crops (Funayama 2012, Leskey economic threshold is presently 10 stink bugs per 25 sweeps or 3 et al. 2013). In addition to stink bugs, other insects can cause eco- stink bugs per 0.3 m (1 ft) of row (Kogan 1976). These thresholds nomic losses to these crops (e.g., soybean aphid in soybean); there- will need validation and refinement as stink bug infestations increase fore, when economically significant infestations of multiple pests in the region. Owens et al. (2013) show the economic threshold for occur, products that can control multiple pests may be preferred. the invasive H. halys not differing from those recommended for na- tive stink bugs. Conclusion Scouting and Thresholds in Corn Scouting during the first 2 wk after corn emergence is critical to In conclusion, the threat posed by new and emerging stink bug pests managing infestations of stink bugs early in the season. Check at in corn and soybean in the midwestern United States is a challenge least 10 consecutive plants in five or more locations per field for for growers and their crop advisors. Identification of these pests and stink bug injury and stink bugs. In these early vegetative growth knowledge of their biologies provides a foundation for management stages, examine the entire corn plant from near the base to within programs. Though much can be gained from review of literature, the whorl. For corn <61 cm (2 ft) tall, consider treatment if stink primarily from the southern states, on impacts of stink bugs to crops bugs are present on 10% or more of the plants. When injured plants and management recommendations, further research on these topics Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 12 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Egli, D. B., and W. P. Bruening. 2006. Depodding causes green-stem syndrome is needed in the midwestern United States. In addition, sampling in soybean. Crop Management 5: 1. doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0104-01-RS. methods, treatment thresholds, and management tactics for stink Evans, E. W. 1985. A key to nymphs of four species of the genus Podisus bugs require further validation in the midwestern United States. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) of northeastern North America. Proceedings of Furthermore, future studies should examine the interaction between the Entomological Society of Washington 87: 94–97. stink bugs and other pests and pest management tactics in soybean Funayama, K. 2012. Control effect on the brown-marmorated stink bug, and corn of the midwestern United States (Rich and Koch 2016). Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), by combined spraying of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in apple orchards in northern Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47: 75–78. Gore, J., C. A. Abel, J. J. Adamczyk, and G. Snodgrass. 2006. Influence of soy- bean planting date and maturity group on stink bug (Heteroptera: Acknowledgments Pentatomidae) populations. Environmental Entomology 35: 531–536. We thank Walter Rich, Dr. Christopher Philips, and two anonymous Herbert, D. A. Jr., B. Cissel, J. Whalen, G. Dively, C. Hooks, T. Patton, D. reviewers for providing reviews of earlier versions of this paper or section of Venugopal, T. Kuhar, B. Aigner, S. Malone, et al. 2015. Brown marmorated this paper. This work was supported in part by the Minnesota Soybean stink bug biology and management in Mid-Atlantic soybeans. Virginia Research and Promotion Council, Minnesota Environment and Natural Cooperative Extension. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ENTO/ENTO-168/ENTO- Resources Trust Fund, Nebraska Soybean Board, Ohio Soybean Council, and 168.html) (accessed 1 April 2017). North Central Soybean Research Program. Hoebeke, E. R., and M. E. Carter. 2003. Halyomorpha halys (Sta˚l) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): A polyphagous plant pest from Asia newly de- tected in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of References Cited Washington 105: 225–237. Aldrich, J. A. 1988. Chemical ecology of the Heteroptera. Annual Review of Hori, K. 2000. Possible causes of disease symptoms resulting from the feeding Entomology 33: 211–238. of phytophagous Heteroptera, pp. 11–35. In C. W. Schaefer and A. R. Annan, I. B., and M. K. Bergman. 1988. Effects of the one-spotted stink bug Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of Economic importance. CRC Press, Boca (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on growth and yield of corn. Journal of Raton, FL. Economic Entomology 81: 649–653. Hunt, T., B. Wright, and K. Jarvi. 2011. Stink bug populations developing in Apriyanto, D., T. D. Sedlacek, and L. H. Townsend. 