Abstract The pathogenic effects of Clostridium difficile are primarily attributable to the production of the large protein toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). These toxins monoglucosylate Rho GTPases in the cytosol of host cells, causing destruction of the actin cytoskeleton with cytotoxic effects. Low human serum albumin (HSA) levels indicate a higher risk of acquiring and developing a severe C. difficile infection (CDI) and are associated with recurrent and fatal disease. Our results show that HSA at physiological concentrations rescues human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and protects stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids from intoxication by a TcdA:TcdB mixture. Moreover, zebrafish embryos injected with HSA and subsequently treated with TcdB show a higher survival rate, less blood vessel damage in the tail region and less intracranial hemorrhaging than embryos treated with TcdB alone. According to docking and biochemical analyses, HSA specifically binds via its domain II to TcdA and TcdB and thereby induces their autoproteolytic cleavage at physiological concentrations. This process impairs toxin internalization into the host cell and reduces the toxin-dependent glucosylation of Rho proteins. Our data provide evidence for a specific HSA-dependent self-defense mechanism against C. difficile toxins and provide an explanation for the clinical correlation between CDI severity and hypoalbuminemia. Autoproteolysis, Cytotoxicity, Clostridium difficile toxins, Human serum albumin, Human enterocytes, Human intestinal organoid, TcdA, TcdB, Zebrafish © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)
The Journal of Infectious Diseases – Oxford University Press
Published: Jun 2, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera