Abstract Context Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) occurs in approximately 70% of patients with glucagonoma syndrome. Excessive stimulation of metabolic pathways by hyperglucagonemia, which leads to hypoaminoacidemia, contributes to NME pathogenesis. However, the molecular pathogenesis of glucagonoma and relationships between metabolic abnormalities and clinical symptoms remain unclear. Case description A 53-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a generalized rash and weight loss. NME was diagnosed by histopathological examination of skin biopsy tissue. Laboratory tests revealed diabetes, hyperglucagonemia, marked insulin resistance, severe hypoaminoacidemia, ketosis, and anemia. Enhanced computed tomography detected a 29-mm pancreatic hypervascular tumor, which was eventually diagnosed as glucagonoma. Preoperative treatment with octreotide long-acting release reduced the glucagon level, improved the amino acid profile, and produced NME remission. Surgical tumor excision normalized the metabolic status and led to remission of symptoms, including NME. Genetic and Gene Expression Studies Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and subsequent targeted capture sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing, identified biallelic alteration of DAXX with a combination of loss of heterozygosity and frameshift mutations (c.553_554del:p.R185fs and c.1884dupC:p.C629fs) in the glucagonoma. Consistently, immunohistochemistry confirmed near-absence of DAXX staining in the tumor cells. Tumor expression of glucagon and somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and 3 mRNA was markedly upregulated. Conclusions This is the first report of glucagonoma with biallelic inactivation of DAXX determined by WES. The tumor manifested as glucagonoma syndrome with generalized NME. This case showed the relationship between hypoaminoacidemia and NME status. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of NME onset and glucagonoma tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism – Oxford University Press
Published: Apr 23, 2018
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