1989a. Feeding activity soybeans and corn. CropWatch, 4 August 2011. University of Nebraska- of Euschistus servus and E. variolarius (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and Lincoln, NE. (http://cropwatch.unl.edu/archive/-/asset_publisher/ damage to an early growth stage of corn. Journal of the Kansas VHeSpfv0Agju/content/4620945) (accessed 1 April 2017) Entomological Society 62: 392–399. Hunt, T., B. Wright, and K. Jarvi. 2014. Stink bugs reported in corn and Apriyanto, D., L. H. Townsend, and J. D. Sedlacek. 1989b. Yield reduction soybeans. CropWatch, 29 July 2014. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE. from feeding by Euschistus servus and E. variolarius (Heteroptera: (http://cropwatch.unl.edu/archive/-/asset_publisher/VHeSpfv0Agju/content/ Pentatomidae) on stage V2 field corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 82: stink-bugs-reported-in-nebraska-corn-and-soybeans) (accessed 1 April 2017). 445–448. Husseneder, C., J. S. Park, A. Howells, C. V. Tikhe, and J. A. Davis. 2016. Baldwin, R. L., A. Zhang, S. W. Fultz, S. Abubeker, C. Harris, E. E. Connor, Bacteria associated with Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and D. L. Van Hekken. 2014. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor with special reference to those transmitted by feeding. Environmental compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn si- Entomology nvw112. lage to lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 97: 1877–1884. Jensen, R. L., and L. D. Newsom. 1972. Effect of stink bug damaged soybean Boethel, D. J., S. Russin, A. T. Wier, M. B. Layton, J. S. Mink, and M. L. seeds on germination, emergence, and yield. Journal of Economic Boyd. 2000. Delayed maturity associated with southern green stink bug Entomology 6: 261–264. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) injury at various soybean phenological stages. Jones, W. A., and M. J. Sullivan. 1982. Role of host plants in population dy- Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 707–712. namics of stink bug pests of soybean in South Carolina. Environmental Cissel, W. J., E. Mason, J. Whalen, J. Hough-Goldstein, and C. R. Hooks. Entomology 11: 867–875. 2015. Effects of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Kamminga, K. L., A. Herbert, T. P. Kuhar, S. Malone, and A. Koppel. 2009. feeding injury on sweet corn yield and quality. Journal of Economic Efficacy of insecticides against Acrosternum hilare and Euschistus servus Entomology 108: 1065–1071. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia and North Carolina. Journal of Cohen, A. C. 2000. How carnivorous bugs feed, pp. 563–570. In C. W. Entomological Science 44: 1–10. Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of economic importance. Kamminga, K., A. D. Herbert, S. M. Malone, T. P. Kuhar, and J. K. Greene. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 2012. Field guide to stink bugs of agricultural importance in the Upper Corr^ea-Ferreira, B. S., and J. De Azevedo. 2002. Soybean seed damage by dif- Southern Region and Mid–Atlantic States. College of Agricultural and Live ferent species of stink bugs. Agriculture and Forest Entomology 4: 145–150. Sciences, Virginia Tech, VA. (https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/ Da Silva, P. G., and K. M. Daane. 2014. Life history parameters of Chinavia 10919/50280/444-356.pdf?sequence¼1&isAllowed¼y) (accessed 1 April 2017). hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a stink bug injurious to pistachios in Kamminga, K., A. D. Herbert, M. D. Toews, S. Malone, and T. Kuhar. 2014. California. Journal of Economic Entomology 107: 166–173. Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding injury on cotton Daugherty, D. M. 1967. Pentatomidae as vectors of yeast-spot disease of soy- bolls. The Journal of Cotton Science 18: 68–74. beans. Journal of Economic Entomology 60: 147–152. Koch, R. L. 2014. Detection of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: De Clerq, P. 2000. Predaceous stink bugs (Pentatomidae: Asopinae), pp. Pentatomidae) in Minnesota. Journal of Entomological Science 49: 313–317. 737–789. In C. W. Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of eco- Koch, R. L., and T. Pahs. 2014. Species composition, abundance, and seasonal nomic importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota soybean DeCoursey, R. M., and C. O. Esselbaug. 1962. Descriptions of the nymphal fields. Environmental Entomology 43: 883–888. stages of some North American Pentatomidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Koch, R. L., and T. Pahs. 2015. Species composition and abundance of stink Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 323–342. bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota field corn. Depieri, R. A., and A. R. Panizzi. 