Gender inequality and the gender gap in life expectancy in the European Union

Gender inequality and the gender gap in life expectancy in the European Union Abstract The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) varies substantially in EU 28 Member States. This paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality affects the GGLE as well as life expectancy (LE) in both genders. We conducted an ecological study and used the gender inequality index (GII) developed by the United Nations as well as the gender difference in LE in 2015. We found a correlation between GGLE and GII (r2=0.180) and between GII and LE of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men). Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. Introduction Life expectancy (LE) at birth reflects the overall mortality level of a population. It summarizes the mortality patterns and health outcomes of various population groups such as women and men. Thus, LE can indicate health inequalities in the population. Even in the European Union (EU) with common goals and values and a common economic area, LE still differs between countries, and varies along sociodemographic variables. To reduce inequalities is a matter of fairness and as such should be of public interest. This paper puts gender inequalities in the focus. In EU 28 Member States LE at birth reached 83.3 years (women) and 77.9 years (men) on average in 2015.1 The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) at birth has narrowed from 6.4 years (2002) to 5.4 years (2015) on EU average but the size of this gender gap still varies substantially in Europe.1 As biological differences appear to play a minor role in explaining the GGLE,2,3 differences in social relationships or health-risk behaviour gain attention.4,5 Men benefit more than women from the expansion of LE. For example, in the Netherlands, male LE increased between 1990 and 2015 by 8%, female LE by 4%. In other EU countries a comparable trend can be observed. As possible theoretical explanations for this trend, diminishment of gender inequality,3 role expansion theory (undertaking of different social roles such as paid work, child care and household activities),3 or convergence in unhealthy behaviours (reduction of risk behaviour in men, adoption of risk behaviour in women or both) are discussed.4 Social relationships and health-risk behaviour are shaped by social norms but studies on the influence of societal factors on LE are rare.6 Gender inequality, i.e. unequal distribution of wealth, power and benefits among women and men, is one of the most important societal factors. Gender inequality is socially determined and as such it is open to change by gender equality policies.7 Some studies have shown an association between gender inequality and health indicators on a national or international level. Gender inequality is associated with child and infant mortality8,9 as well as with men’s health.3 Our paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality is also interrelated with the GGLE as well as to LE in both genders. The rationale is that gender differences in health related behaviours contribute to the gender gap in mortality and thus to LE, as behaviour is influenced by gender norms. We hypothesize that the GGLE is smaller in countries with more gender equality. With our analysis we want to contribute to the debate on reducing health inequalities between women and men. Methods We conducted an ecological study to investigate the association between gender inequality and (gender gap in) LE at birth in EU 28 Member States. To assess gender inequality we used the gender inequality index (GII) produced by the United Nations Development Programme with data from 2015 being the most recent available. The GII measures loss of human development in three dimensions with five indicators: reproductive health (maternal mortality ratio, adolescent birth rate), political empowerment (share of parliamentary seats held by each sex, attainment at secondary and higher education levels) and economic status (labour market participation rate). It ranges from 0, where women and men score equally, to 1, where one gender scores as poorly as possible in all measured dimensions.10 We calculated the GGLE (2015) by subtracting the LE of men from that of women. Using GII scores and GGLE data we computed Pearson’s correlation coefficient and created a scatter plot. Results In EU 28 Member States, on average the GGLE is 5.4 years in 2015. The range is 3.3 years (Netherlands) to 10.5 years (Lithuania). In 2015 the GII varies for EU 28 member states between 0.041 (Denmark) and 0.339 (Romania). Figure 1 shows the association between GGLE and GII. There is a positive weak correlation between the magnitude of GGLE and higher GII values (r2 = 0.180). Analysing the correlation of female resp. male LE with GII separately, shows even a stronger, moderate correlation coefficient of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men) (see Appendix). Figure 1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Figure 1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Conclusions The results show a positive, although weak correlation between GGLE and GII in the expected direction: the lower the gender inequality on a national level the smaller the GGLE. Gender inequality is not only associated with the GGLE but also with the LE itself. The correlation is even stronger than the association between GGLE and GII. Both results indicate that gender inequality is related to the health of women and men. The fact that in men a moderate correlation between LE and GII can also be observed, proves a positive association between gender equality and men’s health. It could be cautiously interpreted that convergence of behaviours as well as expansion of roles as consequences of increasing gender equality might influence the LE of women and men. The limitation of the study is that the health dimension ‘maternal mortality ratio’ is part of the GII. The maternal mortality ratio itself affects the LE of women in the direction that higher maternal mortality ratios lead to lower life expectancies for women and thus to a reduction of the GGLE. However, the maternal mortality ratio is rather low in EU 28 Member States and differs between three deaths per 100 000 live births (Finland, Greece and Poland) and 31 death per 100 000 live births (Romania). Therefore, the influence on LE seems limited. Our results show that gender inequality affects LE in men and women as well as the GGLE. Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. Conflicts of interest: None declared. Key points The GGLE varies substantially in Europe. LE in men and women and gender equality are correlated: the higher the gender equality, the higher the LE in both sexes. There is a positive correlation between magnitude of GGLE and higher values of GII. Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. References 1 Eurostat . Healthy Life Years and Life Expectancy at Birth, by Sex. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do? tab=table&init=1&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tsdph100. 2 Luy M . Causes of male excess mortality: insights from cloistered populations . Popul Dev Rev 2003 ; 29 : 647 – 76 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS 3 Kavanagh SA , Shelley JM , Stevenson C . Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study . SSM Popul Health 2017 ; 3 : 358 – 65 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 4 Rogers RG , Everett BG , Onge JMS , Krueger PM . Social, behavioral, and biological factors, and sex differences in mortality . Demography 2010 ; 47 : 555 – 78 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 5 Rochelle TL , Yeung DKY , Bond MH , Li LMW . Predictors of the gender gap in life expectancy across 54 nations . Psychol Health Med 2015 ; 20 : 129 – 38 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 6 Liu Y , Arai A , Kanda K , et al. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries . Eur J Public Health 2013 ; 23 : 563 – 8 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 7 Palencia L , Moortel D. D , Artazcoz L , et al. Gender policies and gender inequalities in health in Europe: results of the SOPHIE project . Int J Health Serv 2017 ; 47 : 61 – 82 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 8 Homan P . Political gender inequality and infant mortality in the United States, 1990-2012 . Soc Sci Med 2017 ; 182 : 127 – 35 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 9 Brinda EM , Rajkumar AP , Enemark U . Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries . BMC Public Health 2015 ; 15 : 97 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 10 United Nations Development Programme . Human Development Report 2016: Technical note 4. New York, 2016 . Appendix Table A1 Gender inequality index, life expectancy at birth males and females and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 GII: Gender inequality index. Table A1 Gender inequality index, life expectancy at birth males and females and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 GII: Gender inequality index. Figure A1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth females Figure A1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth females Figure A2 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth males Figure A2 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth males © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The European Journal of Public Health Oxford University Press

Gender inequality and the gender gap in life expectancy in the European Union

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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
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1101-1262
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1464-360X
D.O.I.
10.1093/eurpub/cky076
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Abstract

Abstract The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) varies substantially in EU 28 Member States. This paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality affects the GGLE as well as life expectancy (LE) in both genders. We conducted an ecological study and used the gender inequality index (GII) developed by the United Nations as well as the gender difference in LE in 2015. We found a correlation between GGLE and GII (r2=0.180) and between GII and LE of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men). Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. Introduction Life expectancy (LE) at birth reflects the overall mortality level of a population. It summarizes the mortality patterns and health outcomes of various population groups such as women and men. Thus, LE can indicate health inequalities in the population. Even in the European Union (EU) with common goals and values and a common economic area, LE still differs between countries, and varies along sociodemographic variables. To reduce inequalities is a matter of fairness and as such should be of public interest. This paper puts gender inequalities in the focus. In EU 28 Member States LE at birth reached 83.3 years (women) and 77.9 years (men) on average in 2015.1 The gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE) at birth has narrowed from 6.4 years (2002) to 5.4 years (2015) on EU average but the size of this gender gap still varies substantially in Europe.1 As biological differences appear to play a minor role in explaining the GGLE,2,3 differences in social relationships or health-risk behaviour gain attention.4,5 Men benefit more than women from the expansion of LE. For example, in the Netherlands, male LE increased between 1990 and 2015 by 8%, female LE by 4%. In other EU countries a comparable trend can be observed. As possible theoretical explanations for this trend, diminishment of gender inequality,3 role expansion theory (undertaking of different social roles such as paid work, child care and household activities),3 or convergence in unhealthy behaviours (reduction of risk behaviour in men, adoption of risk behaviour in women or both) are discussed.4 Social relationships and health-risk behaviour are shaped by social norms but studies on the influence of societal factors on LE are rare.6 Gender inequality, i.e. unequal distribution of wealth, power and benefits among women and men, is one of the most important societal factors. Gender inequality is socially determined and as such it is open to change by gender equality policies.7 Some studies have shown an association between gender inequality and health indicators on a national or international level. Gender inequality is associated with child and infant mortality8,9 as well as with men’s health.3 Our paper addresses the question of whether gender inequality is also interrelated with the GGLE as well as to LE in both genders. The rationale is that gender differences in health related behaviours contribute to the gender gap in mortality and thus to LE, as behaviour is influenced by gender norms. We hypothesize that the GGLE is smaller in countries with more gender equality. With our analysis we want to contribute to the debate on reducing health inequalities between women and men. Methods We conducted an ecological study to investigate the association between gender inequality and (gender gap in) LE at birth in EU 28 Member States. To assess gender inequality we used the gender inequality index (GII) produced by the United Nations Development Programme with data from 2015 being the most recent available. The GII measures loss of human development in three dimensions with five indicators: reproductive health (maternal mortality ratio, adolescent birth rate), political empowerment (share of parliamentary seats held by each sex, attainment at secondary and higher education levels) and economic status (labour market participation rate). It ranges from 0, where women and men score equally, to 1, where one gender scores as poorly as possible in all measured dimensions.10 We calculated the GGLE (2015) by subtracting the LE of men from that of women. Using GII scores and GGLE data we computed Pearson’s correlation coefficient and created a scatter plot. Results In EU 28 Member States, on average the GGLE is 5.4 years in 2015. The range is 3.3 years (Netherlands) to 10.5 years (Lithuania). In 2015 the GII varies for EU 28 member states between 0.041 (Denmark) and 0.339 (Romania). Figure 1 shows the association between GGLE and GII. There is a positive weak correlation between the magnitude of GGLE and higher GII values (r2 = 0.180). Analysing the correlation of female resp. male LE with GII separately, shows even a stronger, moderate correlation coefficient of 0.418 (women) and 0.430 (men) (see Appendix). Figure 1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Figure 1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Conclusions The results show a positive, although weak correlation between GGLE and GII in the expected direction: the lower the gender