2011. Duration of feeding and superficial Environmental Entomology 44: 233–238. and in-depth damage to soybean seed by selected species of stink bugs Koch, R. L., and W. A. Rich. 2015. Stink bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Neotropical Entomology 40: 197–203. Pentatomidae) feeding and phenology on early-maturing soybean in Edwards, C. R., K. Bergman, and L. W. Bledsoe. 1985. Stink bug injury on Minnesota. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 2335–2343. corn. In Proceedings, Indiana Plant Food and Agricultural Chemicals Koch, R. L., A. Rider, P. P. Tinerella, and W. A. Rich. 2014. Stink bugs Conference, 19–20 December 1985. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Minnesota: An annotated Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 13 checklist and new state records. The Great Lakes Entomologist 47: Nielsen, A. L. C. Hamilton, and P. W. Shearer. 2011. Seasonal phenology and 171–185. monitoring of the non-native Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Kogan, M. 1976. Soybean disease and insect pest management, pp. 114–121. Pentatomidae) in soybean. Environmental Entomology 40: 231–238. In R. M. Goodman (eds.), Expanding the use of soybeans. Proceedings of a Owens, D. R. 2012. Behavior of and crop injury induced by native and exotic Conference for Asia and Oceania, p. 261. University of Illinois, College of stink bugs in Mid-Atlantic soybean. M.S. thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. Agriculture, INTSOY. Ser. 10. Owens, D. R., D. A. Herbert, Jr., G. P. Dively, D. D. Reisig, and T. P. Kuhar. Kogan, M., and D. C. Herzog. 1980. Sampling methods in soybean entomol- 2013. Does feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) re- ogy. Springer-Verlag, NY. duce soybean seed quality and yield? Journal of Economic Entomology 106: Lambert, A. M. 2007. Effects of prey availability, facultative plant feeding, 1317–1323. and plant defenses on a generalist insect predator. Arthropod-Plant Packauskas, R. 2012. The Pentatomidae, or stink bugs, of Kansas with a key Interactions 1: 167–173. to species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). The Great Lakes Entomology 4: Lee, D. H., D. Short, S. V. Joseph, J. C. Bergh, and T. C. Leskey. 2013. Review 210–219. of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys Paiero, S. M., S. A. Marshall, J. E. McPherson, and M. S. Ma. 2013. Stink (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. bugs (Pentatomidae) and parent bugs (Acanthosomatidae) of Ontario and Environmental Entomology 42: 627–641. adjacent areas: A key to species and a review of the fauna. Canadian Journal Lee, D. H., P. Cullum, J. L. Anderson, J. L. Daugherty, L. M. Beckett, and T. of Arthropod Identification No. 1 September, 2013. (http://cjai.biological C. Leskey. 2014. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive survey.ca/pmmm_24/pmmm_24.html) (accessed 1 April 2017). brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors Panizzi, A. R. 1997. Wild hosts of pentatomids: Ecological significance and and detector canines. PLoS ONE 9: e91575. role in their pest status on crops. Annual Review of Entomology 42: Leskey, T. C., C. Hamilton, A. L. Nielsen, D. F. Polk, C. Rodriguez-Saona, J. 99–722. C. Bergh, D. A. Herbert, T. P. Kuhar, D. Pfeiffer, G. P. Dively, et al. 2012a. Panizzi, A. R., and F. Slansky. 1985. Review of phytophagous pentatomids Pest status of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in the (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated with soybean in the Americas. USA. Outlooks on Pest Management 23: 218–226. Florida Entomologist 68: 184–214. Leskey, T. C., D. H. Lee, B. D. Short, and S. E. Wright. 2012b. Impact of in- Panizzi, A. R., J. E. McPherson, D. G. James, M. Javahery, and R. M. secticides on the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): McPherson. 2000. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae), pp. 421–474. In C. W. Analysis of insecticide lethality. Journal of Economic Entomology Schaefer and A. R. Panizzi (eds.), Heteroptera of economic importance. 1726–1735. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Leskey, T. C., D. Short, and D. H. Lee. 2013. Efficacy of insecticide residues Parish, H. E. 1934. Biology of Euschistus variolarius P. De B. (Family on adult Halyomorpha halys (Sta ˚ l) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality Pentatomidae: Order Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of and injury in apple and peach orchards. Pest Management Science 70: America 27: 50–54. 1097–1104. Pilkay, G. L., P. F. Reay-Jones, M. D. Toews, J. K. Greene, and W. C. Bridges. McPherson, J. E. 1982. The Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) of northeastern 2015. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farm- North America with emphasis on the fauna of Illinois. Southern Illinois scapes. Journal of Insect Science 15: DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev006. University Press, Carbondale, IL. Ragsdale, D. W., D. Larson, and L. D. Newson. 1979. Microorganisms associ- McPherson, J. E., and R. M. McPherson. 2000. Stink bugs of economic impor- ated with feeding and from various organs of Nezara viridula. Journal of tance in America North of Mexico. CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, FL. Economic Entomology 72: 725–727. Mesquita, C. M., A. Hanna, and N. P. Costa. 2006. Crop and harvesting oper- Reisig, D. D. 2011. Insecticidal management and movement of the brown ation characteristics affecting field losses and physical qualities of soybeans- stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn. Journal of Insect Science 11: 168. doi: Part I. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 22: 325–333. 10.1673/031.011.01 Michel, A., R. Bansal, and R. B. Hammond. 2013. Stink bugs on soybean and Rice, K. B., J. Bergh, E. J. Bergmann, D. J. Biddinger, C. Dieckhoff, G. Dively, other field crops. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet, FC_ENT-x- H. Fraser, T. Gariepy, G. Hamilton, T. Haye, et al. 2014. Biology, ecology, 13. (http://oardc.osu.edu/ag/images/StB_Factsheet_June_26.pdf) (accessed and management of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: 1 April 2017). Pentatomidae). Journal of Integrated Pest Management 5: A1–A13. Miner, F. D. 1966. Biology and control of stink bugs on soybean. Arkansas Rich, W. A., and R. L. Koch. 2016. Effects of Rag1 aphid-resistant soybean on Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 708: 1–40. mortality, development, and preference of brown marmorated stink bug. Munyaneza, J., and J. E. McPherson. 1994. Comparative study of life histo- Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata. 158: 109–117. ries, laboratory rearing, and immature stages of Euschistus servus and Rider, D. A. 2012. The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) of North Dakota I: Euschistus variolarius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The Great Lakes Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea. The Great Lakes Entomology 45: Entomology 26: 263–274. 312–380. Musser, F. R., L. Catchot, B. K. Gibson, and K. S. Knighten. 2011. Economic Rider, D. A., and J. B. Chapin. 1992. Revision of the genus Thyanta Sta ˚ l, 1862 injury levels for southern green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in R7 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). II. Central America, North America, and the growth stage soybeans. Crop Protection 30: 63–69. West Indies. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 100: 42–98. (NASS) National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2015. United States Rudd, W. G., and R. L. Jensen. 1977. Sweep net and ground cloth sampling Department of Agriculture. (http://www.nass.usda.gov/index.asp) (accessed for insects in soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology 70: 301–304. 1 April 2017). Russin, J. S., B. Layton, D. B. Orr, and D. J. Boethel. 1987. Within-plant dis- Negron,  J. F., and T. J. Riley. 1987. Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula tribution of, and partial compensation for, stink bug (Heteroptera: (Heteroptera Pentatomidae), feeding in corn. Journal of Economic Pentatomidae) damage to soybean seeds. Journal of Economic Entomology Entomology 80: 666–669. 80: 215–220. Ni, X., K. Da, G. D. Buntin, T. E. Cottrell, P. G. Tillman, D. M. Olson, R. Saulish, A. K., and D. L. Musolin. 2012. Diapause in the seasonal cycle of Powell, Jr., R. D. Lee, J. P. Wilson, and B. T. Scully. 2010. Impact of brown stink bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) from the temperate zone. stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield compo- Entomological Review 92: 1–26. nents and quality. Journal of Economic Entomology 130: 2072–2079. Sedlacek, J. D., and L. H. Townsend. 1988a. Impact of Euschistus servus and Nielsen, A. L., C. Hamilton, and D. Matadha. 2008a. Developmental rate esti- E. variolarius (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on early growth stages mation and life table analysis for Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: of corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 81: 840–844. Pentatomidae). Environmental Entomology 27: 348–355. Sedlacek, J. D., and L. H. Townsend. 1988b. Hymenarcys nervosa Say Nielsen, A. L., W. Shearer, and G. C. Hamilton. 