inequality on a national level the smaller the GGLE. Gender inequality is not only associated with the GGLE but also with the LE itself. The correlation is even stronger than the association between GGLE and GII. Both results indicate that gender inequality is related to the health of women and men. The fact that in men a moderate correlation between LE and GII can also be observed, proves a positive association between gender equality and men’s health. It could be cautiously interpreted that convergence of behaviours as well as expansion of roles as consequences of increasing gender equality might influence the LE of women and men. The limitation of the study is that the health dimension ‘maternal mortality ratio’ is part of the GII. The maternal mortality ratio itself affects the LE of women in the direction that higher maternal mortality ratios lead to lower life expectancies for women and thus to a reduction of the GGLE. However, the maternal mortality ratio is rather low in EU 28 Member States and differs between three deaths per 100 000 live births (Finland, Greece and Poland) and 31 death per 100 000 live births (Romania). Therefore, the influence on LE seems limited. Our results show that gender inequality affects LE in men and women as well as the GGLE. Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. Conflicts of interest: None declared. Key points The GGLE varies substantially in Europe. LE in men and women and gender equality are correlated: the higher the gender equality, the higher the LE in both sexes. There is a positive correlation between magnitude of GGLE and higher values of GII. Gender equality policies are still necessary and will have an effect on women’s as well as men’s health. References 1 Eurostat . Healthy Life Years and Life Expectancy at Birth, by Sex. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do? tab=table&init=1&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tsdph100. 2 Luy M . Causes of male excess mortality: insights from cloistered populations . Popul Dev Rev 2003 ; 29 : 647 – 76 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS 3 Kavanagh SA , Shelley JM , Stevenson C . Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study . SSM Popul Health 2017 ; 3 : 358 – 65 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 4 Rogers RG , Everett BG , Onge JMS , Krueger PM . Social, behavioral, and biological factors, and sex differences in mortality . Demography 2010 ; 47 : 555 – 78 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 5 Rochelle TL , Yeung DKY , Bond MH , Li LMW . Predictors of the gender gap in life expectancy across 54 nations . Psychol Health Med 2015 ; 20 : 129 – 38 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 6 Liu Y , Arai A , Kanda K , et al. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries . Eur J Public Health 2013 ; 23 : 563 – 8 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 7 Palencia L , Moortel D. D , Artazcoz L , et al. Gender policies and gender inequalities in health in Europe: results of the SOPHIE project . Int J Health Serv 2017 ; 47 : 61 – 82 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 8 Homan P . Political gender inequality and infant mortality in the United States, 1990-2012 . Soc Sci Med 2017 ; 182 : 127 – 35 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 9 Brinda EM , Rajkumar AP , Enemark U . Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries . BMC Public Health 2015 ; 15 : 97 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed 10 United Nations Development Programme . Human Development Report 2016: Technical note 4. New York, 2016 . Appendix Table A1 Gender inequality index, life expectancy at birth males and females and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 GII: Gender inequality index. Table A1 Gender inequality index, life expectancy at birth males and females and gender gap in life expectancy 2015 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 Life expectancy at birth 2015 Country GII 2015 Males Females Δ Austria AT 0.078 78.8 83.7 4.9 Belgium BE 0.073 78.7 83.4 4.7 Bulgaria BG 0.223 71.2 78.2 7.0 Croatia HR 0.141 74.4 80.5 6.1 Cyprus CY 0.116 79.9 83.7 3.8 Czech Republic CZ 0.129 75.7 81.6 5.9 Denmark DK 0.041 78.8 82.7 3.9 Estonia EE 0.131 73.2 82.2 9.0 Finland FI 0.056 78.7 84.4 5.7 France FR 0.102 79.2 85.5 6.3 Germany DE 0.066 78.3 83.1 4.8 Greece GR 0.119 78.5 83.7 5.2 Hungary HU 0.252 72.3 79.0 6.7 Ireland IE 0.127 79.6 83.4 3.8 Italy IT 0.085 80.3 84.9 4.6 Latvia LV 0.191 69.7 79.5 9.8 Lithuania LT 0.121 69.2 79.7 10.5 Luxembourg LU 0.075 80.0 84.7 4.7 Malta MT 0.217 79.7 84.0 4.3 Netherlands NL 0.044 79.9 83.2 3.3 Poland PL 0.137 73.5 81.6 8.1 Portugal PT 0.091 78.1 84.3 6.2 Romania RO 0.339 71.5 78.7 7.2 Slovakia SK 0.179 73.1 80.2 7.1 Slovenia SI 0.053 77.8 83.9 6.1 Spain ES 0.081 80.1 85.8 5.7 Sweden SE 0.048 80.4 84.1 3.7 United Kingdom GB 0.131 79.2 82.8 3.6 GII: Gender inequality index. Figure A1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth females Figure A1 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth females Figure A2 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth males Figure A2 View largeDownload slide Scatter plot gender inequality index and life expectancy at birth males © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Journal

The European Journal of Public HealthOxford University Press

Published: Oct 1, 2018

References

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