2008b. Toxicity of insecti- (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae): Another species of stink bug damaging early cides to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using glass-vial bio- growth stages of corn in Kentucky. Journal of Entomological Science 23: assays. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1439–1442. 402–404. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018 14 Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1 Simmons, A. M., and K. V. Yeargan. 1988. Development and survivorship of Tindall, K. V., K. Fothergill, and B. McCormack. 2012. Halyomorpha halys green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on soy- (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): A first Kansas record. Journal of the Kansas bean. Environmental Entomology 17: 527–532. Entomological Society 85: 169. Sites, R. W., B. Simpson, and D. L. Wood. 2012. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Todd, J. W., and D. C. Herzog. 1980. Sampling phytophagous Pentatomidae Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Missouri. The Great Lakes Entomology 45: on soybean, pp 438–478. In M. Kogan and D. C. Herzog (eds.), Sampling 134–163. methods in soybean entomology. Springer-Verlag, NY. Slater, J. A., and R. M. Baranowski. 1978. How to know the true bugs. C. Todd, J. W., and S. M. Turnipseed. 1974. Effects of southern green stink bug Brown Company Publishers. Dubuque, IA. damage on yield and quality of soybeans. Journal of Economic Entomology Smith, J. F., G. Luttrell, and J. K. Greene. 2009. Seasonal abundance, species 67: 421–426. composition, and population dynamics of stink bugs in production fields of Townsend, L. H., and J. D. Sedlacek. 1986. Damage to corn caused by early and late soybean in South Arkansas. Journal of Economic Entomology Euschistus servus, E. variolarius, and Acrosternum hilare (Heteroptera: 102: 229–236. Pentatomidae) under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Economic Snodgrass, G. L., J. Adamczyk, and J. Gore. 2005. Toxicity of insecticides in a Entomology 79: 1254–1258. glass-vial bioassay to adult brown, green, and southern green stink bugs Underhill, G. W. 1934. The green stink bug. Virginia Agricultural Experiment (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 177–181. Station Bulletin 294: 1–26. Suh, C.P.C., K. Westbrook, and J. F. Esquivel. 2013. Species of stink bugs in Venugopal, P. D., P. L. Coffey, G. P. Dively, and W. O. Lamp. 2014. Adjacent cotton and other row crops in the Brazos River Bottom of Texas. habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the Southwestern Entomologist 38: 561–570. associated damage at field corn and soybean edges. PLoS ONE 9: e109917. Swanson, D. R. 2012. An updated synopsis of the Pentatomoidea Vyavhare, S. S., O. Way, and R. F. Medina. 2015a. Determination of growth (Heteroptera) of Michigan. The Great Lakes Entomologist 45: 263–311. stage-specific response of soybean to redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Temple,J.H., A. Davis, S. Micinski,J.T.Hardke, P. Price, andB.R.Leonard. Pentatomidae) and its relationship to the development of flat pods. Journal 2013. Species composition and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: of Economic Entomology 108: 1770–1778. Pentatomidae) in Louisiana soybean. Environmental Entomology 42: 648–657. Vyavhare, S. S., O. Way, R. A. Pearson, and R. F. Medina. 2015b. Redbanded Tillman, P. G. 2010. Composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infestation and occurrence of delayed Pentatomidae) in corn. Environmental Entomology 39: 1765–1774. maturity in soybean. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 1516–1525. Tillman, P. G., and B. G. Mullinix. 2004. Comparison of susceptibility of Willrich, M. M., R. Leonard, and D. R. Cook. 2003. Laboratory and field pest Euschistus servus and predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: evaluations of insecticide toxicity to stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to selected insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: Pentatomidae). Journal of Cotton Science 116: 110–116. 800–806. Young, S. Y., K. Greene, and G. M. Lorenz. 2008. Damage to soybean by Tindall, K., and K. Fothergill. 2011. First records of Piezodorus guildinii in Acrosternum hilare (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Missouri. Southwestern Entomologist 36: 203–205. Entomological Science 43: 257–267. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article-abstract/8/1/11/3745633 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 13 July 2018

Journal

Journal of Integrated Pest ManagementOxford University Press

Published: May 4, 2017

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off